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AS 1012.1-1993 Methods of testing concrete - Sampling of fresh concrete

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1 AS 1012.1 1993

Australian Standard
Methods of testing concrete

Method 1: Sampling of fresh concrete

PREFACE
This edition of this Standard was prepared by the Standards Australia Committee on
Methods of Testing Concrete as part of its ongoing program to revise the AS 1012 series
of Standards on the testing of concrete. It supersedes AS 1012.11981.

CONTENTS

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1 SCOPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
2 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
3 DEFINITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
4 APPARATUS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
5 TEST SAMPLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
6 SAMPLING LOCATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
7 SAMPLING PROCEDURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
8 MIXING THE TEST SAMPLE . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
9 RECORDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

APPENDIX A VOLUMES OF CONCRETE REQUIRED FOR TESTS COVERED


BY AS 1012 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

METHOD

1 SCOPE This Standard sets out the method for obtaining samples of freshly-mixed
concrete
(a) directly from mixers;
(b) from agitator or non-agitator units;
(c) from concrete deposited in readiness for casting; and
(d) from concrete deposited in the forms.

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AS 1012.11993 2

2 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS The following documents are referred to in this


Standard:
AS
1012 Methods of testing concrete
1012.3 Method 3: Methods for the determination of properties related to consistence
of concrete
1012.4 Method 4: Methods for the determination of air content of freshly mixed
concrete
1012.5 Method 5: Method for the determination of mass per unit volume of freshly
mixed concrete
1012.6 Method 6: Methods for the determination of bleeding of concrete
1012.8 Method 8: Method for making and curing concrete compression, indirect
tensile and flexure test specimens, in the laboratory or in the field
1012.13 Method 13: Determination of the drying shrinkage of concrete for samples
prepared in the field or in the laboratory
1012.16 Method 16: Methods for the determination of creep of concrete cylinders in
compression (metric units)
1012.17 Method 17: Methods for the determination of the static chord modulus of
elasticity and Poissons ratio of concrete specimens
1012.18 Method 18: Method for the determination of setting time of fresh concrete,
mortar and grout by penetration resistance (metric units)
1379 The specification and manufacture of concrete
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3 DEFINITIONS For the purpose of this Standard, the definitions below apply.
3.1 Composite samplethree or more sample increments mixed in accordance with
Clause 8.
3.2 Individual samplea single sample increment of the concrete.
3.3 Sample incrementthe basic unit of sampling. Sample increments are taken in
approximately equal volumes so that three or more sample increments constitute a
composite sample (see Clauses 4, 6 and 7). Each sample increment is not less than
0.005 m3 (5 L) of concrete.

4 APPARATUS
4.1 Sample container A container of sufficient size to hold a sample increment.
NOTE: A 9 L bucket is commonly used.
4.2 Scoop A scoop, shovel or other receptacle used for sampling concrete, which shall
have a capacity of not less than 1 L.
4.3 Thermometer A thermometer which measures with an accuracy of 1C.
4.4 Mixing surface A mixing surface which shall
(a) contain the sample; and
(b) be smooth, clean and non-absorbent.
Mixing surfaces shall be horizontal with a minimum surface area of 0.5 m2 .
NOTE: A square surface measuring 0.75 m 0.75 m with raised edges would be suitable.
Where wheelbarrows are used, they shall have a minimum capacity of 170 L (6 cu. ft.).

5 TEST SAMPLES The test sample shall be a composite sample, except that
individual samples may be taken when
(a) the batch volume being sampled is less than 1 m 3; or

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3 AS 1012.11993

(b) unless otherwise specified in Clauses 7.3 and 7.4, the test is for consistence only.
The volume of the composite sample shall be sufficient to carry out all the tests required,
but in any case shall be not less than 0.015 m 3 (15 L) of concrete.
NOTE: Where the range of tests being conducted on the composite sample requires a volume
of concrete greater than 0.015 m 3 (15 L), references may be made to Appendix A which
tabulates minimum working volumes for each of the tests covered by this series of Standards.

6 SAMPLING LOCATIONS Representative samples of concrete shall be obtained as


follows:
(a) Central or work-site mixers: from the discharge.
(b) Truck mixers and agitators: from the discharge.
(c) Non-agitator units: prior to discharge.
(d) Where sampling in accordance with Items (a), (b) or (c) is impracticable (e.g.
concrete deposited in readiness for casting), sampling shall be carried out in such a
manner as to obtain a representative sample from locations which have been agreed
by all interested parties.
The locations from which the samples were obtained shall be reported.

7 SAMPLING PROCEDURE
7.1 General Where sample increments are to be obtained using a scoop, no more than
five scoops of concrete shall be used.
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The operation of taking the sample increments and mixing the composite sample shall be
completed as quickly as possible. In no case shall the elapsed time between the
commencement of taking the sample increments and the completion of mixing the
composite sample exceed 20 min.
7.2 Sampling from central and work-site mixers, truck mixers and agitators by
gradual discharge (e.g. chute)
7.2.1 Uninterrupted discharge The procedure for taking samples of concrete from
central and work-site mixers, truck mixers and agitators by gradual discharge is as
follows:
(a) Do not take sample increments during the discharge of the first 0.2 m 3 or from the
last 0.2 m 3 of the batch.
(b) Take each sample increment by diverting the entire stream so that it discharges into a
sample container or by using a scoop to otherwise obtain a representative sample of
the concrete being discharged.
NOTE: The rate of discharge may be slowed in order to enable sampling of the entire
discharge stream.
(c) Do not regulate the rate of discharge to permit sampling by suppressing or diverting
a part of the discharge stream.
(d) Take three or more sample increments at regular intervals throughout the discharge
period except that, from batches of 1 m 3 or less, take an individual sample at about
the halfway point of discharge. Alternatively, where it can be shown that the mixer
uniformity complies with AS 1379, three or more separate sample increments may be
taken at any time during the discharge, provided Item (a) is complied with.
7.2.2 Sampling for consistence test only Where a batch is to be sampled for
acceptance on a consistence-control basis, unless otherwise specified in Clause 7.3 or 7.4,
an individual sample shall be obtained from the batch immediately after the discharge of
the first 0.2 m3 of concrete.

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AS 1012.11993 4

7.2.3 Slow discharge If it is expected that the time of discharge will exceed 30 min,
the procedure is as follows:
(a) Sample the discharge during the first 30 min in accordance with Clause 7.2.1 (see
also the requirements in Clause 7.1).
(b) If tests are required on the remainder of the discharge, separately sample the
discharge for each subsequent 30 min, or part thereof, in accordance with
Clause 7.2.1.
7.2.4 Terminated discharge Where the discharge of concrete from a mixer is
terminated at a stage when insufficient sample increments are available to form the
composite sample, take the required additional sample increments from the concrete at or
adjacent to the placing point, in accordance with Clause 7.4 (see also the Note to
Clause 7.2.5).
7.2.5 Interrupted discharge Where the discharge of concrete from a mixer is
interrupted at a stage when insufficient sample increments are available to form the
composite sample, take the required additional sample increments either from the concrete
at or adjacent to the placing point in accordance with Clause 7.4, or discard any original
sample increments and sample the subsequent discharge of the mixer in accordance with
Clause 7.2.1.
NOTE: Situations which are not covered by Clauses 7.2.4 and 7.2.5 may occur on site. In
these instances a sampling procedure should be used which will provide, within a reasonable
period of time, a representative sample of the concrete concerned.
7.3 Sampling from non-agitator units Irrespective of the size of the batch, samples
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obtained from concrete transported in a non-agitator unit, including those samples


required for consistence shall be
(a) composite samples; and
(b) obtained from three or more equally spaced points along the centre-line of the unit.
The top 100 mm of concrete in the unit shall not be incorporated into the sample.
7.4 Sampling from specified locations Irrespective of the size of the batch, all
samples obtained from locations specified in Clause 6(d), including those required for
consistence, shall be composite samples.
Sample increments shall be taken from the concrete prior to any further handling or
compaction. Care shall be taken to ensure that the concrete to be sampled remains
completely representative, notwithstanding the effects of handling.
NOTES:
1 Concrete deposited in readiness for casting may not necessarily be representative of the
concrete supplied.
2 If it is considered that handling, placing or compaction techniques are affecting the concrete
to be sampled, the sample should be obtained from quantities of concrete deposited on a
smooth, clean waterproof horizontal surface immediately adjacent to the forms.

8 MIXING THE TEST SAMPLE To form each composite sample, the sample
increments, obtained as set out in Clause 7, shall be mixed as follows:
(a) Moisten the mixing surface with a damp cloth prior to depositing the sample
increments.
(b) Protect the mixing surface and the sample increments of concrete from adverse
weather conditions such as hot sunshine, drying wind and rain.
(c) Mix the sample to ensure uniformity.
(d) Measure the temperature of the concrete sample to the nearest 1C by inserting a
thermometer into a mix sample of approximately the volume of the slump cone (i.e.
6 L).

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5 AS 1012.11993

Where individual samples are used they shall be remixed as set out above to obviate
segregation prior to testing.

9 RECORDS The following information concerning samples shall be recorded:


(a) Job site.
(b) Name of concrete supplier.
(c) Delivery docket or batch number.
(d) Date and time of sampling.
(e) Sampling point and location (see Clause 6).
(f) Sampling procedure, by reference to the appropriate subclause of Clause 7, including
a statement of the number of sample increments constituting the composite sample
and any procedure adopted under the provisions of Clauses 7.2.4 and 7.2.5.
(g) Sample identification number, if applicable.
(h) Location of concrete batch after placement (if this information is available).
(i) Weather conditions at time of sampling, including ambient air temperature, if
available.
(j) Temperature of concrete sample.
(k) Where available, the following additional information:
(i) Class of concrete (i.e normal or special).
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(ii) Specified compressive strength.


(iii) Slump.
(iv) Maximum aggregate size.
(v) Special requirements (cement content, water/cement ratio).
(vi) Name of sampler.
(l) Reference to this Australian Standard, i.e. AS 1012.1.

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AS 1012.11993 6

APPENDIX A
VOLUMES OF CONCRETE REQUIRED FOR TESTS COVERED BY AS 1012
(Informative)

The volumes of concrete given in Column 2 of Table A1 are working volumes required to
mould specimens used to carry out the applicable test method given in Column 1. The
quantities have been determined to ensure that there will be a surplus after the specimens
have been prepared.
TABLE A1
MINIMUM WORKING VOLUMES
1 2
Test method of AS 1012 Volume, m3 (L)
1012.3: Methods for the determinati on of propert ies related to the
consistence of concrete:
Method 1: Slump test 0.006 (6)
Method 2: Compacti ng factor test 0.010 (10)
Method 3: VEBE test 0.006 (6)
Method 4: Compacti bili ty index 0.006 (6)
1012.4: Methods for the determinati on of air content of freshly
mixed concrete:
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Method 1: Pressure method


aggregate 40 mm 0.006 (6)
aggregate >40 mm 0.010 (10)
Method 2: Pressure method
aggregate 40 mm 0.006 (6)
aggregate >40 mm 0.010 (10)
Method 3: Volumetr ic method 0.003 (3)
1012.5: Method for the determination of mass per unit volume of 0.015 (15)
fr eshly mixed concrete
1012.6: Method for the determination of bleeding of concrete 0.016 (16)
1012.8: Method for making and curi ng concrete compression,
indirect tensile and fl exure test specimens, in the
laboratory or in the fi eld:
Compression test: 100 mm 200 mm 0.002 (2) number of specimens
150 mm 300 mm 0.006 (6) number of specimens
Indirect tensil e test 0.006 (6) number of specimens
Flexure test: 150 mm 150 mm 500 mm 0.015 (15) number of specimens
100 mm 100 mm 350 mm 0.005 (5) number specimens
1012.13: Determination of the drying shrinkage of concrete for
samples prepared in the fi eld or in the laboratory

75 mm 75 mm 280 mm 0.006 (6) (for 3 specimens)


1012.16: Method for the determination of creep of concrete
cyli nders in compression (metr ic units):
Duplicate testing 0.036 (36) number of test conditi ons
Tripli cate testing 0.054 (54) number of test conditi ons
1012.17: Methods for the determinati on of the static chord 0.018 (18) (in addit ion to the specimen
modulus of elasticit y and Poissons rati o of concrete requir ed by AS 1012.8)
specimens
1012.18: Method for the determination of sett ing time of fr esh 0.012 (12) (for 2 specimens)
concrete, mort ar and grout by penetr ation resistance
(metri c units)

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AS 1012.11993 8

This Austr alian Standard was prepared by Commit tee BD/42, Methods of Testing Concrete. It was approved on behalf of
the Council of Standards Australi a on 19 Apri l 1993 and publi shed on 12 July 1993.
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Review of Australi an Standards. To keep abreast of progress in industry, Australian Standards are subject to periodic
review and are kept up to date by the issue of amendments or new editi ons as necessary. It is important therefore that
Standards users ensure that they are in possession of the latest edit ion, and any amendments thereto.
Full details of all Australi an Standards and related publications wil l be found in the Standards Australi a Catalogue of
Publications; this informati on is supplemented each month by the magazine The Australi an Standard, which subscribing
members receive, and which gives detail s of new publications, new editi ons and amendments, and of wit hdrawn Standards.
Suggesti ons for improvements to Australi an Standards, addressed to the head offi ce of Standards Australi a, are welcomed.
Noti fi cati on of any inaccuracy or ambiguity found in an Australian Standard should be made wit hout delay in order that
the matter may be investigated and appropriate action taken.

First publi shed as AS A100 1957.


Second editi on 1967.
Revised and redesignated AS 1012.1 1971.
Second editi on 1981.
Thir d editi on 1993.

This Standard was issued in draft form for comment as DR 92071.

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