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AS 1012.4.1-1999 Methods of testing concrete - Determination of air content of


freshly mixed concrete - Measuring reduction in concrete volume with increased air
pressure

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1 AS 1012.4.11999

TM
Australian Standard

Methods of testing concrete


Method 4.1: Determination of air content of
freshly mixed concrete Measuring reduction in
concrete volume with increased air pressure

1 SCOPE
This Standard sets out the method for determining the air content of freshly mixed concrete
from observations of the change in volume of the concrete when it is subjected to an
increased air pressure (see Note 1).
The method provides for compaction of the sample either by rodding or by vibration (see
Note 2).
NOTES:
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1 This method is intended for use with concretes made with relatively dense natural aggregates
for which the aggregate correction factor can be determined satisfactorily by the technique
described in Clause 10. It is not recommended for use with concretes made with lightweight
aggregates, or aggregates of high porosity (see AS 1012.4.3).
2 The results obtained will be dependent on the compaction method used.
3 This Standard may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment. The Standard
does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. The user of this
Standard should establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the
applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
4 Data on the precision of the test method were not available at the time of publication. This
information will be included when available.

2 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS
The following documents are referred to in this Standard:
AS
1012 Methods of testing concrete
1012.1 Method 1: Sampling of fresh concrete
1012.2 Method 2: Preparation of concrete mixes in the laboratory
1012.3.1 Method 3.1: Determination of properties related to the consistency of concreteSlump
test
1012.4.3 Method 4.3: Determination of air content of freshly mixed concreteMeasuring air
volume when concrete is dispersed in water
1012.8 Method 8: Method for making and curing concrete compression, indirect tensile and
flexure test specimens, in the laboratory or in the field

3 PRINCIPLE
The air content of freshly mixed concrete is determined by measuring the reduction in the
volume of the concrete caused by the application of a specified pressure to the concrete.

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AS 1012.4.11999 2

4 APPARATUS
4.1 Pressure-type air meter with water level gauge
4.1.1 General
The air meter used shall comply with Clauses 4.1.2 to 4.1.4, inclusive, and shall consist of a
measuring bowl and a pressure-tight conical cover assembly which is fitted with a pressure
gauge and water level gauge, as shown diagrammatically in Figure 1. (See Appendix A for
calibration.)
4.1.2 Measuring bowl
The bowl of the air meter shall be made from machined metal and shall have a flange at or
near the top surface. The metal used shall be of such a thickness as to be sufficiently rigid
to withstand normal field use and be of such composition as not to react with cement paste.
The bowl shall also be sufficiently rigid to limit the expansion factor, D, of the apparatus
assembly (see Appendix A, Paragraph A5) to not more than 0.1% of air content on the
standpipe indicator scale when under the normal operating pressure.
The bowl diameter shall be between 0.75 and 1.25 times the height of the bowl.
For testing concrete with aggregates of nominal size not exceeding 40 mm, the capacity of
the bowl shall be not less than 5 L.
For testing concrete with larger aggregate, a larger air meter shall be used; e.g. for concrete
with maximum 75 mm nominal size aggregate, a bowl capacity not less than 10 L shall be
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used.

NOTE: A1 = h1 h2 when bowl contains concrete as shown in this Figure: when bowl contains only aggregate and
water, h1 h2 = G (aggregate correction factor), A1 G = A (air content of concrete).

FIGURE 1 TYPICAL ARRANGEMENT OF APPARATUS

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3 AS 1012.4.11999

4.1.3 Conical cover assembly


The cover, preferably composed of steel or hard metal that does not react with cement
paste, shall be flanged and shall have internal surfaces inclined not less than 30 from the
horizontal. It shall be pressure-tight and sufficiently rigid to limit the expansion factor of
the apparatus assembly as prescribed in Clause 4.1.2.
The cover shall be fitted with a standpipe which may be a graduated precision bore glass
tube or have a glass water gauge attached. The graduations on the standpipe or glass water
gauge shall be in percent and tenths of a percent over a suitable range of air content as
determined by the appropriate air pressure calibration test. The internal diameter of the
standpipe shall be designed so that under the normal operating pressure, the water column
will be lowered sufficiently to measure air contents to 0.1% (see Note 1).
The applied air pressure shall be indicated by a pressure gauge connected to the air chamber
above the water column. The gauge shall have a range of twice the normal working pressure
(see Note 2) and shall be suitably graduated.
The cover shall be fitted with a suitable device for venting at the top of the air chamber, an
air valve, and a petcock for bleeding off water as required. Suitable means shall be provided
for clamping the cover to the bowl and making a pressure-tight seal without trapping air at
the joint between the flanges of the cover and bowl.
A suitable hand-pump shall be provided with the cover, either as an attachment or as an
accessory.
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NOTES:
1 A 25 mm lowering of the water column should represent approximately 1% of air.
2 Pressures of 50 kPa to 200 kPa have been used satisfactorily; however, each container should
be calibrated for a stated normal working pressure.
4.1.4 Tube
A tube of appropriate diameter and arranged either as an integral part of the cover assembly
or as a separate attachment shall be provided. The tube shall be constructed so that when
water is added to the measuring bowl there will be a minimum of disturbance in the
concrete.
4.2 Calibration cylinder
The calibration cylinder shall consist of a cylindrical measure having an internal volume of
approximately 3% to 6% of the volume of the measuring bowl.
NOTE: A satisfactory measure may be machined from 1.6 mm brass tubing of the appropriate diameter to
provide the volume desired. The bottom of the calibration cylinder can then be formed by soldering a brass
disc to one end of the tube.
A coil spring or other means shall be provided for holding the calibration cylinder in place.
4.3 Rod
The rod used for the compacting of concrete shall comply with the relevant requirements of
AS 1012.3.1.
4.4 Mallet
The mallet used in conjunction with the rod for the compacting of concrete shall be fitted
with a hard rubber or hard plastics head of mass approximately 0.25 kg.
4.5 Vibrators
Internal vibrators used for the compacting of concrete shall have a frequency of vibration of
at least 115 Hz. The outside diameter of the vibrating element inserted into the concrete
shall be not more than 20% of the least dimension of the measuring bowl, but shall be at
least 15 mm.
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AS 1012.4.11999 4

External vibrators used for the compacting of concrete shall have a frequency of vibration
of at least 50 Hz. Provision shall be made for clamping the measuring bowl securely to the
vibrator.
4.6 Strike-off bar
The strike-off bar shall be a straight steel bar approximately 5 mm 25 mm 450 mm
long.
4.7 Pouring vessel
The pouring vessel shall be a container of approximately 2 L capacity and shall be used to
fill the meter with water from the top of the concrete to the zero mark.
4.8 Scoop
The scoop shall be made from non-absorbent material not readily attacked by cement paste,
and suitable for taking increments of concrete.
NOTE: The scoop should be large enough to accommodate the maximum size of aggregate in the concrete,
of sufficient size to obtain a representative sample but small enough to restrict the mass of a scoopful of
concrete to a size that is able to be handled.

5 SAMPLING
5.1 Field sampling
For concrete sampled in the field, the test sample shall be obtained in accordance with the
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requirements of AS 1012.1.
5.2 Laboratory sampling
For concrete made in the laboratory, the test sample shall be prepared in accordance with
AS 1012.2.

6 GENERAL PROCEDURE
The general procedure shall be as follows:
(a) Take the test sample of concrete as quickly as possible to the place selected for the test.
(b) For concrete sampled in the field, commence the test immediately following the completion
of mixing the test sample. For concrete prepared in the laboratory, commence the test in
accordance with AS 1012.2.
(c) Measure and record the temperature of the test sample immediately prior to filling the bowl.
(d) Place and fully compact the concrete in the bowl by one of the procedures described in
Clause 7, taking care to avoid segregation and excessive laitance. Do not use hand
compaction where the slump is less than 25 mm. Do not use vibration where the slump
exceeds 50 mm.
(e) Complete the determination of air content in accordance with Clause 8 as quickly as possible.
In no case exceed 20 min from the time of placing the concrete in the bowl.

7 COMPACTION PROCEDURES
7.1 Compaction by hand
Compaction by hand shall be carried out as follows:
(a) Fill the bowl in three approximately equal layers using a scoop. Where the height of
the bowl is 150 mm or less, use only two layers. As each scoopful of concrete is
being placed, move the scoop around the top edges of the bowl as the concrete slides
from it, to ensure symmetrical distribution of the concrete within the bowl.

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5 AS 1012.4.11999

(b) Fully compact each layer by rodding, the strokes being distributed uniformly over the
cross-section of the bowl. With the bottom layer, the rod should preferably not
contact the base of the bowl to avoid damage. For each upper layer, just penetrate into
the underlying layer with at least the first 10 strokes. The number of strokes per layer
required to produce full compaction will vary according to the type of concrete and
the diameter of the bowl, but in no case use less than 40 strokes per layer. However,
if the concrete contains weak aggregate particles that degrade with hand compaction,
a reduced number of tamping blows and increased tapping of the bowl may be
adopted, provided that complete compaction is achieved.
NOTE: The minimum number of strokes per layer required to compact average concretes with
different consistencies is set out as a guide in Table 1. For slumps of less than 40 mm, refer to
AS 1012.8.

TABLE 1
MINIMUM NUMBER OF STROKES PER LAYER
FOR VARYING SLUMPS

Minimum number of strokes per


Slump layer
(mm) 150 mm 200 mm 250 mm
dia bowl dia bowl dia bowl
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Over 75 25 45 70
55 75 30 55 85
40 50 35 65 100

More strokes would be required for bowls of larger diameters, proportional to the
area.
(c) After each layer is tamped, tap the side of the bowl sharply 10 to 15 times with the
mallet to release any large air bubbles and to close any surface voids.
(d) Place sufficient concrete in the last layer to overfill the bowl when compacted.
However, if the bowl is not completely filled after compaction of the top layer, some
additional concrete may be added and worked into the surface with a float.
(e) Level the surface of the concrete with a float and strike off with a sawing motion
using a strike-off bar so that it is flush with the top of the bowl.
7.2 Compaction by vibration
Compaction by vibration shall be carried out as follows:
(a) Fill the bowl in two approximately equal layers using a scoop. Where the height of
the bowl is 150 mm or less use only one layer. As each scoopful of concrete is being
placed, move the scoop around and in contact with the rim of the bowl as the concrete
slides from it, to ensure symmetrical distribution of the concrete within the bowl.
(b) Where an internal vibrator is used and multiple insertions are made, distribute these
symmetrically over the cross-section of the bowl. Take care to withdraw the vibrator
in such a manner that no air pockets are left in the specimen.
NOTE: The number of insertions of vibrator and the duration of vibration required to compact
each layer will depend upon the workability of the concrete and the effectiveness of the
vibrator. Usually the surface of the concrete becomes relatively smooth in appearance as soon
as sufficient vibration has been applied.
(c) Where external vibration is used, rigidly attach or securely hold the bowl against the
vibrating element or vibrating surface.

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AS 1012.4.11999 6

(d) Add the top layer so as to avoid overfilling of the bowl by more than 5 mm, and thus
losing excessive mortar by overflowing during vibration. After vibrating the top
layer, some additional concrete may be added and worked into the surface with a
float.
(e) Level the surface of the concrete with a float and strike off with the strike-off bar so
that it is flush with the top of the bowl.

8 PROCEDURE FOR DETERMINING AIR CONTENT


Air content of the concrete shall be determined in accordance with the following procedure:
(a) On completion of compacting the concrete, meticulously wipe clean the flanges of the
bowl and clamp the conical cover assembly in place so that a pressure-tight seal is
obtained.
(b) Complete the assembly of the apparatus and then add water by means of the tube until
the level of the water rises to about the halfway mark in the standpipe.
(c) Incline the assembled apparatus to about 30 from vertical and, using the bottom of
the bowl as a pivot, rotate the upper end of the column several times, while the
conical cover is simultaneously tapped lightly to remove any air bubbles trapped
above the concrete.
(d) Return the assembled apparatus to its vertical position and fill the water column to
slightly above the zero mark while the sides of the bowl are lightly tapped. Then
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bring water level to the zero mark of the graduated tube and close the vent at the top
of the water column. (This corresponds to condition A in Figure 1.)
(e) Apply about 2 kPa more than the desired test pressure P, as determined by the manufacturer
and checked in accordance with Appendix A, Paragraph A7, to the concrete by means of the
small hand-pump. Smartly tap the sides of the bowl, to relieve local restraints and, if
necessary, partially open the pressure valve to bring the pressure gauge reading to the exact
test pressure P.
(f) At pressure P, read the water level (h1) to the nearest division or half division (0.10% or
0.05% air content) on the graduated precision bore tube or gauge glass of the standpipe, and
record it. (This corresponds to condition B in Figure 1.)
NOTES:
1 Foam on the surface of the water column may be removed by adding a small quantity of
isopropyl alcohol to the surface, before bringing this to the zero mark.
2 For extremely harsh mixes it may be necessary to tap the bowl vigorously, when
subjected to pressure, until further tapping produces no change in the indicated air
content.
(g) Gradually release the air pressure through the vent at the top of the water column and lightly
tap the sides of the bowl for about 1 min. Then read the water level (h2) and record it to the
same accuracy as h1. (This corresponds to condition C in Figure 1.)
(h) Repeat Steps (a) to (g) to determine the apparent air content, without adding water to
re-establish the water level at the zero mark. Average the two consecutive determinations of
apparent air content to give the value A1 used to calculate the air content, in accordance with
Clause 9. The apparent air content, A1, is equal to h1 h2.
NOTE: The two consecutive values of A 1 should agree within 0.2%.

9 CALCULATION OF AIR CONTENT


The air content of the concrete shall be calculated as follows:
A = A1 G ...9

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7 AS 1012.4.11999

where
A = air content, percentage by volume of concrete
A1 = apparent air content, percentage by volume of concrete (see Clause 8)
G = aggregate correction factor, percentage by volume of concrete (see Clause 10)

10 DETERMINATION OF AGGREGATE CORRECTION FACTOR


The aggregate correction factor of a combined sample of fine and coarse aggregates shall be
determined in accordance with the following Steps (a) to (c) and as illustrated in Figure 1:
(a) Calculate the masses of fine and coarse aggregates present in the volume (S) of the
sample of fresh concrete which is being tested, as follows:
S
Fs = Fb . . . 10(1)
1000 B
S
Cs = Cb . . . 10(2)
1000 B
where
Fs = mass of fine aggregate in concrete sample under test, in kilograms
S = volume of concrete sample (same as volume of measuring bowl of
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apparatus), in litres
B = volume of concrete produced per batch, in cubic metres
Fb = total mass of fine aggregate in batch, in kilograms
Cs = mass of coarse aggregate in concrete sample under test, in kilograms
Cb = total mass of coarse aggregate in batch, in kilograms
All masses of aggregate shall be for the aggregate in the saturated surface dry
condition.
NOTE: If the batch mass of aggregates and volume of concrete batch are not known, or if
samples of aggregates are not available, then the quantities of fine and coarse aggregates in
the volume of concrete tested may be determined approximately by a method of wet sieving.
This method could comprise simply washing the volume of concrete required to fill the
measuring bowl through a nest of sieves. If necessary, all material retained on the 150 m and
coarser sieves may be regarded as the total aggregate (Fs + Cs), and may then be tested as in
Steps (b) and (c).
(b) Mix representative samples of fine aggregate of mass Fs, and coarse aggregate of
mass Cs. One-third fill the measuring bowl with water. Add the mixed aggregate to
the water in the mixing bowl, a small amount at a time, in a manner that will trap as
little air as possible until all of the aggregate is inundated. Remove promptly any
accumulation of foam. Tap the sides of the bowl about 10 times and stir after each
addition of mixed aggregate to eliminate trapped air.
(c) When all of the aggregate has been placed in the bowl and inundated for at least
5 min, strike off all foam and excess water and thoroughly clean the flanges of both
the bowl and conical cover so that when the cover is clamped in place a pressure-tight
seal will be obtained. Complete the test as described in Clause 8. The aggregate
correction factor (G) is equal to h 1 h 2 as determined in the tests on the aggregate.
NOTE: The aggregate correction factor will vary with different aggregates. It can only be
determined by test, since apparently it is not directly related to absorption of the particles.
The test can be easily made and should not be ignored. The factor will usually remain
reasonably constant for given aggregates, but an occasional check test should be made.

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AS 1012.4.11999 8

11 RECORDS
The following information shall be recorded:
(a) Identification of the concrete.
(b) Job site or laboratory where tested.
(c) Date and time of test.
(d) Temperature of concrete.
(e) Whether compacted by vibration or by hand: if by hand, the number of strokes per
layer; if by vibration, the number of insertions per layer.
(f) Water level readings h 1 and h 2.
(g) Aggregate correction factor G and details of its determination.
(h) Individual determination of apparent air content, the mean of the determinations and
the air content percent to the nearest 0.2.
(i) Identification of testing operator.
(j) Reference to this Standard, i.e. AS 1012.4.1.

12 REPORT
In the event of a report being prepared, the method used shall be identified and the
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following information shall be included:


(a) Identification of the concrete.
(b) Date and location of test.
(c) Whether compacted by vibration or by hand: if by hand, the number of strokes per
layer; if by vibration, the number of insertions per layer.
(d) Air content percent to the nearest 0.2.
(e) Such other information contained in the records as may be requested.
(f) Reference to this Standard, i.e. AS 1012.4.1.
(g) Such other information contained in the sampling records (see AS 1012.1) as may be
requested.

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9 AS 1012.4.11999

APPENDIX A
CALIBRATION OF APPARATUS
(Normative)

A1 INTRODUCTION
Changes in barometric pressure caused by changes in elevation, temperature and humidity,
and by rough handling under job conditions, will affect the calibration of pressure-type
apparatus for the determination of air content. The determinations described in
Paragraphs A2 to A6 are prerequisites to the final calibration test to determine the operating
pressure (P) on the pressure gauge as described in Paragraph A7. Normally the
determinations in Paragraphs A2 to A6 need be made only once, at the time of the initial
calibration, or only occasionally to check volume constancy of the calibration cylinder and
measuring bowl. On the other hand, the calibration test described in Paragraph A7 has to be
made as frequently as necessary to ensure that the proper gauge pressure (P) is being used.
A change in elevation of more than 200 m from the location at which the apparatus was last
calibrated will require recalibration in accordance with Paragraph A7.

A2 CALIBRATION OF CALIBRATION CYLINDER


Determine the mass of water, Mg, required to fill the calibration cylinder (see Clause 4.2)
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using a balance sensitive to a maximum 0.5 g in the range used.

A3 CALIBRATION OF MEASURING BOWL


Determine the mass of water, Mg, required to fill the measuring bowl (Clause 4.2), using a
balance sensitive to 0.1% of the mass of the bowl filled with water. Slide a glass plate
carefully over the flange of the bowl in such a manner as ensures that the bowl is
completely filled with water. A thin film of cup grease smeared on the flange of the bowl
will make a watertight joint between the glass plate and the top of the bowl.

A4 DETERMINATION OF CONSTANT R
The constant R represents the volume of the calibration cylinder expressed as a percentage
of the volume of the measuring bowl. Calculate R as follows:
100 m
R= . . . (A1)
M

A5 DETERMINATION OF EXPANSION FACTOR D


Determine the expansion factor D (see Note 1) for any given apparatus assembly by filling
the apparatus with water only, making certain that all trapped air has been removed and the
water level is exactly on the zero mark, and applying an air pressure approximately equal to
the operating pressure P, determined by the calibration test described in Paragraph A7. The
distance the water column is depressed will be the equivalent expansion factor D, for that
particular apparatus and pressure (see Note 2).
NOTES:
1 Although the bowl, cover and clamping mechanism of the apparatus should of necessity be
sturdily constructed so that it will be reasonably pressure-tight, the application of internal
pressure will result in a small increase in volume. This expansion will not affect the test
results because, with the procedure described in Clauses 7 and 8, the amount of expansion is
the same for the test for air in concrete as for the test for aggregate correction factor on
combined fine and coarse aggregates, and is thereby automatically cancelled. However, it
does enter into the calibration test to determine the air pressure to be used in testing fresh
concrete and appears as the value D in the expression for the calibration factor (K) in
Equation A2.
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AS 1012.4.11999 10

2 It will be sufficiently accurate for this purpose to use an approximate value for P determined
by making a preliminary calibration test as described in Paragraph A7 except that an
approximate value for the calibration factor K should be used. For this test K = 0.98R which
is the same as Equation A2 except that the expansion factor D, as yet unknown, is assumed to
be zero.

A6 DETERMINATION OF CALIBRATION FACTOR K


The calibration factor K is the distance the water column must be depressed during the
calibration procedure to obtain the gauge pressure required to make the graduations on the
glass tube correspond directly to the percentage of air introduced into the measuring bowl
by the calibration cylinder when the bowl is level and full of water. Calculate K as follows:
K = 0.98 R + D . . . (A2)
NOTE:The value for K given in this formula is derived from the more general expression:
K = HR + D . . . (A3)
where H = ratio of the volume of air in the calibration cylinder, after the bowl has been filled
with water, to the volume before inundation. H decreases slightly as the elevation above sea level
increases and is about 0.980 at sea level for a bowl 200 mm deep and 0.975 at 1500 m above sea
level. The error introduced by neglecting these variations in the value of H will usually be so
small (corresponding to less than 0.05% air) that Equation A2 usually will be sufficiently
accurate. However, the value of H should be checked for each design of apparatus, each 100 mm
of bowl height decreasing the value of H by 0.01.
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A7 CALIBRATION TEST TO DETERMINE OPERATING PRESSURE (P), ON


PRESSURE GAUGE
If the rim of the calibration cylinder contains no recesses or projections, fit it with three or
more spacers equally spaced around the circumference. Invert the cylinder and place it at
the centre of the dry bottom of the measuring bowl. The spacers will provide an opening for
flow of water into the calibration cylinder when pressure is applied. Secure the inverted
cylinder against displacement and carefully lower the conical cover.
After the cover is clamped in place, carefully adjust the apparatus assembly to a vertical
position and add water at air temperature by means of the tube and funnel, until it rises
above the zero mark on the standpipe.
Close the vent and pump air into the apparatus to the approximate operating pressure.
Incline the assembly about 30 from vertical (see Caution) and, using the bottom of the
bowl as a pivot, describe several complete circles with the upper end of the standpipe,
simultaneously tapping the cover and sides of the bowl lightly to remove any trapped air
adhering to the inner surface of the apparatus. Return the apparatus to a vertical position,
gradually release the pressure to avoid loss of air from the calibration cylinder, and open
the vent. Bring the water level exactly to the zero mark by bleeding water through the
petcock in the top of the conical cover.
CAUTION: DO NOT MOVE APPARATUS ASSEMBLY FROM THE VERTICAL
POSITION UNTIL PRESSURE HAS BEEN APPLIED, WHICH WILL FORCE
WATER ABOUT ONE-THIRD OF THE WAY UP INTO THE CALIBRATION
CYLINDER. ANY LOSS OF AIR FROM THIS CYLINDER WILL NULLIFY THE
CALIBRATION.
After closing the vent, apply pressure until the water level has dropped an amount
equivalent to about 0.1% to 0.2% of air more than the value of the calibration factor K,
determined as described in Paragraph A6. To relieve local restraints, lightly tap the sides of
the bowl, and, when the water level is exactly at the value of the calibration factor K, read
the pressure P indicated by the gauge and record to the nearest 1 kPa.

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11 AS 1012.4.11999

Gradually release the pressure and open the vent to determine whether the water level
returns to the zero mark when the sides of the bowl are tapped lightly. Failure to do so
indicates loss of air from the calibration cylinder or loss of water due to a leak in the
assembly.
If the water level fails to return to within 0.05% of air of the zero mark, and no leakage
beyond a few drops of water is found, some air probably has been lost from the calibration
cylinder. In this case, repeat the calibration procedure step by step from the beginning of
Paragraph A7. If the leakage is more than a few drops of water, tighten the leaking joint
before repeating the calibration procedure.
Check the indicated pressure reading promptly by bringing the water level exactly to the
zero mark, closing the vent and applying the pressure P just determined. Tap the gauge
lightly with a finger. When the gauge indicates the exact pressure P, the water column shall
read the value of the calibration factor K, used in the first pressure application within about
0.05% of air.
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AS 1012.4.11999 12

This Australian Standard was prepared by the Technical Committee BD/42, Methods of Testing Concrete. It was approved on behalf of the
Council of Standards Australia on 4 June 1999 and published on 5 July 1999.

The following interests are represented on Committee BD/42:

The Association of Consulting Engineers of Australia


Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry
Australian Pre-mixed Concrete Association
AUSTROADS
Cement and Concrete Association of Australia
Concrete Institute of Australia
CSIRO, Division of Building, Construction and Engineering
National Association of Testing Authorities Australia
University of New South Wales
University of Technology, Sydney
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Review of Australian Standards. To keep abreast of progress in industry, Australian Standards are subject to periodic
review and are kept up to date by the issue of amendments or new editions as necessary. It is important therefore that
Standards users ensure that they are in possession of the latest edition, and any amendments thereto.
Full details of all Australian Standards and related publications will be found in the Standards Australia Catalogue of
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members receive, and which gives details of new publications, new editions and amendments, and of withdrawn Standards.
Suggestions for improvements to Australian Standards, addressed to the head office of Standards Australia, are welcomed.
Notification of any inaccuracy or ambiguity found in an Australian Standard should be made without delay in order that
the matter may be investigated and appropriate action taken.

Originated as part of AS A1091957.


Final edition AS 1012.41983.
Revised and redesignated in part as AS 1012.4.11999.

This Standard was issued in draft form for comment as DR 98186.

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ISBN 0 7337 2798 0 Printed in Australia