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AS 1012.12.2-1998 Methods of testing concrete - Determination of mass per unit


volume of hardened concrete - Water displacement method

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1 AS 1012.12.2 1998

Australian Standard
Methods of testing concrete

Method 12.2: Determination of mass per unit


volume of hardened concreteWater
displacement method

PREFACE

This Standard was prepared by Standards Australia Committee BD/42, Methods of Testing
Concrete, to supersede in part, AS 1012.12 1986. This Method is one of a series
applying to the sampling and testing of concrete.
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METHOD

1 SCOPE This Standard sets out a method for determining the mass per unit volume
of hardened concrete by a method involving weighing the specimen in a specified
moisture condition and determining its volume by weighing the saturated specimen in
water and also in air.
This Method is applicable to either regular or irregular shaped specimens. This Method is
also applicable to capped specimens, provided the mass per unit volume of the cap does
not differ from that of the specimen by more than 25 percent and the cap complies with
the requirements of AS 1012.9.
NOTES:
1 Care should be taken to ensure that specimens are representative of the concrete mass,
particularly if irregular shaped pieces of concrete are tested. If specimens have a volume
less than a 100 200 mm standard cylinder, the results may not be as reliable.
2 Where appropriate, surface voids should be sealed or wrapped to ensure account is taken of
their effect, e.g. poor compaction.
3 For general procedures and precautions designed to promote safety of persons and property
in laboratory operations (see AS/NZS 2243.1 ).
4 This standard may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment. This standard
does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the
responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices
and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

2 REFERENCED DOCUMENT The following document is referred to in this


Standard:
AS
1012 Methods of testing concrete
1012.9 Method 9: Method for the determination of the compressive strength of concrete
specimens.

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AS 1012.12.2 1998 2

AS/NZS
2243 Safety in laboratories
2243.1 General

3 PRINCIPLE The mass per unit volume of hardened concrete is obtained by


determining the mass of the specimen and dividing it by the volume of the specimen as
determined by the water displacement method.

4 APPARATUS The following apparatus is required:


(a) Balances capable of weighing the concrete specimen in air and water to an
accuracy of 0.1 percent in the operating range.
(b) Towels and drying cloths for surface-drying the sample.
(c) Water tank of appropriate size and shape to accommodate the rack or similar
support and provide cover of at least 50 mm above the top of the immersed
specimen when being weighed.

5 TEST CONDITIONS The mass per unit volume of concrete may be determined in
any moisture condition. The moisture condition to be adopted shall be specified when the
specimens are submitted for test.
NOTE: The standard moisture condition of specimens is saturated surface-dry, although air-dry
or oven-dry specimens (or specimens in other conditions) may be determined by this method if
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suitably sealed or wrapped before immersion.

6 PROCEDURE The procedure shall be as follows:


(a) Determine the initial mass (m1) of the specimen in kilograms, at the moisture
condition specified, by weighing it in air to within 0.2 percent, taking precautions
to avoid any change in the moisture condition.
(b) For saturated, sealed or wrapped specimens, immerse in water at a temperature of
23 2C for approximately 1 h, then weigh (m2) in kilograms, while suspended in a
tank of water at a temperature of 23 2C.
(c) For a specimen that is not moist, store in water at a temperature of 23 2C for 24 h
before weighing as in Step (b).
(d) After weighing in water, remove the surplus water from the surface of the specimen
and determine the mass (m3) of the specimen in kilograms, in the saturated,
surface-dry or as sealed or wrapped condition.

7 CALCULATION The volume of the specimen shall be calculated from the


following equation:
m3 m2
v= . . . 7(1)
1000
where
v = volume of the specimen, in cubic metres
NOTES:
1 For more accurate results, the denominator in the above equation should be the density of
the water in the tank at the time of determination.
2 It is recommended that water density is checked regularly or use fresh water every time the
test is carried out.

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3 AS 1012.12.2 1998

The mass per unit volume of each specimen shall be calculated from the following
equation:
m1
= . . . 7(2)
v
where
= mass per unit volume in a specified moisture condition, in kilograms per cubic
metre, rounded off to the nearest 10 kg/m 3

8 RECORDS The following information shall be recorded:


(a) Identification of the specimen.
(b) Job site or laboratory where tested.
(c) Date and time of test.
(d) Age of specimen at the date of test, if known.
(e) If specimen capped, mass per unit volume of cap.
(f) Description of specimen (cast, cut or broken, surface or continuous voids sealed or
wrapped).
(g) Moisture condition of the specimen when tested.
(h) Initial mass of specimen in air at the specified moisture condition of test, apparent
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mass suspended in water and mass in air saturated surface-dry.


(i) Mass per unit volume of the concrete, rounded off to the nearest 10 kg/m 3.
(j) If specimens have a volume less than a 100 200 mm standard cylinder.
(k) Such other information contained in the records as may be requested.
(l) Identification of the testing operator.
(m) Reference to this Standard, i.e. AS 1012.12.2.

9 REPORT The following information shall be reported:


(a) Identification of the specimen.
(b) Date and location of test.
(c) Description of specimen (cast, cut or broken, surface or continuous voids, sealed or
wrapped).
(d) If specimen capped, mass per unit volume of cap.
(e) Moisture condition of specimen.
(f) The mass per unit volume of concrete in each specimen, rounded off to the nearest
10 kg/m3. If required, the average mass per unit volume of concrete, rounded off the
nearest 10 kg/m3, may be calculated for the individual values of the representative
specimens.
(g) If specimens have a volume less than a 100 200 mm standard cylinder.
(h) Such other information contained in the records as may be requested.
(i) Reference to this test method, i.e. AS 1012.12.2.

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AS 1012.12.2 1998 4

This Australian Standard was prepared by Committee BD/42, Methods of Testing Concrete. It was approved on behalf of
the Council of Standards Australia on 10 July 1998 and published on 5 September 1998.

The following interests are represented on Committee BD/42:


Association of Consulting Engineers, Australia
Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry
Australian Pre-mixed Concrete Association
AUSTROADS
Cement and Concrete Association of Australia
Concrete Institute of Australia
CSIRO, Division of Building, Construction and Engineering
National Association of Testing Authorities Australia
University of New South Wales
University of Technology, Sydney
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Review of Australian Standards. To keep abreast of progress in industry, Australian Standards are subject to periodic
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Standards users ensure that they are in possession of the latest edition, and any amendments thereto.
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matter may be investigated and appropriate action taken.

Originated as part of AS A108 1971.


Previous edition AS 1012.12 1986.
Revised and redesignated in part as AS 1012.12.2 1998.

This Standard was issued in draft form for comment as DR 97440.

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ISBN 0 7337 2157 5 Printed in Australia