The acoustic signature from an airfoil downstream an
incoming turbulent flow is a complex mathematical
phenomenon which requires solving the nonlinear governing
equations with higher resolutions. The problem is illustrated
in Fig. 1. With the advent of high computing resources, it's
possible, but at a cost of higher calculation time. For the
preliminary analysis in the design process, a method is needed
to calculate unsteady-lift due to the

© All Rights Reserved

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The acoustic signature from an airfoil downstream an
incoming turbulent flow is a complex mathematical
phenomenon which requires solving the nonlinear governing
equations with higher resolutions. The problem is illustrated
in Fig. 1. With the advent of high computing resources, it's
possible, but at a cost of higher calculation time. For the
preliminary analysis in the design process, a method is needed
to calculate unsteady-lift due to the

© All Rights Reserved

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DAGA 2017 Kiel

Turbulence with an

Unsteady Lift due to the Interaction of Incidence Turbulence with an Airfoil

1 Sparsh Sharma ; Ennes Sarradj2;

1 2 1

Sparsh Sharma , Ennes Sarradj , 1Heiko Schmidt

Fachgebiet Technische Akustik, Brandenburgische Tech

1 2Fachgebiet Technische Akustik, Techni

Fachgebiet Technische Akustik, BTU Cottbus-Senftenberg, 03046 Cottbus, E-Mail:sparsh.sharma@b-tu.de

2

Fachgebiet Technische Akustik, TU Berlin, 10587 Berlin, E-Mail: ennes.sarradj@tu-berlin.de

ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION

Dieser Beitrag zeigt den ersten Schritt The acoustic signature from =an/ airfoil downstream an incoming To mathema

Introduction der an der Brandenburgischen turbulent flow is a complex mathematical phenomenon which flow1 and Pa

Technischen Universitt Cottbus - where k is reduced

requires solving frequency,

the nonlinear cgoverning is the chord

equations length and u the

with higher least assump

The acoustic signature from an airfoil downstream an

Senftenberg durchgefhrten resolutions.

flow speed. This Theparameter

problem is illustrated in Fig. 1. With

is a measure the advent

of unsteadiness.

incoming turbulent flow is a complex mathematical

Forschungsarbeit "Stochastische of high computing resources, it's possible, but at a cost of higher

When calculation

an oscillating airfoil sheds a vortical wake with a

1. finite thi

phenomenon which requires solving theModellierung von

nonlinear governing certain process,

wavelength,

time. For the preliminary analysis in the design

the reduced frequency compares

2. high sub

Vorderkantenschall". a method is needed to calculate unsteady-lift due to the this 3. deforma

equations with higher resolutions. The problem is illustrated

Die fr die Schallentstehung an der airfoil-turbulence

wavelength with the interaction

airfoil withchord

the following

because characteristics:

during one 4. cross win

in Fig. 1. With the advent of high computing resources, it's

Vorderkante verantwortlichen

oscillation a vortex shed from the trailing edge travels the

Schwankungen der Auftriebskraft 1. fast and accurate Fig. 3 and Fig

possible, but at a cost of higher calculation time. For the

(Druckschwankungen) werden dabei distance2. u/w.

need This minimum means, computing the resources

higher the reduced frequency Sources and

preliminary analysis in the design process, a method is needed

mit der Theorie eines Tragflgels in 3. compares

the smaller the wavelength. more characteristics trade-off using the He

to calculate unsteady-lift due to the airfoil-turbulence

instationrer Strmung berechnet. unsteady pre

Dazu wird die klassische Hess- und - Steady state aerodynamics, k = 0 further, be u

interaction with the following characteristics:

Smith-Panel-Methode fr analogies, as

instationre Strmungsverhltnisse - Quasi-steady aerodynamics, 0 k 0.05

- fast and accurate erweitert, wobei der Tragflgel in Leading Edge

Aircraft

Spannweitenrichtung in Scheiben - Unsteady aerodynamics, k > 0.05 [k > 0.2 is

- need minimum computing resources (Panels) mit aerodynamischen

Quellen und Wirbelstrken als considered highly unsteady Boundary Layer Growth

Singularitten diskretisiert wird. Die Incoming Turbulence Vortex Shedding

in Wake: Wind Turbines

vorliegende Arbeit legt damit den Interaction of Incoming Turbulence

with Leading Edge:

Tonal Noise

geplanten Schritt, bei dem die To mathematically derive the problem, Potential theory for

Airfoil Noise

akustischen Analogien integriert unsteady flow3 and Panel method4 is used. The nobility Submarines of the

werden sollen, um die akustische

Signatur eines Tragflgels

Leading Edge work is to have the least assumptions

Figure 1. Incidence turbulence interacting with the leading edge of and account for: Figure

Aircraft

modellieren zu knnen. an airfoil

- finite thickness of the airfoil

- high subsonic speeds ATIN

Incoming Turbulence Vortex Shedding

in Wake:

Tonal Noise

Wind Turbines

Aerodynamics Acoustics (Airfoi

Turbulen

with Leading Edge:

Broadband Noise - deformation of the airfoil Interacti

Noise

Airfoil Noise

Submarines Airfoil interaction Lighthills, FWH, LEE

Fig. 2 showswith nonuniform

the steps taken to model the incidence

flow, unsteady Lift Octave band &

Figure 1: Incidence turbulence interacting with the leading turbulence.Vortex-source

Sources and vortices are used as the singularities. This

Power Spectral

section s

Python, and it

edge of an airfoil The wakemethod for unsteady

is modelled using the Helmholtz Density (PSD) circulation then develop

Keywords: leading edge noise, turbu- 5 flow analogies

theorem . This leads to the calculation of unsteady pressure the airfoil disc

Unsteady Effects lence, unsteady lift, broadband noise

fluctuation on the surface of the airfoil, which can further, be around the ai

experimental

By the definition, an unsteady flow is one where the flow field Figure: 2 Roadmap for calculating the noise from an airfoil

used to calculate the noise parameters using the acoustic facility

variables at any point are changing with time which means all analogies.

the aerodynamic parameters fluctuate with time too, and are

certainly the inhibitors of all the disturbances which causes

Distribute sources & vortices

the generation of noise from an airfoil. It is instructive to on the panels

recall the major historical development in the unsteady

References:

aerodynamics. Standard work by Karman, Sears, Amiet etc.

1. TH. Von Karman. Airfoil Theory for Non-Uniform Apply the Flow-Tangency

shows that the presence of unsteady lift or pressure fluctuation

Motion, Journal of the Aeronautical Sciences, Vol.

5, No. 10 (1938), pp. 379-390 (Neumann Condition !" # $%" = 0)

over the lifting surface is the main 2.cause of The

Smith, A.M.O., thePanelnoise

Method: Its Original

Development. In Applied Computational Aerody-

generation. In 1922, Prandtl1 suggested namics,to neglect the

Vol. 125

3. Katz, Plotkin: Low-Speed Aerodynamics, 2 nd

problem of

University Press Enforce the Kutta-Condition

incompressible flow past an oscillating airfoil, and thus to !E # 8%E = !H # 8I

H

take Laplace equation as governing equation. It was pointed

out that every change in the lift must be accompanied by the

detachment of a vortex from the airfoil's trailing edge. Calculate the Influence coefficients, source

strengths (q1, q2,...,qN), vorticity strength

As it is shown in Fig-1 that the incoming turbulent eddies

upstream the airfoil strikes with the leading edge of the airfoil

and this is heard as noise; whereas because of the boundary Use the last step to calculate Cp

Contact:

layer growth chordwise, the vortex shedding takes place followed by Cl

Sparsh Sharma

which is another source of noise. An important parameter,

Fachgebiet Technische Akustik,

Brandenburgische

2 Technische Figure 3. Flowchart of the steps

reduced frequency, k, was introduced by Birnbaum , Figure 2: Flowchart of the steps

Universitt Cottbus-Senftenberg

Email: sparsh.sharma@b-tu.de

Phone: +49 (0) 355 69 4098

Website: www.aeroakustik.de Figure 5. (to

1 tunnel, stream

Airfoil interaction

with nonuniform

Lighthills, FWH, LEE STEADY-STATE RESULTS

flow, unsteady Lift Octave band & This section shows the steady-state results. The entire code is written in

DAGA 2017 Kiel

Vortex-source Power Spectral Python, and it is planned to write the steady code in the first phase and

method for unsteady Density (PSD) then develop it for the unsteady-flow conditions. Following figures show

noise, turbu- flow analogies the airfoil discretization, streamlines around the airfoil, and pressure field

dband noise

around the airfoil. The

Steady-State computations will be validated using the

Results

experimental data from the wind tunnel tests at the universitys acoustic

Figure: 2 Roadmap for calculating the noise from an airfoil facility

This section shows the steady-state results. The entire code is

written in Python, and it is planned to write the steady code in

Figure 3: Representation of smooth airfoil with nodes and

the first phase and then develop it for the unsteady-flow

e to the Interaction of Incidence

panels

Distribute sources & vortices

Figure 3 illustrates the representation

conditions. Following figures show the airfoil discretization,

streamlines around the airfoil, and pressure field around the

on the panels of a smooth surface by

lence with an AirfoilThe numbering system starts at the

a series of line segments. airfoil. The computations will be validated using the

lower surface trailing edge and proceeds forward, around the experimental data from the wind tunnel tests at the

leading edge and aft Apply the Flow-Tangency

y for Non-Uniform to the upper surface trailing edge. N+1 universitys acoustic facility.

utical Sciences, Vol.

ma ; Ennes Sarradj ; Heiko Schmidt1

1 points 2

define

ethod: Its Original

N (Neumann Condition !

panels. "#$

%" = 0)

andenburgische

putational Aerody- Technische Universitt

D Cottbus-Senftenberg

ische Akustik, Technische

erodynamics, 2

= ) + Universitt

nd

+ Berlin ln -

ress Enforce the Kutta-Condition

2 2

!E # 8%ECEF I

= !=>?@A C

H#8 H

METHODOLOGY

n incoming TheToapproach (depicted

mathematically in Fig.

derive the 4) isPotential

problem, to theory for unsteady

non which Calculate the Influence coefficients, source

flow1 and Panel method2 is used. The nobility of the work is to have the

with higher least strengths (q1, q2,...,qN), vorticity strength

1. assumptions

break upand

theaccount

surface

for: into straight line segments,

the advent

st of higher 1. 2.finite

assume

thicknessthe source

of the airfoil strength is constant over each line

the design 2. high subsonic speeds

segment (panel) but has a different value for each

3. deformation of Use the last step to calculate Cp

the airfoil

Stagnation line

at the trailing edge

due to the

teristics: 4. cross panel

wind effects followed by Cl

Stagnation line

kustik, 3.3 and

Fig. theFig.vortex strength

4 show the is constant

steps taken to model theand equalturbulence.

incidence over each at the leading edge

and vortices are usedFlowchart of the steps

as the singularities. The wake is modelled

tenberg using the Helmholtz circulation theorem3. This leads to the calculation of

b-tu.de Roughly,

unsteady think

pressure offluctuation

the constant

on thevortices

surface ofas theadding up tocanthe

airfoil, which

further, be used to calculate the noise parameters using the acoustic

098 circulation to satisfy the Kutta condition. The sources are

analogies, as shown in Fig. 2 Figure 5.5:(top to bottom) Airfoil discretization into panels, acoustic wind

tik.de required to satisfy flow tangency on the surface (thickness). Figure Streamlines around the airfoil (top), pressure

tunnel, streamlines around the airfoil, pressure contour around the airfoil

Aircraft

contour around the airfoil (bottom)

y >BC >BE >BG >BF

x

Wind Turbines

(t)

1 *+$,- / [1] Prandtl, L.: Uber die Enstehardt von Wirbeln in der

)01234, 56783692861$ (;< )>

!1386468? 56783692861$ @>

idealen Flussigkeit, mit Anwendung auf die

Submarines

Trgflugeltheorie und andere Aufgaben, Hydro und

ding edge of Figure 4. Extension of the panel method for unsteady-flow Aerodynamik, Berlin, Julius Springer Verlag, pp. 18-33,

Figure 4: Extension of the panel method for unsteady-flow

1924

Flow tangency boundary condition

ATIN [2] Birnbaum, W.: Das eben Problem des schlagenden

cs A constant vortex strength will be added to each panel (all

(Airfoil

Turbulence

Flugels, Zeitschrift fur angewandte Mathematik und

panels have the same, constant vortex-sheet strength). The

Interaction

Noise)

Mechanik (ZAMM), Vol. 4, pp. 277-292, 1924

flow tangency boundary condition is applied at every panel

[3] TH. Von Karman. Airfoil Theory for Non-Uniform

WH, LEE center: STEADY-STATE RESULTS Motion, Journal of the Aeronautical Sciences, Vol. 5,

& This section shows the steady-state results. The entire code is written in No. 10 (1938), pp. 379-390

ral Python, and it is 0 = to

planned write

J = the steady

code

ML ,

in ML

the first phase and

) L

then develop it for the unsteady-flow conditions. Following figures show [4] Smith, A.M.O., The Panel Method: Its Original

the airfoil discretization, streamlines around the airfoil, and pressure field Development. In Applied Computational Aerody-

Enforcing the Kutta Condition

around the airfoil. The computations will be validated using the

experimental data from the wind tunnel tests at the universitys acoustic namics, Vol. 125

n airfoil In case of steady flow, the Kutta condition is expressed as the

facility

zero velocity at the trailing edge or no vortex sheet or no [5] Katz, Plotkin: Low-Speed Aerodynamics, 2nd edition,

pressure difference at the wake region. Cambridge University Press

In case of unsteady flow, however, there is a nonzero velocity

at the trailing edge and non-zero vortex sheet at the near wake.

Therefore, the unsteady Kutta condition is expressed as the

zero-pressure difference at the wake:

)

>

+ Q , + Q , = 0

S

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