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Types of stress

Classes of stress

Basis for establishing allowable stress

Code allowable stress

Type of stress

1. Tensile
2. Compressive
3. Shear
4. Bending
5. Bearing
6. Axial
7. Discontinuity
8. Membrane
9. Principal
Type of stress

10. Thermal
11. Tangential
12. Torsional
13. Load Induced
14. Strain Induced
15. Circumferential
16. Longitudinal
17. Radial
18. Normal
Membrane Stress

Outside of Pressure Vessel Design there is no
membrane stress.
An example of membrane stress is the uniform stress
across the thickness of a pressurised shell.
Discontinuity stress

Additional stress produced where abrupt changes in
geometry, materials and/or loading occur in an FRP
Principal Stress

Stresses in principal plane is called principal stress
Thermal Stress

Tangential Stress

A stress which acts along a plane in the interior of a



Primary Secondary Peak

1) Unrelenting load 1) Relenting loads (Self limiting) - the additional stresses due to
2) General loading (Pm + Pb ) - Local yielding and minor to stress intensification in
3) Local loads (PL + Pb ) distortion can satisfy the highly localised areas.
conditions which caused
Not self limiting the stress to occur. - both sustained and self limiting
Internal loads.
Pressure - Can not cause structural
External failure due to restraints offered - Significant in fatigue condition.
Sustained External forces by the body to which the part
& moments is attached. - additive to part section.

- Thermal stress 1) Stress at the corner of a

- Gross structural discontinuity.
2) Thermal stresses in a wall in
the surface temperature.

3) Stress due to notch effect

(Stress concentration)
Pm --> Primary Membrane:

Circumferential and Longitudinal stress due to
Axial stress.
Bending of horizontal vessels over the saddles
due to Longitudinal Stress.
Membrane stress in the centre of the flat head.
Axial compression due to weight.
Membrane stress in the nozzle wall within the
area of reinforcement due to pressure external
Pb--> Primary Bending:

Bending stress in the centre of a flat head or
crown of a dished head.
Bending stress in a shallow conical head.
Bending stress in the ligament of closely spaced
PL--> PM + Membrane stress at
local discontinuities.

Head - shell juncture.
Cone - cylinder juncture.
Nozzle - shell juncture.
Shell - flange juncture.
Head - skirt juncture.
Shell - stiffening ring juncture.
Secondary Stresses:

Self limiting.
Local yielding and minor distortions can satisfy the
conditions which caused the stress to occur.
Can not cause structural failure.
Radial loads on nozzles produce secondary means
stresses in the shell at the junction of the nozzle.
Discontinuity stresses.
Thermal expansion (start up - shut down) loads.
Loads caused by vibration.
The non-uniform portion of the stress distribution in a
thick walled vessel due to internal pressure.
Bending stress at a gross structural discontinuity.
Peak Stresses

Both sustained loads and self limiting loads.
Significant in fatigue calculations.
Stress due to notch effect.
Stress at the corner of a discontinuity.
Thermal stresses in a wall caused by a sudden
change in the surface temperature.

Stress Classification/Category Allowable Stress

General primary membrane Pm < Sm

General primary bending Pb < 1.5 Sm < 0.9 Sy

Pm + Pb < 1.5 Sm
Pm + Pb + Q (Secondary) < 3 Sm

Pm + Pb + Q + F (Fatigue) < 2 Sa

Expansion and Flexibility:

In addition to the design requirments for pressure, weight and

other loadings. Piping systems subjected to thermal expansion
or construction or to similar movements imposed by other
sources shall be designed in accordance with requirements for
the evaluation and analysis of flexibility and stresses specified


- to prevent pipe movements from causing failure from over stress

of pipe material or anchors, leakage at joints or detrimental
distortion of connected equipment resulting from excessive
thrusts and moments.

- shall be provided by changes of direction in the piping through

the use of bends, loops or offsets or provision shall be made to
absorb thermal movements by utilising expansion, swivel or ball
Parameters to be considered for flexibility analysis:-

1. The appropriate code that applies to the system.

2. The design pressure and temperature.

3. The type of material.

4. The pipe size and wall thickness of each pipe component.

5. The piping geometry including movements of anchors and restraints.

6. The allowable stresses for the design conditions set by appropriate


7. Limitations of forces and moments on equipment nozzles set by API,

NEMA or the equipment manufacturers.

8. Metallurgical considerations.

For any system, these criteria must be considered and satisfied.

Emprical formula for finding flexibility of the system having
only two terminal points and pipe of uniform size.

-------- 208.3
(L U)2

D = Outside dia of pipe
= Resultant expansion in mm
L = Developed length of line
axis between anchors (m)
U = Anchor distance (m).
P (D t)
1. Allowable internal Pressure stress = ----------- < Sa -- (1)

2. Allowable sustained local stress

SL = P x ----- + ----- -- (2)
Am Am

3. Allowable occasional load stress:

The sum of longitudinal stresses due to pressure, weight and

those produced by occasional loads (such as wind, earthquake)
may exceed the basic material allowable stress.
4. Allowable test load stress:

The maximum stress during pressure tests shall not exceed 90% of
the yield at test temperature.

5. Allowable stress range for expansion stresses:

SA = f (1.25 Sc + 0.25 Sh)

Sc = Cold allowable stress.

Sh = Hot allowable stress.

f = Stress range reduction factor for cyclic condition.

Cycles f
7000 and less 1.0
7000 to 14000 0.9
14000 to 22000 0.8
22000 to 45000 0.7
45000 to 100000 0.6
100000 and over 0.5
Theory of failure

Failure theory is the science of predicting the
conditions under which solid materials fail under the
action of external loads.
The failure of a material is usually classified into
brittle failure (fracture) or ductile failure (yield)
Depending on the conditions (such as temperature,
state of stress, loading rate) most materials can fail in
a brittle or ductile manner or both