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1.2 Types of Gear system 1

1.3 Relationship between pitch diameter and pitch circle 7

1.4 Gear Ratio 9

1.5 Gear Train 11

1.6 Gear Efficiency 12

1.7 Power Transmission in a Gear Train System 12

1.8 Equivalent Moment of Inertia 14

1.9 Gear Train Applications 15

1.10 Vehicle Dynamics 22

CHAPTER 1

Gears are used for two basic purposes; increase or decrease of rotation speed and increase

or decrease of power or torque. Torque is a measure of a force to produce torsion and rotation

about an axis. To increase speed and reduce torque a large drive gear is coupled to a smaller

driven gear. To reduce speed and increase torque a small Lego gear turning a larger gear is used.

They are also used for enhancement for positioning systems.

In gear system, gear that functions as mover mentioned as driver gear, while gear moved

name as driven gear.

Gears are categorized into several types. They are used in a wide era of industries

including automotive, milling, paper industry etc. According to different applications in

industries and different materials used they are categorized separately. Different types of gears

are also custom design and are fabricated by gear manufacturing services as par the

specifications.

Gears Types

Bevel Gears Spur Gears

Crown Wheel Straight Bevel Gears

Crown Wheel and Pinion Support Rollers

Differential Gears Tacho Drives

Fine Pitch Gears Thrust Rollers

Girth Gears Idler Gear

Hardened and Ground Gears Gear Trains

Helical Bevel Gears Planetary Gear

Helical Gears Ground Gear

Herringbone Gears Face Gear

Master Gear Internal Gears

Mill Headers Cycloidal Gears

Miter Gears External Gear

Non-Involute Gears Winch Gears

Pinion Gears Sprockets

Rack Gears Worm Gears

Table 1

Gear can also be classified according to the relative position of the axes of mating gears.

Parallel Axes

Axes (Non-parallel) Axes Translation

Spur Gears Bevel gears Hypoid gears Rack and Pinion

Helical Gears Straight bevel Crossed helical gears -

Herring bone or

double helical Zerol bevel Worm gears -

gears

- Spiral bevel - -

Table 2

The shaft axes between driver and driven gear is parallel to each other. Example of this

type of gear is Spur Gear.

Spur gears connect parallel shafts, have involute teeth that are parallel to the shaft and

can have internal or external teeth. They cause no external thrust between gears. They are

inexpensive to manufacture. They give lower but satisfactory performance. They are used when

shaft rotates in the same plane.

The main features of spur gears are dedendum, addendum, flank, and fillet. Dedendum

cylinder is a root from where teeth extend, it extends to the tip called the addendum circle. Flank

or the face contacts the meshing gear, the most useful feature if the spur gears. The fillet in the

root region is kinetically irrelevant.

The speed and change of the force depends on the gear ratio, the ratio of number of teeth

on the gears that are to be meshed. One gear among the two is on the input axle; the axle of the

motor and the other gear of the pair is on the output axle, the axle of the wheel.

They have higher contact ratio that makes them smooth and quiet in operation. They are

available for corrosion resistant operation. They are among the most cost-effective type of

gearing. They are also used to create large gear reductions.

They are available in plastic, non-metallic, brass, steel and cast iron and are manufactured

in a variety of styles. They are made with many different properties. Factors like design life,

power transmission requirements, noise and heat generation, and presence of corrosive elements

contribute to the optimization of the gear material.

Generally used in simple machines like washing machines, clothes dryer or power

winches. They are not used in automobiles because they produce sound when the teeth of both

the gears collide with each other. It also increases stress on the gear teeth. They are also used in

construction equipment, machine tools, indexing equipment, multi spindle drives, roller feeds,

and conveyors.

The shaft axes between driver and driven gear is perpendicular to each other. Example of

gear is bevel gears.

They connect intersecting axes and come in several types. The pitch surface of bevel

gears is a cone. They are useful when the direction of a shaft's rotation needs to be changed.

Using gears of differing numbers of teeth can change the speed of rotation. They are usually

mounted on shafts that are 90 degrees apart, but can be designed to work at other angles as well.

These gears permit minor adjustment during assembly and allow for some displacement

due to deflection under operating loads without concentrating the load on the end of the tooth.

For reliable performance, Gears must be pinned to shaft with a dowel or taper pin. Bevel gear

sets consist of two gears of different pitch diameter that yield ratios greater than 1:1.

The teeth on bevel gears can be straight, spiral or bevel. In straight bevel gears teeth have

no helix angles. They either have equal size gears with 90 degrees shaft angle or a shaft angle

other than 90 degrees. Straight bevel angle can also be with one gear flat with a pitch angle of 90

degrees. In straight when each tooth engages it impacts the corresponding tooth and simply

curving the gear teeth can solve the problem. Spiral bevel gears have spiral angles, which gives

performance improvements. The contact between the teeth starts at one end of the gear and then

spreads across the whole tooth. In both the bevel types of gears the shaft must be perpendicular

to each other and must be in the same plane. The hypoid bevel gears can engage with the axes in

different planes. This is used in many car differentials. The ring gear of the differential and the

input pinion gear are both hypoid. This allows input pinion to be mounted lower than the axis of

the ring gear. Hypoid gears are stronger, operate more quietly and can be used for higher

reduction ratios. They also have sliding action along the teeth, potentially reducing efficiency.

A good example of bevel gears is seen as the main mechanism for a hand drill. As the

handle of the drill is turned in a vertical direction, the bevel gears change the rotation of the

chuck to a horizontal rotation. The bevel gears in a hand drill have the added advantage of

increasing the speed of rotation of the chuck and this makes it possible to drill a range of

materials.

The bevel gears find its application in locomotives, marine applications, automobiles,

printing presses, cooling towers, power plants, steel plants, defenses and also in railway track

inspection machine. They are important components on all current rotorcraft drive system.

Spiral bevel gears are important components on all current rotorcraft drive systems.

These components are required to operate at high speeds, high loads, and for an extremely large

number of load cycles. In this application, spiral bevel gears are used to redirect the shaft from

the horizontal gas turbine engine to the vertical rotor.

The shaft axes between the driver and driven gears are not intersecting but not parallel at

the same time. A very good example of a non-intersecting-non-parallel gear system is a worm

gear as in Figure 3.

Figure 3: Worm Gear

A worm gear is an inclined plane wrapped around a central axle. It is a gear with one or

more teeth in the form of screwed threads. Worm gears are made of two parts: the pinion and the

worm gear. The pinion has small number of teeth and they wrap around the pitch cylinder. The

worm gear has concave faces to fit the curvature of the worm in order to provide line of contact

instead of point of contact. They are cut helically for better mating Worm gears can provide a

high angular velocity between non-intersecting shafts at right angles.

They are capable of transmitting high tooth loads, the only disadvantage is the high

sliding velocities across the teeth. They provide ultimate power ratio. The efficiency of worm

gear depends on the lead angle, sliding speed, and lubricant, surface quality and installation

conditions. They offer smoothest, quietest form of gearing. They provide high-ratio speed

reduction in minimal spaces.

Worm gears are used when large gear reductions are required. Worm gear has a unique

property of easily turning the gear. The gear cannot turn the worm because the angle on the

worm is shallow and when the gear tries to spin the worm, the friction between the two holds the

worm in place.

Worm gears work under difficult conditions, presenting unique lubrication demands. The

types of oils most commonly used to lubricate worm gears are compounded mineral oils, EP

mineral gear oils and synthetics. Worm gear is always used as the input gear. For the operation of

worm gear, torque is applied to the input end of the worm shaft by a driven sprocket or electric

motor. The worm and the worm shaft are supported by anti-friction roller bearings. Because of

high friction worm gears are very inefficient. There is lot of friction between a worm gear and

the gear being driven by the worm gear. When used in high torque applications, the friction

causes the wear on the gear teeth and erosion of restraining surface.

There are three types of worm gears. Non throated- a helical gear with a straight worm.

Tooth contact is a single moving point on the worm drive. Single throated- has concave helical

teeth wrap around the worm. This leads to line contact. Double throated- called a cone or

hourglass. It has concave teeth both on the worm and helical gear. Worm gears are widely used in

packaging machinery, material handling, machine tools, indexing and food processing. They are

used widely in conveyor systems. They are also used in torsen differential, used on some high-

performance cars and trucks. They serve as speed reducers in many different industries.

d) Perpendicular Axes Shaft / Rotary to Translation

The shaft axes between driver and driven gear are perpendicular to each other and do not

intersect to each other. Example of gear is Rack and Pinion Gear.

Figure 4: Rack and Pinion Gear

Rack and pinion gears are used to convert rotation into linear motion. The speed with

which the rack moves as the pinion turns is determined by the diameter of the gear. The flat,

toothed part is the rack and the gear is the pinion. A piston coaxial to the rack provides hydraulic

assistance force, and an open centered rotary valve controls the assist level. A rack and pinion

gears system is composed of two gears. The normal round gear is the pinion gear and the straight

or flat gear is the rack. The rack has teeth cut into it and they mesh with the teeth of the pinion

gear. Rack and pinion gears provide a less mechanical advantage than other mechanisms, but

greater feedback and steering sensation.

Rack and pinion gears are available in three variations: straight teeth metric pitch, straight

teeth modular pitch, and helical teeth modular pitch. Rack and pinion gears variations are

available in different qualities: 9/10 milled teeth or milled and hardened quality, 7/8 precision cut

or precision cut and hardened quality, and 5/6 teeth hardened and ground quality. A rack and

pinion gear gives a positive motion especially compared to the friction drive of a wheel in

tarmac. In a rack and pinion railway, a central rack between the two rails engages with a pinion

on the engine allowing a train to be pulled up very steep slopes. A ring and pinion gear is the

differential's critical point of power transfer. A ring and pinion gear set is one of the simplest

performance modifications that can be performed on a vehicle. The most common reason to

change ring and pinion ratios from the original equipment is to retain power when bigger tires

are put on a vehicle. The torque can be increased by a ratio change when there is enhanced

pulling or higher take off power from a dead start. A well designed mechanism such as the rack

and pinion gears save effort and time.

Rack and pinions gears are commonly used in the steering system of cars to convert the

rotary motion of the steering wheel to the side to side motion in the wheels. The steering wheel

rotates a gear which engages the rack. As the gear turns, it slides the rack either to the right or

left, depending on which way the wheel is turned. Rack and pinion gears are also used in some

scales to turn the dial that displays a weight.

Pitch surface : The surface of the imaginary rolling cylinder (cone, etc.) that the toothed

Pitch circle: A right section of the pitch surface.

Addendum circle: A circle bounding the ends of the teeth, in a right section of the gear.

Root (or dedendum) circle: The circle bounding the spaces between the teeth, in a right

section of the gear.

Addendum: The radial distance between the pitch circle and the addendum circle.

Dedendum: The radial distance between the pitch circle and the root circle.

Clearance: The difference between the dedendum of one gear and the addendum of the

mating gear.

Flank of a tooth: The part of the tooth surface lying inside the pitch surface.

Circular thickness (also called the tooth thickness): The thickness of the tooth

measured on the pitch circle. It is the length of an arc and not the length of a straight line.

Tooth space: The distance between adjacent teeth measured on the pitch circle.

Backlash: The difference between the circle thickness of one gear and the tooth space of

the mating gear.

Circular pitch p: The width of a tooth and a space, measured on the pitch circle.

Diametral pitch P: The number of teeth of a gear per inch of its pitch diameter. A

toothed gear must have an integral number of teeth. The circular pitch, therefore, equals

the pitch circumference divided by the number of teeth. The diametral pitch is, by

definition, the number of teeth divided by the pitch diameter. That is,

D N

p and P Hence pP

N D

Where;

P = diametral pitch D = pitch diameter

That is, the product of the diametral pitch and the circular pitch equals .

Module m: Pitch diameter divided by number of teeth. The pitch diameter is usually

specified in inches or millimeters; in the former case the module is the inverse of

diametral pitch.

Pinion: The smaller of any pair of mating gears. The larger of the pair is called simply

the gear.

Velocity ratio: The ratio of the number of revolutions of the driving (or input) gear to the

number of revolutions of the driven (or output) gear, in a unit of time.

Pitch point: The point of tangency of the pitch circles of a pair of mating gears.

Pressure angle : The angle between the common normal at the point of tooth contact

and the common tangent to the pitch circles. It is also the angle between the line of action

and the common tangent.

1.4 Gear Ratio

Gear ratio n is defined as ratio of speed of driven gear with the speed of driver gear.

Consider a gear set below;

Driven gear

Driver gear

When two gear mate efficiently at point A, the velocity, v of both gear are the same.

Thus; v v1 v 2

with v wD

2

w1 D2

Then from w1 D1 w2 D2 will produce w2 D1

2 2

Where w1 = speed of driver gear

w2 = speed of driven gear

D1 = pitch diameter of driver gear

D2 = pitch diameter of driven gear

w2 D1 N 1 2

n

w1 D2 N 2 1

N2= number teeth of driven gear

1 = angular acceleration of driver gear

2 =angular acceleration of driven gear

Gear trains consist of two or more gears for the purpose of transmitting motion from one

axis to another.

Simple Gear Train is the most common of the gear train is the gear pair connecting

parallel shafts. The teeth of this type can be spur, helical or herringbone. The angular velocity is

simply the reverse of the tooth ratio. The main limitation of a simple gear train is that the

maximum speed change ratio is 10:1. For larger ratio, large sizes of gear trains are required; this

may result in an imbalance of strength and wear capacities of the end gears.

The sprockets and chain in the bicycle is an example of simple gear train. When the

paddle is pushed, the front gear is turned and that meshes with the links in the chain. The chain

moves and meshes with the links in the rear gear that is attached to the rear wheel. This enables

the bicycle to move.

Compound Gear Train is used for large velocities, compound arrangement is preferred.

Two keys are keyed to a single shaft. A double reduction train can be arranged to have its input

and output shafts in a line, by choosing equal center distance for gears and pinions.

Gear trains are used in representing the phases of moon on a watch or clock dial. It is also

used for driving a conventional two-disk lunar phase display off the day-of-the-week shaft of the

calendar.

When a gear train is complex (consist of many gear sets), it is important for the designer

to identify the rotation of the driver and the final driven gear respectively. However, there is a

simple formula to determine the rotation of each successive gear in a gear train.

Figure 8: Network gear short

A gear train may have several drivers and several driven gears. When gear A turns once

clockwise, gear B turns 4 times counter-clockwise and gear C turns once clockwise. Hence gear

B does not change the speed of C from what it would have been if geared directly to gear A, but

it changes its direction from counterclockwise to clockwise.

For an ODD number of mating gears, the rotation of Driven gear is the SAME as Driver Gear.

For an EVEN number of mating gears, the rotation of Driven gear is REVERSE of Driver

Gear.

Another classification of gear train is called Reverted Gear Train and Epicyclic Gear Train.

1.6 Gear Efficiency

Gear efficiency is defined as the ratio of Output Power from Driven Gear to the Input

Power from Driver Gear. Gear efficiency measures how efficient a gear system is to transmit

power. High value of gear efficiency reflects a more efficient gear system. Power loss in a gear

system may come from sources like friction, slip, backlash and so on.

From Power, P T , then

P2 T2 2 T2

Gear Efficiency, G ,1 2 n

P1 T11 T1

P2 = Output power from driven gear

n = Gear ratio

T1 nT2

If the G 1. 0 , thus the torque at driver gear T1 is;

nT2

T1

G ,1 2

In a gear train system, power loss normally happen in the bearing and gear due to friction

and loading imposed on it and also power loss in overcoming shaft inertia. Consider a gear train

consists of two sets of gear reducing arrangement. A motor is attached to the system with I m is

the moment of inertia of motor shaft, I T is moment of inertia of middle shaft and I G is the

moment of inertia of hoist which acts as the load of the system. Gear ratio and gear efficiency of

gear set 1-2 is n1 / 2 and G1 / 2 , between gear set 3-4 is n3 / 4 and G 3 / 4 respectively. Let;

Tm = Torque of motor

TG = Torque of hoist

T X = Friction torque at bearing X

Draw the free body diagram and using Newton Second Law, T I

Hoist

For (A)

Tm T1 I m m . (1)

For (B)

T2 T3 I T T .. (2)

Since there is gear mating between gear 1 and 2, thus, must include in the analysis its own gear

ratio and gear efficiency, and relate it to the inertia of middle shaft, I T .

T2

Previously, G1 / 2 n1 / 2 , thus it follows that

T1

T

T2 G1 / 2 1 ...

n1 / 2

. (3)

For (C)

T4 T X TG I G G ..... (4)

T3 G 3 / 4

also T4 ..(5)

n3 / 4

Using power, P T , power transfer to each gear component is;

Pm Tm m

b) Power at gear 1

P1 T1 m Tm I m m m

c) Power at gear 2

P2 P1 G1 / 2

d) Power at gear 3

P3 T3T T2 I T T T

e) Power at gear 4

P4 P3 G 3 / 4

f) Power at hoist

PG TG G T4 T X I G G G

g) Overall power transfer efficiency, O

P

O G

Pm

Thus if friction torque, T X effect is neglected,

P P P

This concludes that O G T G G1 / 2 G 3 / 4

Pm Pm PT

TG

Also; O n1 / 2 n3 / 4

Tm

Consider a simple gear system as Figure below. In order for the driver gear A to start

rotate, it must have enough torque to overcome its own inertia, I A first, and then another

additional torque to start accelerate the driven gear B. However, to relate torque with the gear

parameter, inertia term will be taken into account. For a simple gear system, the solution is

straightforward, but when it comes to complex gear train design, it is useful to simplify / group

together all inertia term in the system into a single compact inertia expression. The inertia term

of each moving gear parts will be referred to a single part in the system, normally at motor side.

IA

IB

Figure 12: Equivalent moment of inertia

TB I B B

B B

Refer B to gear A side. Use gear ratio, n A A

Thus, TB I B n A

2. Gear efficiency is related to power and thus torque of the mating gears, thus

P T n

G B B

PA TA

T n I I n n I n 2 A

TA B B B n B A B

G G G G

TTOTAL I A A T A

I Bn2

TTOTAL I A A, Or in general form, TTOTAL I equiv A (referred to motor side)

G

I Bn2

I

Thus equiv A I

G

The derivation of I equiv of this simple gear system can be extended to a double set of gear

reducing problem as in section 1.7. By neglecting the friction torque effect, T X , thus,

I ( n ) 2 I ( n ) 2 ( n3 / 4 ) 2

I equiv I m T 1 / 2 G 1 / 2

G ,1 / 2 ( G ,1 / 2 )( G ,3 / 4 )

1.9 Gear Train Applications (Solved Problem)

A motor is accelerating a 250 kg load with acceleration of 1.2 m/s 2 through a gear system as

shown below. The rope that carries the load are encircled on a hoist with diameter 1.2m.Gear for

the hoists shaft has 200 teeth, gear for motor shaft has 20 teeth. Gear efficiency is 90%. Mass

and radius of gyration of each shaft is as below;

Motor shaft 250 100

Hoist shaft 1100 500

Calculate the torque of the motor needed to bring up the load with acceleration 1.2 m/s 2. Neglect

friction effect.

Dia = 1.2 m

Hoist

Solution

Ttotal TM 1 TM 2

Where TM 1 = Torque to overcome equivalent inertia (refer to motor side).

TM 2 =Torque to accelerate the load through gear system

a) Consider for TM 1

IGn2

From I equiv I M

G

Thus I M = Motor shaft inertia

I M mr 2 250 0.1 2.5 kgm2

2

I G 1100 0.5 275 kgm2

2

N1 20

Gear ratio, n 0.1

N 2 200

275 0.1 2

Put into I equiv 2.5 5.55 kgm2

0 .9

Acceleration of hoist, aG G rG

1 .2

Thus G 2 rad/s

0.6

G 2

From the gear ratio, angular acceleration of motor, m 20 rad/s

n 0.1

Now torque due to equivalent inertia, TM 1 I equiv m

TM 1 5.55(20) 111 .1 Nm.

b) Consider for TM 2

F 250 g 250a

F 250 g a 250 9.81 1.2

F 2752.5 N

TG Fr 2752.5 0.6 1651.5 Nm

But due to gear efficiency (since the hoist shaft is connected to the gear system), torque to

accelerate the load,

TG n1 / 2 1651.5 0.1

TM 2 183.5 Nm

G ,1 / 2 0.9

Ttotal TM 1 TM 2

Ttotal 111 .1 183.5

Ttotal 294.6 Nm

Figure 12 below shows a motor used to accelerate a hoist through two sets of gear reducing

system. Moment of inertia for the motor shaft is 5 kgm 2, middle shaft is 40 kgm2 and hoist shaft

is 500 kgm2. Gear ratio for gear set 1 and 2 is 1/3.5 while for gear set 3 and 4 is 1/ 4.5. Gear

efficiency for both gear set is 90%. By neglecting the friction effect, find the total torque

required by the motor to accelerate the load of 6 tones at acceleration of 0.4 m/s2.

Hoist

Diameter = 1.2 m m

Solution

Given that I M =5 kgm2, I T 40 kgm2, I G =500 kgm2, n1 / 2 1 n3 / 4 1 G 0.9

3.5 , 4 .5 ,

Neglect friction effect.

Ttotal TM 1 TM 2

Where TM 1 = Torque to overcome equivalent inertia (refer to motor side).

TM 2 =Torque to accelerate the load through gear system

a) Consider for TM 1

Recall that TM 1 I equiv m , but for two set of gear system with friction effect is neglected,

I ( n ) 2 I ( n ) 2 ( n3 / 4 ) 2

I equiv I m T 1 / 2 G 1 / 2

G ,1 / 2 ( G ,1 / 2 )( G ,3 / 4 )

40( 1 ) 2 500( 1 ) 2 ( 1 ) 2

I equiv 5 3.5 3.5 4.5 11.116 Nm

0.9 (0.9)(0.9)

a G 0 .4

G

rG 0 .6

G 0.6667 rad/s2

G G T 1 1 1

From gear ratio,

m T m 4.5 3.5 15.75

Thus, m 15.75 G

m 15.75 0.6667 10.5 rad/s2

Thus, Tm1 I equiv m 11.116 10.5

TM 1 116 .72 Nm.

From Newton 2nd Law, F ma

Hoist

4500 F1 4500a

a F1 4500 g a 4500 9.41 42345 N

a F1 F2 F2 6000 g 6000a

F2 6000 a g 61260 N

6000 kg

4500 kg Resultant torque at hoist

FR F2 F1 18.915 kN

4500g

TG FR rG 18.915 0.6 11.349 kN

Figure 16: Loading FBD

TG n1 / 2 n3 / 4

TM 2

G ,1 / 2 G ,3 / 4

TM 2

11.349 1 3.5 14.5 889.6 Nm

0.9 0.9

Thus total torque at motor required is

Ttotal TM 1 TM 2

Ttotal 116 .72 889.6

Ttotal 1006.32 Nm.

Hoist

Dia = 0.9 m

Figure 14 above shows a motor accelerating a hoist with diameter 0.9m, through two sets

of gear reducing system. Gear ratio for gear 1 and 2 is 1/3.5 while for gear 3 and 4 is 1/ 4.5.

Moment of inertia for the motor shaft is 5 kgm 2, middle shaft is 20 kgm2 and hoist shaft is 100

kgm2. The rope that is encircled on the hoist must be capable to lift up a load of 5 tones that is

sliding on a 1 in 50 slope. Friction on the slope is 1000N and the total torque at motor required to

raise the load is 1500N. Use gear efficiency of 90% for both gear set. If there is friction torque

effect on the middle shaft, T X 150 Nm and at hoist shaft is T y 800 Nm. Calculate the

acceleration of the load at the above condition.

Solution

1 1 1

n0 n1 / 2 n3 / 4

3.5 4.5 15.75

Total torque required by motor to raise load

Ttotal TM 1 TM 2 TM 3

Where TM 1 = Torque to overcome equivalent inertia (refer to motor side).

TM 2 =Torque to accelerate the load through gear system

TM 3 Total torque to overcome friction effect.

a) Consider for TM 1

Previously, TM 1 I equiv m

For double set of gear reducing system,

I ( n ) 2 I ( n ) 2 ( n3 / 4 ) 2

I equiv I m T 1 / 2 G 1 / 2

G ,1 / 2 ( G ,1 / 2 )( G ,3 / 4 )

20( 1 ) 2 100( 1 ) 2 ( 1 ) 2

I equiv 5 3 .5 3 .5 4.5 7.312 kgm2

0 .9 (0.9)(0.9)

a a

From a r , thus, G

rG 0.45

G 1 a

Also from gear ratio, , thus, m 15.75 G 15.75 35a

m 15.75 0.45

Thus TM 1 7.312 35a 255.92a Nm

From F ma,

F1 FR mg sin ma

F1

F1 5000a 1000 5000 9.81 1 50

FR Mg sin F1 5000a 9.81 N

5000g Thus, torque to accelerate hoist

TG F1 r 5000a 9.81 0.45

TG 2250a 891.45 Nm

F1

Use gear efficiency to relate TG with TM 2

TG n1 / 2 n3 / 4

r TM 2

G ,1 / 2 G ,3 / 4

hoist

TM 2 176.4a 69.876 Nm

Figure 18: inclined loading

c) Consider for TM 3

T X n1 / 2 T n n

TM 3 Y 1/ 2 3 / 4

G ,1 / 2 G ,1 / 2 G ,3 / 4

1 1 1

150 800

3.5 3.5 4.5 Nm

TM 3 2

110 .33

0. 9 0.9

From Ttotal TM 1 TM 2 TM 3

1500 255.92a 176.4a 69.876 110 .33

Thus a 3.1 m/s2

Wheel

v

wr

R

D/2

FT

Surface

Figure 19: Vehicle dynamics

For a moving vehicle as in Figure 16, some of the forces acting on it are;

Friction due to the vehicles body (aerodynamic friction), R

Forces due to friction from the engine to the wheel such as friction in bearing, shaft,

clutch and gears, R INT .

Forces due the acceleration of the vehicle, which is called tractive force, FT considering

no slip between the wheel and the road surface.

We can estimate the speed of the moving vehicle by considering the speed of the wheel itself.

D

Vehicle speed, v wr

2

Total mass for a two wheeled motorcycle including passenger is 190 kg. The engine produce

torque of 25 Nm at speed of 1800 RPM. Moment of inertia for each wheel is 1.4 kgm 2 while for

other rotating parts in the engine is considered as 0.15 kgm 2. The wheels effective diameter is

610 mm. If the motorcycle is moving on a road with a speed 23 km/hr at second gear, find

(i) Gear ratio for the second gear

(ii) Acceleration at speed 23 km/hr

Assume wind friction is 200 N and gear efficiency is 90%.

Solution

Given that;

m =190 kg, Ttotal =25 Nm at N =1800 PM, I R =1.4 kgm2, I int =0.15 kgm2, D =610 mm,

Iint IR

Engine

Wheel

Gear system

Figure 20: Free body diagram

2nd Step

Total torque at engine, Ttotal

Ttotal TM 1 TM 2

Where TM 1 = Torque due to equivalent inertia of rotating parts in the engine.(referred to engine

side).

TM 2 = Torque to accelerate the wheel.

3rd Step

Convert all measurement to SI standard.

2N 2 1800

Engine speed, wint 188.5 rad/s

60 60

231000

Wheel speed, v 23km / hr 6.3889 m/s

3600

In order to find gear ratio for second gear,

w

n R

6.3889 0.305 1 (Where wR v D 2 )

wint 188.5 9

Equivalent moment of inertia is

I n2

I equiv I int R

G

2 1.4 19

2

2

I equiv 0.15 0.1884 kgm

0.9

In order to find int , use R and gear ratio

R a

D 2

R

a

int 0.305 29.508a

n 1

9

rad/s2

TM 1 5.559a Nm.

a

R

m=190 kg

FT

From F ma,

FT R ma

FT 200 190a

TR FT r 200 190a 0.305

TR 61 57.95a

TM 2

TR n 61 57.95a 9

1

G 0.9

TM 2 (7.35 7.154a ) Nm

Ttotal 5.559a 7.35 7.154a

By solving the equation for the total torque above, thus

a 1.374 m/s2

PROBLEMS-GEAR SYSTEM

1. The axes of two parallel shafts are to be 600mm apart approximately, and have to be

connected by spur gear, having a circular pitch of 30 mm. If gear A rotate at 200 rpm and

gear B rotate at 600 rpm, find the number of teeth on each gear.

2. Figure below showed a motor used to accelerate a hoist through a set of gear system.

Gear for the hoists shaft has 200 teeth and gear for motor shaft has 20 teeth. Gear

efficiency is 90 %. Moment of inertia for the motor shaft is 2.5 kgm and hoist shaft is

275 kgm. The rope that carries a 250 kg load are encircle on hoist with diameter 1.2 m.

By neglecting the friction, find

a) gear ratio,

b) equivalent moment inertia for a gear system,

c) the total torque required by the motor to accelerate the load at acceleration of 1.0

m/s.

Set of gear

Motor

Hoist

Rope

Load

3 The diagram above shows a gear train composed of three gears. Gear A revolves at 60

revs/min in a clockwise direction.

a) What is the output in revolutions per minute at Gear C?

b) In what direction does Gear C revolve ?

[ 120 rpm, clockwise ]

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