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1.1 Introduction to Gear System 1

1.2 Types of Gear system 1
1.3 Relationship between pitch diameter and pitch circle 7
1.4 Gear Ratio 9
1.5 Gear Train 11
1.6 Gear Efficiency 12
1.7 Power Transmission in a Gear Train System 12
1.8 Equivalent Moment of Inertia 14
1.9 Gear Train Applications 15
1.10 Vehicle Dynamics 22


1.1 Gear System

Gears are used for two basic purposes; increase or decrease of rotation speed and increase
or decrease of power or torque. Torque is a measure of a force to produce torsion and rotation
about an axis. To increase speed and reduce torque a large drive gear is coupled to a smaller
driven gear. To reduce speed and increase torque a small Lego gear turning a larger gear is used.
They are also used for enhancement for positioning systems.
In gear system, gear that functions as mover mentioned as driver gear, while gear moved
name as driven gear.

1.2 Types of Gear System

Gears are categorized into several types. They are used in a wide era of industries
including automotive, milling, paper industry etc. According to different applications in
industries and different materials used they are categorized separately. Different types of gears
are also custom design and are fabricated by gear manufacturing services as par the

Gears Types

Angular Bevel Gears Spiral Bevel Gears

Bevel Gears Spur Gears
Crown Wheel Straight Bevel Gears
Crown Wheel and Pinion Support Rollers
Differential Gears Tacho Drives
Fine Pitch Gears Thrust Rollers
Girth Gears Idler Gear
Hardened and Ground Gears Gear Trains
Helical Bevel Gears Planetary Gear
Helical Gears Ground Gear
Herringbone Gears Face Gear
Master Gear Internal Gears
Mill Headers Cycloidal Gears
Miter Gears External Gear
Non-Involute Gears Winch Gears
Pinion Gears Sprockets
Rack Gears Worm Gears

Ring Gear and Pinion Involute Gears

Table 1

Gear can also be classified according to the relative position of the axes of mating gears.

Intersecting Non-Intersecting Rotary to

Parallel Axes
Axes (Non-parallel) Axes Translation
Spur Gears Bevel gears Hypoid gears Rack and Pinion
Helical Gears Straight bevel Crossed helical gears -
Herring bone or
double helical Zerol bevel Worm gears -
- Spiral bevel - -

Table 2

a) Parallel Axes Shaft

The shaft axes between driver and driven gear is parallel to each other. Example of this
type of gear is Spur Gear.

Figure 1: Spur Gear

Spur gears connect parallel shafts, have involute teeth that are parallel to the shaft and
can have internal or external teeth. They cause no external thrust between gears. They are
inexpensive to manufacture. They give lower but satisfactory performance. They are used when
shaft rotates in the same plane.

The main features of spur gears are dedendum, addendum, flank, and fillet. Dedendum
cylinder is a root from where teeth extend, it extends to the tip called the addendum circle. Flank
or the face contacts the meshing gear, the most useful feature if the spur gears. The fillet in the
root region is kinetically irrelevant.
The speed and change of the force depends on the gear ratio, the ratio of number of teeth
on the gears that are to be meshed. One gear among the two is on the input axle; the axle of the
motor and the other gear of the pair is on the output axle, the axle of the wheel.

They have higher contact ratio that makes them smooth and quiet in operation. They are
available for corrosion resistant operation. They are among the most cost-effective type of
gearing. They are also used to create large gear reductions.

They are available in plastic, non-metallic, brass, steel and cast iron and are manufactured
in a variety of styles. They are made with many different properties. Factors like design life,
power transmission requirements, noise and heat generation, and presence of corrosive elements
contribute to the optimization of the gear material.

Generally used in simple machines like washing machines, clothes dryer or power
winches. They are not used in automobiles because they produce sound when the teeth of both
the gears collide with each other. It also increases stress on the gear teeth. They are also used in
construction equipment, machine tools, indexing equipment, multi spindle drives, roller feeds,
and conveyors.

b) Intersecting Axes Shaft

The shaft axes between driver and driven gear is perpendicular to each other. Example of
gear is bevel gears.

Figure 2: bevel gear

Figure 2: Bevel Gear

They connect intersecting axes and come in several types. The pitch surface of bevel
gears is a cone. They are useful when the direction of a shaft's rotation needs to be changed.
Using gears of differing numbers of teeth can change the speed of rotation. They are usually
mounted on shafts that are 90 degrees apart, but can be designed to work at other angles as well.

These gears permit minor adjustment during assembly and allow for some displacement
due to deflection under operating loads without concentrating the load on the end of the tooth.
For reliable performance, Gears must be pinned to shaft with a dowel or taper pin. Bevel gear
sets consist of two gears of different pitch diameter that yield ratios greater than 1:1.

The teeth on bevel gears can be straight, spiral or bevel. In straight bevel gears teeth have
no helix angles. They either have equal size gears with 90 degrees shaft angle or a shaft angle
other than 90 degrees. Straight bevel angle can also be with one gear flat with a pitch angle of 90
degrees. In straight when each tooth engages it impacts the corresponding tooth and simply
curving the gear teeth can solve the problem. Spiral bevel gears have spiral angles, which gives
performance improvements. The contact between the teeth starts at one end of the gear and then
spreads across the whole tooth. In both the bevel types of gears the shaft must be perpendicular
to each other and must be in the same plane. The hypoid bevel gears can engage with the axes in
different planes. This is used in many car differentials. The ring gear of the differential and the
input pinion gear are both hypoid. This allows input pinion to be mounted lower than the axis of
the ring gear. Hypoid gears are stronger, operate more quietly and can be used for higher
reduction ratios. They also have sliding action along the teeth, potentially reducing efficiency.

A good example of bevel gears is seen as the main mechanism for a hand drill. As the
handle of the drill is turned in a vertical direction, the bevel gears change the rotation of the
chuck to a horizontal rotation. The bevel gears in a hand drill have the added advantage of
increasing the speed of rotation of the chuck and this makes it possible to drill a range of

The bevel gears find its application in locomotives, marine applications, automobiles,
printing presses, cooling towers, power plants, steel plants, defenses and also in railway track
inspection machine. They are important components on all current rotorcraft drive system.

Spiral bevel gears are important components on all current rotorcraft drive systems.
These components are required to operate at high speeds, high loads, and for an extremely large
number of load cycles. In this application, spiral bevel gears are used to redirect the shaft from
the horizontal gas turbine engine to the vertical rotor.

c) Non-Intersecting (Non-parallel) Axes Shaft

The shaft axes between the driver and driven gears are not intersecting but not parallel at
the same time. A very good example of a non-intersecting-non-parallel gear system is a worm
gear as in Figure 3.
Figure 3: Worm Gear

A worm gear is an inclined plane wrapped around a central axle. It is a gear with one or
more teeth in the form of screwed threads. Worm gears are made of two parts: the pinion and the
worm gear. The pinion has small number of teeth and they wrap around the pitch cylinder. The
worm gear has concave faces to fit the curvature of the worm in order to provide line of contact
instead of point of contact. They are cut helically for better mating Worm gears can provide a
high angular velocity between non-intersecting shafts at right angles.

They are capable of transmitting high tooth loads, the only disadvantage is the high
sliding velocities across the teeth. They provide ultimate power ratio. The efficiency of worm
gear depends on the lead angle, sliding speed, and lubricant, surface quality and installation
conditions. They offer smoothest, quietest form of gearing. They provide high-ratio speed
reduction in minimal spaces.

Worm gears are used when large gear reductions are required. Worm gear has a unique
property of easily turning the gear. The gear cannot turn the worm because the angle on the
worm is shallow and when the gear tries to spin the worm, the friction between the two holds the
worm in place.

Worm gears work under difficult conditions, presenting unique lubrication demands. The
types of oils most commonly used to lubricate worm gears are compounded mineral oils, EP
mineral gear oils and synthetics. Worm gear is always used as the input gear. For the operation of
worm gear, torque is applied to the input end of the worm shaft by a driven sprocket or electric
motor. The worm and the worm shaft are supported by anti-friction roller bearings. Because of
high friction worm gears are very inefficient. There is lot of friction between a worm gear and
the gear being driven by the worm gear. When used in high torque applications, the friction
causes the wear on the gear teeth and erosion of restraining surface.

There are three types of worm gears. Non throated- a helical gear with a straight worm.
Tooth contact is a single moving point on the worm drive. Single throated- has concave helical
teeth wrap around the worm. This leads to line contact. Double throated- called a cone or
hourglass. It has concave teeth both on the worm and helical gear. Worm gears are widely used in
packaging machinery, material handling, machine tools, indexing and food processing. They are
used widely in conveyor systems. They are also used in torsen differential, used on some high-
performance cars and trucks. They serve as speed reducers in many different industries.
d) Perpendicular Axes Shaft / Rotary to Translation

The shaft axes between driver and driven gear are perpendicular to each other and do not
intersect to each other. Example of gear is Rack and Pinion Gear.
Figure 4: Rack and Pinion Gear

Rack and pinion gears are used to convert rotation into linear motion. The speed with
which the rack moves as the pinion turns is determined by the diameter of the gear. The flat,
toothed part is the rack and the gear is the pinion. A piston coaxial to the rack provides hydraulic
assistance force, and an open centered rotary valve controls the assist level. A rack and pinion
gears system is composed of two gears. The normal round gear is the pinion gear and the straight
or flat gear is the rack. The rack has teeth cut into it and they mesh with the teeth of the pinion
gear. Rack and pinion gears provide a less mechanical advantage than other mechanisms, but
greater feedback and steering sensation.

Rack and pinion gears are available in three variations: straight teeth metric pitch, straight
teeth modular pitch, and helical teeth modular pitch. Rack and pinion gears variations are
available in different qualities: 9/10 milled teeth or milled and hardened quality, 7/8 precision cut
or precision cut and hardened quality, and 5/6 teeth hardened and ground quality. A rack and
pinion gear gives a positive motion especially compared to the friction drive of a wheel in
tarmac. In a rack and pinion railway, a central rack between the two rails engages with a pinion
on the engine allowing a train to be pulled up very steep slopes. A ring and pinion gear is the
differential's critical point of power transfer. A ring and pinion gear set is one of the simplest
performance modifications that can be performed on a vehicle. The most common reason to
change ring and pinion ratios from the original equipment is to retain power when bigger tires
are put on a vehicle. The torque can be increased by a ratio change when there is enhanced
pulling or higher take off power from a dead start. A well designed mechanism such as the rack
and pinion gears save effort and time.

Rack and pinions gears are commonly used in the steering system of cars to convert the
rotary motion of the steering wheel to the side to side motion in the wheels. The steering wheel
rotates a gear which engages the rack. As the gear turns, it slides the rack either to the right or
left, depending on which way the wheel is turned. Rack and pinion gears are also used in some
scales to turn the dial that displays a weight.

1.3 Relationship between Pitch Diameter and Pitch Circle

Figure 5: Gear terminology

Some of the terminology of gear system includes;

Pitch surface : The surface of the imaginary rolling cylinder (cone, etc.) that the toothed

gear may be considered to replace.

Pitch circle: A right section of the pitch surface.
Addendum circle: A circle bounding the ends of the teeth, in a right section of the gear.
Root (or dedendum) circle: The circle bounding the spaces between the teeth, in a right
section of the gear.
Addendum: The radial distance between the pitch circle and the addendum circle.
Dedendum: The radial distance between the pitch circle and the root circle.
Clearance: The difference between the dedendum of one gear and the addendum of the
mating gear.
Flank of a tooth: The part of the tooth surface lying inside the pitch surface.
Circular thickness (also called the tooth thickness): The thickness of the tooth
measured on the pitch circle. It is the length of an arc and not the length of a straight line.
Tooth space: The distance between adjacent teeth measured on the pitch circle.
Backlash: The difference between the circle thickness of one gear and the tooth space of
the mating gear.
Circular pitch p: The width of a tooth and a space, measured on the pitch circle.
Diametral pitch P: The number of teeth of a gear per inch of its pitch diameter. A
toothed gear must have an integral number of teeth. The circular pitch, therefore, equals
the pitch circumference divided by the number of teeth. The diametral pitch is, by
definition, the number of teeth divided by the pitch diameter. That is,

p and P Hence pP


p = circular pitch N = number of teeth

P = diametral pitch D = pitch diameter

That is, the product of the diametral pitch and the circular pitch equals .

Module m: Pitch diameter divided by number of teeth. The pitch diameter is usually
specified in inches or millimeters; in the former case the module is the inverse of
diametral pitch.
Pinion: The smaller of any pair of mating gears. The larger of the pair is called simply
the gear.
Velocity ratio: The ratio of the number of revolutions of the driving (or input) gear to the
number of revolutions of the driven (or output) gear, in a unit of time.
Pitch point: The point of tangency of the pitch circles of a pair of mating gears.
Pressure angle : The angle between the common normal at the point of tooth contact
and the common tangent to the pitch circles. It is also the angle between the line of action
and the common tangent.
1.4 Gear Ratio
Gear ratio n is defined as ratio of speed of driven gear with the speed of driver gear.
Consider a gear set below;
Driven gear
Driver gear

Figure 6: Gear set

When two gear mate efficiently at point A, the velocity, v of both gear are the same.

Thus; v v1 v 2

with v wD

w1 D2
Then from w1 D1 w2 D2 will produce w2 D1
2 2
Where w1 = speed of driver gear
w2 = speed of driven gear
D1 = pitch diameter of driver gear
D2 = pitch diameter of driven gear

Hence, gear ratio, n;

w2 D1 N 1 2
w1 D2 N 2 1

Where N1= number teeth of driver gear

N2= number teeth of driven gear
1 = angular acceleration of driver gear
2 =angular acceleration of driven gear

1.5 Gear Train

Gear trains consist of two or more gears for the purpose of transmitting motion from one
axis to another.

Simple Gear Train is the most common of the gear train is the gear pair connecting
parallel shafts. The teeth of this type can be spur, helical or herringbone. The angular velocity is
simply the reverse of the tooth ratio. The main limitation of a simple gear train is that the
maximum speed change ratio is 10:1. For larger ratio, large sizes of gear trains are required; this
may result in an imbalance of strength and wear capacities of the end gears.

The sprockets and chain in the bicycle is an example of simple gear train. When the
paddle is pushed, the front gear is turned and that meshes with the links in the chain. The chain
moves and meshes with the links in the rear gear that is attached to the rear wheel. This enables
the bicycle to move.

Compound Gear Train is used for large velocities, compound arrangement is preferred.
Two keys are keyed to a single shaft. A double reduction train can be arranged to have its input
and output shafts in a line, by choosing equal center distance for gears and pinions.

Gear trains are used in representing the phases of moon on a watch or clock dial. It is also
used for driving a conventional two-disk lunar phase display off the day-of-the-week shaft of the

Figure 7 (a) Simple gear train (b) Compound gear train

When a gear train is complex (consist of many gear sets), it is important for the designer
to identify the rotation of the driver and the final driven gear respectively. However, there is a
simple formula to determine the rotation of each successive gear in a gear train.
Figure 8: Network gear short

A gear train may have several drivers and several driven gears. When gear A turns once
clockwise, gear B turns 4 times counter-clockwise and gear C turns once clockwise. Hence gear
B does not change the speed of C from what it would have been if geared directly to gear A, but
it changes its direction from counterclockwise to clockwise.

Figure 9: Odd number of mating gear

For an ODD number of mating gears, the rotation of Driven gear is the SAME as Driver Gear.

Figure 10: Even number of mating gear

For an EVEN number of mating gears, the rotation of Driven gear is REVERSE of Driver

Another classification of gear train is called Reverted Gear Train and Epicyclic Gear Train.
1.6 Gear Efficiency

Gear efficiency is defined as the ratio of Output Power from Driven Gear to the Input
Power from Driver Gear. Gear efficiency measures how efficient a gear system is to transmit
power. High value of gear efficiency reflects a more efficient gear system. Power loss in a gear
system may come from sources like friction, slip, backlash and so on.
From Power, P T , then

P2 T2 2 T2
Gear Efficiency, G ,1 2 n
P1 T11 T1

Where P1 = Input power from driver gear

P2 = Output power from driven gear
n = Gear ratio

If the G 1.0 , thus the torque at driver gear T1 is;

T1 nT2

If the G 1. 0 , thus the torque at driver gear T1 is;
G ,1 2

1.7 Power Transmission in a Gear Train System

In a gear train system, power loss normally happen in the bearing and gear due to friction
and loading imposed on it and also power loss in overcoming shaft inertia. Consider a gear train
consists of two sets of gear reducing arrangement. A motor is attached to the system with I m is
the moment of inertia of motor shaft, I T is moment of inertia of middle shaft and I G is the
moment of inertia of hoist which acts as the load of the system. Gear ratio and gear efficiency of
gear set 1-2 is n1 / 2 and G1 / 2 , between gear set 3-4 is n3 / 4 and G 3 / 4 respectively. Let;

Tm = Torque of motor
TG = Torque of hoist
T X = Friction torque at bearing X
Draw the free body diagram and using Newton Second Law, T I

Figure 11: Free body diagram

Assume clockwise direction as positive value.

For (A)
Tm T1 I m m . (1)

For (B)
T2 T3 I T T .. (2)

Since there is gear mating between gear 1 and 2, thus, must include in the analysis its own gear
ratio and gear efficiency, and relate it to the inertia of middle shaft, I T .
Previously, G1 / 2 n1 / 2 , thus it follows that
T2 G1 / 2 1 ...
n1 / 2
. (3)

For (C)
T4 T X TG I G G ..... (4)
T3 G 3 / 4
also T4 ..(5)
n3 / 4
Using power, P T , power transfer to each gear component is;

a) Power transfer by the motor

Pm Tm m
b) Power at gear 1
P1 T1 m Tm I m m m
c) Power at gear 2
P2 P1 G1 / 2
d) Power at gear 3
P3 T3T T2 I T T T
e) Power at gear 4
P4 P3 G 3 / 4
f) Power at hoist
g) Overall power transfer efficiency, O
Thus if friction torque, T X effect is neglected,
This concludes that O G T G G1 / 2 G 3 / 4
Pm Pm PT
Also; O n1 / 2 n3 / 4

1.8 Equivalent Moment of Inertia, I equiv

Consider a simple gear system as Figure below. In order for the driver gear A to start
rotate, it must have enough torque to overcome its own inertia, I A first, and then another
additional torque to start accelerate the driven gear B. However, to relate torque with the gear
parameter, inertia term will be taken into account. For a simple gear system, the solution is
straightforward, but when it comes to complex gear train design, it is useful to simplify / group
together all inertia term in the system into a single compact inertia expression. The inertia term
of each moving gear parts will be referred to a single part in the system, normally at motor side.
Figure 12: Equivalent moment of inertia

1. Torque at B to overcome I B Driven gear Driver gear

Refer B to gear A side. Use gear ratio, n A A
Thus, TB I B n A

2. Gear efficiency is related to power and thus torque of the mating gears, thus
P T n

3. Therefore, torque at A, to accelerate I B

T n I I n n I n 2 A
TA B B B n B A B

4. Therefore total torque at A to accelerate I A and I B is

I Bn2
TTOTAL I A A, Or in general form, TTOTAL I equiv A (referred to motor side)
I Bn2
Thus equiv A I

The derivation of I equiv of this simple gear system can be extended to a double set of gear
reducing problem as in section 1.7. By neglecting the friction torque effect, T X , thus,
I ( n ) 2 I ( n ) 2 ( n3 / 4 ) 2
I equiv I m T 1 / 2 G 1 / 2
G ,1 / 2 ( G ,1 / 2 )( G ,3 / 4 )
1.9 Gear Train Applications (Solved Problem)

Example 1(Taken from Roslan, Che Abas, Yunus (2001), UTM)

A motor is accelerating a 250 kg load with acceleration of 1.2 m/s 2 through a gear system as
shown below. The rope that carries the load are encircled on a hoist with diameter 1.2m.Gear for
the hoists shaft has 200 teeth, gear for motor shaft has 20 teeth. Gear efficiency is 90%. Mass
and radius of gyration of each shaft is as below;

Mass (kg) Radius of gyration (mm)

Motor shaft 250 100
Hoist shaft 1100 500

Calculate the torque of the motor needed to bring up the load with acceleration 1.2 m/s 2. Neglect
friction effect.
Dia = 1.2 m


Figure 13: Gear system attached to hoist


Total torque at motor to bring up load

Ttotal TM 1 TM 2
Where TM 1 = Torque to overcome equivalent inertia (refer to motor side).
TM 2 =Torque to accelerate the load through gear system

a) Consider for TM 1
From I equiv I M
Thus I M = Motor shaft inertia
I M mr 2 250 0.1 2.5 kgm2

I G = Hoist shaft inertia

I G 1100 0.5 275 kgm2
N1 20
Gear ratio, n 0.1
N 2 200
275 0.1 2
Put into I equiv 2.5 5.55 kgm2
0 .9
Acceleration of hoist, aG G rG
1 .2
Thus G 2 rad/s
G 2
From the gear ratio, angular acceleration of motor, m 20 rad/s
n 0.1
Now torque due to equivalent inertia, TM 1 I equiv m
TM 1 5.55(20) 111 .1 Nm.

b) Consider for TM 2

From Newton 2nd Law, F ma

F 250 g 250a
F 250 g a 250 9.81 1.2
F 2752.5 N

Then, torque at hoist

TG Fr 2752.5 0.6 1651.5 Nm

But due to gear efficiency (since the hoist shaft is connected to the gear system), torque to
accelerate the load,
TG n1 / 2 1651.5 0.1
TM 2 183.5 Nm
G ,1 / 2 0.9

Then total torque referred to motor side is;

Ttotal TM 1 TM 2
Ttotal 111 .1 183.5
Ttotal 294.6 Nm

Figure 14: Free body diagram of hoist and load

Example 2(Taken from Roslan, Che Abas, Yunus, (2001), UTM)

Figure 12 below shows a motor used to accelerate a hoist through two sets of gear reducing
system. Moment of inertia for the motor shaft is 5 kgm 2, middle shaft is 40 kgm2 and hoist shaft
is 500 kgm2. Gear ratio for gear set 1 and 2 is 1/3.5 while for gear set 3 and 4 is 1/ 4.5. Gear
efficiency for both gear set is 90%. By neglecting the friction effect, find the total torque
required by the motor to accelerate the load of 6 tones at acceleration of 0.4 m/s2.


Diameter = 1.2 m m

Figure 15: Loading system on gear

Given that I M =5 kgm2, I T 40 kgm2, I G =500 kgm2, n1 / 2 1 n3 / 4 1 G 0.9
3.5 , 4 .5 ,
Neglect friction effect.

Total torque required for the motor is

Ttotal TM 1 TM 2
Where TM 1 = Torque to overcome equivalent inertia (refer to motor side).
TM 2 =Torque to accelerate the load through gear system

a) Consider for TM 1
Recall that TM 1 I equiv m , but for two set of gear system with friction effect is neglected,
I ( n ) 2 I ( n ) 2 ( n3 / 4 ) 2
I equiv I m T 1 / 2 G 1 / 2
G ,1 / 2 ( G ,1 / 2 )( G ,3 / 4 )
40( 1 ) 2 500( 1 ) 2 ( 1 ) 2
I equiv 5 3.5 3.5 4.5 11.116 Nm
0.9 (0.9)(0.9)

From question, given that, aG 0.4 m/s2, thus;

a G 0 .4
rG 0 .6
G 0.6667 rad/s2
G G T 1 1 1
From gear ratio,
m T m 4.5 3.5 15.75
Thus, m 15.75 G
m 15.75 0.6667 10.5 rad/s2
Thus, Tm1 I equiv m 11.116 10.5
TM 1 116 .72 Nm.

b) Consider for TM 2 in Figure 13;

From Newton 2nd Law, F ma
4500 F1 4500a
a F1 4500 g a 4500 9.41 42345 N
a F1 F2 F2 6000 g 6000a

F2 6000 a g 61260 N
6000 kg
4500 kg Resultant torque at hoist
FR F2 F1 18.915 kN

6000g Thus torque at hoist

TG FR rG 18.915 0.6 11.349 kN
Figure 16: Loading FBD

It is known that TG referred to motor side will be denoted as TM 2 and is related by

TG n1 / 2 n3 / 4
TM 2
G ,1 / 2 G ,3 / 4

TM 2
11.349 1 3.5 14.5 889.6 Nm
0.9 0.9
Thus total torque at motor required is
Ttotal TM 1 TM 2
Ttotal 116 .72 889.6
Ttotal 1006.32 Nm.

Example 3(Taken from Roslan, Che Abas, Yunus, (2001), UTM)

Dia = 0.9 m

Figure 17: Gear with inclined loading

Figure 14 above shows a motor accelerating a hoist with diameter 0.9m, through two sets
of gear reducing system. Gear ratio for gear 1 and 2 is 1/3.5 while for gear 3 and 4 is 1/ 4.5.
Moment of inertia for the motor shaft is 5 kgm 2, middle shaft is 20 kgm2 and hoist shaft is 100
kgm2. The rope that is encircled on the hoist must be capable to lift up a load of 5 tones that is
sliding on a 1 in 50 slope. Friction on the slope is 1000N and the total torque at motor required to
raise the load is 1500N. Use gear efficiency of 90% for both gear set. If there is friction torque
effect on the middle shaft, T X 150 Nm and at hoist shaft is T y 800 Nm. Calculate the
acceleration of the load at the above condition.


For the overall gear ratio,

1 1 1
n0 n1 / 2 n3 / 4
3.5 4.5 15.75
Total torque required by motor to raise load
Ttotal TM 1 TM 2 TM 3
Where TM 1 = Torque to overcome equivalent inertia (refer to motor side).
TM 2 =Torque to accelerate the load through gear system
TM 3 Total torque to overcome friction effect.

a) Consider for TM 1
Previously, TM 1 I equiv m
For double set of gear reducing system,
I ( n ) 2 I ( n ) 2 ( n3 / 4 ) 2
I equiv I m T 1 / 2 G 1 / 2
G ,1 / 2 ( G ,1 / 2 )( G ,3 / 4 )
20( 1 ) 2 100( 1 ) 2 ( 1 ) 2
I equiv 5 3 .5 3 .5 4.5 7.312 kgm2
0 .9 (0.9)(0.9)
a a
From a r , thus, G
rG 0.45
G 1 a
Also from gear ratio, , thus, m 15.75 G 15.75 35a
m 15.75 0.45
Thus TM 1 7.312 35a 255.92a Nm

b) Consider for TM 2 as in Figure 15;

From F ma,
F1 FR mg sin ma
F1 5000a 1000 5000 9.81 1 50
FR Mg sin F1 5000a 9.81 N
5000g Thus, torque to accelerate hoist

TG F1 r 5000a 9.81 0.45

TG 2250a 891.45 Nm
Use gear efficiency to relate TG with TM 2
TG n1 / 2 n3 / 4
r TM 2
G ,1 / 2 G ,3 / 4
TM 2 176.4a 69.876 Nm
Figure 18: inclined loading

c) Consider for TM 3

Friction effect can be grouped together to form TM 3 where;

T X n1 / 2 T n n
TM 3 Y 1/ 2 3 / 4
G ,1 / 2 G ,1 / 2 G ,3 / 4
1 1 1
150 800
3.5 3.5 4.5 Nm
TM 3 2
110 .33
0. 9 0.9

From Ttotal TM 1 TM 2 TM 3
1500 255.92a 176.4a 69.876 110 .33
Thus a 3.1 m/s2

1.10 Vehicle Dynamics


Figure 19: Vehicle dynamics

For a moving vehicle as in Figure 16, some of the forces acting on it are;
Friction due to the vehicles body (aerodynamic friction), R
Forces due to friction from the engine to the wheel such as friction in bearing, shaft,
clutch and gears, R INT .
Forces due the acceleration of the vehicle, which is called tractive force, FT considering
no slip between the wheel and the road surface.
We can estimate the speed of the moving vehicle by considering the speed of the wheel itself.

Vehicle speed, v wr

Example 1 (Solved Problem)

Total mass for a two wheeled motorcycle including passenger is 190 kg. The engine produce
torque of 25 Nm at speed of 1800 RPM. Moment of inertia for each wheel is 1.4 kgm 2 while for
other rotating parts in the engine is considered as 0.15 kgm 2. The wheels effective diameter is
610 mm. If the motorcycle is moving on a road with a speed 23 km/hr at second gear, find
(i) Gear ratio for the second gear
(ii) Acceleration at speed 23 km/hr
Assume wind friction is 200 N and gear efficiency is 90%.


Given that;

m =190 kg, Ttotal =25 Nm at N =1800 PM, I R =1.4 kgm2, I int =0.15 kgm2, D =610 mm,

If v =23 km/hr at 2nd gear, with R =200 N, G =90%.

1st Step Draw Free Body Diagram

Iint IR

Gear system
Figure 20: Free body diagram

2nd Step
Total torque at engine, Ttotal
Ttotal TM 1 TM 2
Where TM 1 = Torque due to equivalent inertia of rotating parts in the engine.(referred to engine
TM 2 = Torque to accelerate the wheel.

3rd Step
Convert all measurement to SI standard.

2N 2 1800
Engine speed, wint 188.5 rad/s
60 60
Wheel speed, v 23km / hr 6.3889 m/s

4th Step Determine TM 1

In order to find gear ratio for second gear,

n R
6.3889 0.305 1 (Where wR v D 2 )
wint 188.5 9

Thus gear ratio for second gear is n 1 9

Equivalent moment of inertia is
I n2
I equiv I int R

2 1.4 19
I equiv 0.15 0.1884 kgm
In order to find int , use R and gear ratio
R a
D 2
int 0.305 29.508a

n 1

Thus, TM 1 I equiv int 0.1884 29.508a

TM 1 5.559a Nm.

5th Step Determine TM 2 as in Figure 18;

m=190 kg


Figure 21: dynamic force on the motorcycle

From F ma,
FT R ma
FT 200 190a

Total torque at wheel,

TR FT r 200 190a 0.305
TR 61 57.95a

Refer TR to motor side using gear efficiency

TM 2
TR n 61 57.95a 9

G 0.9
TM 2 (7.35 7.154a ) Nm

Thus, total torque at engine

Ttotal 5.559a 7.35 7.154a

The acceleration at that speed is;

By solving the equation for the total torque above, thus

a 1.374 m/s2

1. The axes of two parallel shafts are to be 600mm apart approximately, and have to be
connected by spur gear, having a circular pitch of 30 mm. If gear A rotate at 200 rpm and
gear B rotate at 600 rpm, find the number of teeth on each gear.

2. Figure below showed a motor used to accelerate a hoist through a set of gear system.
Gear for the hoists shaft has 200 teeth and gear for motor shaft has 20 teeth. Gear
efficiency is 90 %. Moment of inertia for the motor shaft is 2.5 kgm and hoist shaft is
275 kgm. The rope that carries a 250 kg load are encircle on hoist with diameter 1.2 m.
By neglecting the friction, find
a) gear ratio,
b) equivalent moment inertia for a gear system,
c) the total torque required by the motor to accelerate the load at acceleration of 1.0

Set of gear



3 The diagram above shows a gear train composed of three gears. Gear A revolves at 60
revs/min in a clockwise direction.



a) What is the output in revolutions per minute at Gear C?
b) In what direction does Gear C revolve ?
[ 120 rpm, clockwise ]