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Contents

1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................. 3
Main Components ............................................................................................................... 3
Objectives ........................................................................................................................... 3
2. System Identification ............................................................................................................... 4
Servo Motor Description..................................................................................................... 4
Open Loop Block Diagram ................................................................................................. 4
Mathematical Modeling of DC Motor ................................................................................ 4
Plots of Physical System by Varying Step Input ................................................................ 5
Model Derived .................................................................................................................... 7
3. LabView and MccDAQ (USB 1208-FS) Interfacing .............................................................. 9
MccDAQ (USB 1208-FS)................................................................................................... 9
Labview: ........................................................................................................................... 10
Steps for Interfacing MccDAQ with Labview: ................................................................. 10
Sending and Receiving through DAQ .............................................................................. 11
4. Design by Emulation ............................................................................................................. 12
Transformation Techniques .............................................................................................. 12
Design Procedure: ............................................................................................................. 12
Simulation Results: ........................................................................................................... 14
LabView Block Diagram .................................................................................................. 14
Implementation Results: ................................................................................................... 15
5. Direct Design Control ............................................................................................................ 16
Introduction ....................................................................................................................... 16
Indirect Design Method .................................................................................................... 16
Direct Design Method ....................................................................................................... 16
Direct Digital Controller Design via the Root-Locus Method.......................................... 16
Design Procedure .............................................................................................................. 17
Simulation Results ............................................................................................................ 20
LabView Block Diagram .................................................................................................. 21
Real-time Implementation ................................................................................................ 21
6. Deadbeat Control ................................................................................................................... 22
Ensuring Physical Realizability ........................................................................................ 22

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Ensuring Stability.............................................................................................................. 22
Limitations of Method ...................................................................................................... 23
Simulation Block .............................................................................................................. 25
Simulation Result .............................................................................................................. 25
LabView ............................................................................................................................ 26
Real-time Interfacing and Results ..................................................................................... 26
7. Conclusion ............................................................................................................................. 27
Comparison ....................................................................................................................... 27

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1.Introduction
The Modular Servo System is designed to study the theory and implementation of automatic
control systems. It has been designed for practicing the theory of open and closed-loop, speed and
positional control systems using modular units, both mechanical and electronic, that can be
configured to practice the various methods of control techniques.

Main Components
i. DC Motor (Plant)
ii. Tacho-Generator (Speed Sensor)
iii. Potentiometer (Position Sensor)
iv. Motor drive
v. Gain Blocks
vi. Power Supply

Objectives
i. System Identification
ii. LabView and DAQ interfacing
iii. Design and Implementation of Digital Controllers
a. Controller Design by Emulation
b. Direct Design Control
c. Advance Control Design Technique e.g. Deadbeat Control

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2.System Identification
Servo Motor Description
Electric motors can be classified by their functions as servomotors, gear motors, and so forth, and
by their electrical configurations as DC (direct current) and AC (alternating current motors.
Servomotor is a motor used for position or speed control in closed loop control systems. The
requirement from a servomotor is to turnover a wide range of speeds and also to perform position
and speed. Some properties of DC servo motors are the same, like inertia, physical structure, shaft
characteristics, their electrical and physical constants are variable.
Open Loop Block Diagram

Power Supply Motor


Tachogenerator

Coupled DC Motor and Tacho-Generator represent the plant in the servo system. We are to model
this plant for position and speed controller design.

Mathematical Modeling of DC Motor


Actual Transfer function of shaft position over applied voltage for armature controlled DC motor
is given by

Transfer function of speed over applied voltage for armature controlled DC motor is given by

Fig 1: Schematic Diagram of Armature controlled DC Motor

Assuming the inductance of motor in physical systems is negligible, we can approximate second
order system by first order system as follows:

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() /( + )
= = =
() ( + ) + + ( + )
( + ) + 1

By comparing above transfer function by standard first order function given by

G(s) = +1
Where steady state gain = K = /( + )

time constant = = (+ )

Plots of Physical System by Varying Step Input


Plot 1: Steady state value = K = 0.5 Time constant= = 1.5 sec

Figure 2

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Plot 2: Steady state value = K = 1.1 Time constant= = 1.5 sec

Figure 3

Plot 3: Steady state value = K = 1.4 Time constant= = 1.5 sec

Figure 4

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Plot 4: Steady state value = K = 2 Time constant= = 1.5 sec

Figure 5
Plot 5: Steady state value = K = 2.5 Time constant= = 1.5 sec

Figure 6
Model Derived
It is observed from the above responses that the time constant for the system is 1.5 sec whereas
amplitude varies with amplitude of the step input applied as shown in the table 1. Hence we can
write transfer function as:
()
G(s) = () = 1.5+1

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Serial Plot Steady state value K Volts 0.63*K Time constant (sec)
# (Volts)
1 Plot 1 0.5 0.315 1.5
2 Plot 2 1.1 .693 1.5
3 Plot 3 1.4 .882 1.5
4 Plot 4 2.0 1.67 1.5
5 Plot 5 2.5 1.59 1.5
Table 1

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3. LabView and MccDAQ (USB 1208-FS)
Interfacing

MccDAQ (USB 1208-FS)


MccDAQ (USB 1208-FS) is a data acquisition card developed and manufactured by Measurement
computing. It serves to develop an analog/digital interface between real time analog signals and
digital computer. All we need to do is to connect USB 1208-FS with computer using USB
connector and then apply analog signal to any one of analog channel available on DAQ device.
The following figure shows the various components of MccDAQ device.

Along with other pins, MccDAQ has 8 analog input channels, 2 analog output channels and 16
digital I/O connections. Input voltage on analog input channel ranges from -10 volts to +10 volts
for single ended mode of input and ranges from -20 volts to +20 volts for differential ended mode.
The output ranges for 2 analog output channels are 0 to 4.096 volts. Above its maximum limit,
DAQ goes into saturation and then it must be restarted to release its state from saturation to normal
mode. This device supports sampling rate of 50K samples / sec for all the input analog channels.
The pin configuration of USB 1208-FS along with description is given in the following figure.

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Labview:
Labview (Laboratory Virtual Instrument Engineering Workbench) is a system-design platform and
development environment for a visual programming language from National Instruments. It
supports real time data acquisition from sensors via data acquisition cards and also provides control
signals (data writing) to real plants via same DAQ cards. Labview can be considered as one of the
best platform to implement digital controllers in an easy and sophisticated way.
Labview has two main panels, front panel and block diagram window. It includes library for
different applications and devices.
Steps for Interfacing MccDAQ with Labview:
First install Labview software.
Then install mccdaq (200 MB) driver software to enable communication between DAQ card
and labview.
After installation of mccdaq, universal libraries of DAQ card appear in labview.
Then in folder C, go to program files and then to Measurement Computing and launch
InstaCal application. This would install and calibrate the channels of DAQ installed with
PC. InstaCal is the way of communicating DAQ with PC.
After initializing DAQ from InstaCal, open Labview and access DAQ through ULx libraries

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Sending and Receiving through DAQ
. To control speed of Dc Motor, we need to receive analog data from speed sensor of Dc motor,
process it through digital controller implemented in Labview and then sending commands back to
drive circuit of Dc servomotor. The DC servosystem used in our project is MS 150D. The analog
speed data from tacho output is fed to pin 1 (Analog Input Channel 0) of DAQ and the ground of
tacho is applied to pin 3 (Analog ground) of DAQ card. By processing the sampled speed signal,
the control signal is applied to Dc motor through pin 13 (Analog Output Channel 0). The whole
system is thus implemented in closed loop configuration with the reference signal being applied
within labview. By subtracting the incoming analog speed data from reference signal, error signal
is generated which serves as an input to digital controller. This error signal is passed through digital
controller implemented in labview and then output of digital controller is generated which is
referred to as control signal for the plant.
The following Labview program shows the analog signal being read from analog input channel 0
and displayed on graphical indicator window

The next block diagram depicts the writing portion in which we simply write analog value
(between 0 and 4.) from Knob to output pin 13.

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4. Design by Emulation
Indirect method of designing digital controller is also called design by emulation. Using these
techniques, a discrete-time controller Gc(z) is determined indirectly as follows. Initially, the
continuous-time controller Gc(s) is designed in the s-domain, using well-known classical
techniques (e.g. root-locus, Bode, Nyquist). Then, based on the continuous-time controller Gc(s) ,
the discrete-time controller Gc(z) may be calculated using one of the discretization techniques are
presented below.

Transformation Techniques
a. Forward Rule
1
s=
Computationally complex
May give an unstable digital controller of stable continuous controller.
b. Backward Rule
1
s=
Computationally complex
Frequency distortion

c. Bilinear Rule
2 1
s=
+1
We use here bilinear transformation because
Gives stable digital controller of continuous controller.
Frequency distortion is comparatively less than backward.

Design Procedure:
0.26
() =
1.35 + 1
Step response to Gp(S) is shown below,

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As our transfer-function do not have any integrator therefore our output do not track input
faithfully. In order to track input faithfully we need to add and integrator in the system.
Our desired compensator is

( + )
() =

Desired poles: = 2 sec = 10%

So we got here 1,2 = 1.5 1.3229

4.66(+1.765)
() = ------------------------ (A)

Pole zero matching of (A)

() = (() , , ); T = 20 msec = .02 sec

After simplifying

(.+.) ()
() = .: () =
() ()

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So our corresponding difference equation is

U[k] = U [k-1]+1.018*e[k]-0.9825*e[k-1]

. ( + )( + . )
() () =
( . )( )
Simulation Results:

LabView Block Diagram

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Implementation Results:

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5. Direct Design Control
Introduction
The classical discrete-time controller design methods are distinguished into indirect
and direct techniques.
Indirect Design Method
Using these techniques, a discrete-time controller Gc(z) is
determined indirectly as follows. Initially, the continuous-time controller Gc(s) is designed in the
s-domain, using well-known classical techniques (e.g. root-locus, Bode, Nyquist). Then based on
the continuous-time controller Gc(s), the discrete-time controller Gc(z) may be calculated using
one of the discretization techniques presented previous section. This design technique is also called
Design by Emulation technique.

Direct Design Method


These techniques start by deriving a discrete-time mathematical
model of the continuous-time system. Subsequently, the design is carried out in the z-domain,
wherein the discrete-time controller Gc(z) is directly determined. The design in the z-domain may
be done either using the root-locus method, Bode Plots or Nyquist diagrams. These techniques for
controller design is most popular in industrial applications.
Direct Digital Controller Design via the Root-Locus Method
The root-locus method is a direct method for determining GC(z) and is applied as follows. Consider
the closed-loop system shown in Figure. The transfer function H(z) of the closed-loop system is

G ( z)
H ( z) = (1)
1 +G ( z ) F ( z)

The characteristic equation of the closed-loop system is

1 + G ( z ) F ( z) = 0 (2)

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Figure 4.1. Continuous-time closed-loop system

Figure 4.2. Discrete-time closed-loop system

Design Procedure
Our open loop plant transfer function
0.25
Gp(s) =
1 .35s+1
Discrete time plant transfer function preceding Zero Order Hold is given by,
Here T=0.02 s;
Gp(z) = 0.0037 (4)
z-0.98531
Desire closed loop poles at,

z = 0.97 j0.0256;

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Root locus for uncompensated system (4) is,

Figure 4.4. Root Locus Plot of uncompensated system


It clearly shows that root locus of uncompensated system do not pass through our desire close loop
poles. So we need to design digital controller for our system. Since there is no integrator in our
system so our system inherently contain steady state error. In order to eliminate steady state error
we place a pole at z=1.
Our controller transfer function comes out to be,
12.4(0.9658)
Gc(z) = (5)
(1)
Root locus of Gp*Gc (z) is given by,
12.4 3 11.976
Gp*Gc (z) =
272.27( 2 1.9853+0.9853)

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Figure 4.5. Root Locus of Compensated System
Root Locus of compensated system clearly shows that it passes through the desire closed loop
poles.

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Simulation Results

Figure 4.6. Simulink model for uncompensated and compensated system.

Figure 4.7. (i) Upper curve shows response for compensated system
(ii) Lower curve shows response for uncompensated system

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LabView Block Diagram

Real-time Implementation
On applying step input to compensated system we get following step response.

Figure 4.8. (i) Blue curve shows the step response


(ii) Red curve shows the steady state error.
It is clear from the figure our compensated system faithfully track the reference input.

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6. Deadbeat Control
If the response of closed-loop control system to a step input exhibits the minimum possible
settling time, no steady state error, and no ripples b/w sampling instants, then this type of
response is called Dead Beat Response. Dead beat control method is an analytical method for
the design of controller. The dead-beat control consists of finding what input signal must be
applied to a system in order to bring the output to the steady state in the smallest number of
time instants. Main advantages of the dead beat are as follows:

Zero steady-state error (ess = 0)


Minimum possible Rise time Tr
Minimum possible settling time Ts
Smaller overshoot/undershoot
No ripple b/w sampling instants

F(z)
() =
G(z)[1F(z)]

Ensuring Physical Realizability


The order of numerator of GD [] must be equal to or lower than the order of the
denominator
If the plant Gp [z] involves a transportation lag, then designed closed-loop system must
involves at least the same magnitude of transportation lag for the system to be realizable.
If G[z] is expanded into a series in z-1, the lowest-power term of series expansion of F[z]
in z-1 must be at least as large as that of G[z]

Ensuring Stability
All unstable poles of G[z] must be included in 1-F[z] as zeros.
Zeros of G[z] that lie inside the unit circle may be cancelled with poles of GD[z]. However,
zeros of G[z] that lie on or outside the unit circle must not be cancelled with poles of GD[z].
Hence, all zeros of G[z] that lie on or outside the unit circle must be included in F[z] as
zeros.

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Limitations of Method
1. Multiple Closed-loop poles at origin is very sensitive to system parameter variations.
2. Designed system will exhibit minimum settling time with zero steady-state error just for
the input for which it is designed but not for other inputs.
3. An increase in sampling period changes the system the system dynamics and may lead to
system instability

Design Procedure
First step for dead beat design is the selection of closed loop transfer function.
C(z) ()()
= ()() = ()
R(z) 1+
Since it is required that the system exhibit a finite settling time with zero steady-state error, the
system must exhibit a finite impulse response. Hence, the desired closed-loop impulse transfer
function is given by
F[z] = a0 + a z-1 + . + aN z-N where N n n is order of system
1

For the system to be causal, F[z] must not contain any positive terms of z

Control input for the system is given by


U[z] = b0 + b1z-1++bN z-N which becomes constant after first N samples.

N[z] is given by following expression which helps to determine the coefficients ai :


1-F[z] = (1-z-1) N[z]
Controller is computed as
F(z)
() =
G(z)[1F(z)]

Controller Design

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Figure 1. Continuous-time closed-loop system

Figure 2. Discrete-time closed-loop control system


Transfer function of zero-order hold is given by
1
Gh(s) =
s
Whereas transfer function of plant is given by
0.1926
GP(s) =
s+0.7407
0.08048
Z-transform of Z [GP(s) G(s)] = G[z] =
z0.69035

Figure 3. Discrete-time closed-loop system


Since G[z] has maximum power of z-1 so
F[z] = a1z-1
Control input is given by
U[z] = b0 + b1z-1 +b2 [z-2+z-3+..]
1-F[z] = [1-z-1] N[z]
For steady-state requirements F(1) = 1
11 1
And N[z] =
1 1
N[z] =1-(1-a1) z-1
Remainder of the above equation must be zero so

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1-a1 = 0 gives a1=1
So F[z] = z-1

F(z) 1 (10.6905 1 ) 12.42(z0.6905)


[] = = 1 ) 1 =
G(z)[1F(z)] 0.0805(1 (z1)
Simulation Block

Figure 4. Matlab Simulation Model

Simulation Result

Figure 5. Matlab Simulation Result

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LabView

Real-time Interfacing and Results

Figure 6. Matlab Interfacing Result

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7. Conclusion
We conclude our discussion by comparing the results of implementation of all three designs.
Following plot shows step response of three designed compensator for speed control of DC Servo
System.

Comparison

Characteristics Emulation Design Direct Design Control Deadbeat Control

Rise Time 2.5 sec 1.0 sec 0.5 sec


Settling Time 4.0 sec 1.5 sec 0.5 sec
Overshoot 0% 0% 10%
Table: Comparison of Implemented Compensators

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