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It explains Modula DC Servo System.

It explains Modula DC Servo System.

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You are on page 1of 27

1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................. 3

Main Components ............................................................................................................... 3

Objectives ........................................................................................................................... 3

2. System Identification ............................................................................................................... 4

Servo Motor Description..................................................................................................... 4

Open Loop Block Diagram ................................................................................................. 4

Mathematical Modeling of DC Motor ................................................................................ 4

Plots of Physical System by Varying Step Input ................................................................ 5

Model Derived .................................................................................................................... 7

3. LabView and MccDAQ (USB 1208-FS) Interfacing .............................................................. 9

MccDAQ (USB 1208-FS)................................................................................................... 9

Labview: ........................................................................................................................... 10

Steps for Interfacing MccDAQ with Labview: ................................................................. 10

Sending and Receiving through DAQ .............................................................................. 11

4. Design by Emulation ............................................................................................................. 12

Transformation Techniques .............................................................................................. 12

Design Procedure: ............................................................................................................. 12

Simulation Results: ........................................................................................................... 14

LabView Block Diagram .................................................................................................. 14

Implementation Results: ................................................................................................... 15

5. Direct Design Control ............................................................................................................ 16

Introduction ....................................................................................................................... 16

Indirect Design Method .................................................................................................... 16

Direct Design Method ....................................................................................................... 16

Direct Digital Controller Design via the Root-Locus Method.......................................... 16

Design Procedure .............................................................................................................. 17

Simulation Results ............................................................................................................ 20

LabView Block Diagram .................................................................................................. 21

Real-time Implementation ................................................................................................ 21

6. Deadbeat Control ................................................................................................................... 22

Ensuring Physical Realizability ........................................................................................ 22

1

Ensuring Stability.............................................................................................................. 22

Limitations of Method ...................................................................................................... 23

Simulation Block .............................................................................................................. 25

Simulation Result .............................................................................................................. 25

LabView ............................................................................................................................ 26

Real-time Interfacing and Results ..................................................................................... 26

7. Conclusion ............................................................................................................................. 27

Comparison ....................................................................................................................... 27

2

1.Introduction

The Modular Servo System is designed to study the theory and implementation of automatic

control systems. It has been designed for practicing the theory of open and closed-loop, speed and

positional control systems using modular units, both mechanical and electronic, that can be

configured to practice the various methods of control techniques.

Main Components

i. DC Motor (Plant)

ii. Tacho-Generator (Speed Sensor)

iii. Potentiometer (Position Sensor)

iv. Motor drive

v. Gain Blocks

vi. Power Supply

Objectives

i. System Identification

ii. LabView and DAQ interfacing

iii. Design and Implementation of Digital Controllers

a. Controller Design by Emulation

b. Direct Design Control

c. Advance Control Design Technique e.g. Deadbeat Control

3

2.System Identification

Servo Motor Description

Electric motors can be classified by their functions as servomotors, gear motors, and so forth, and

by their electrical configurations as DC (direct current) and AC (alternating current motors.

Servomotor is a motor used for position or speed control in closed loop control systems. The

requirement from a servomotor is to turnover a wide range of speeds and also to perform position

and speed. Some properties of DC servo motors are the same, like inertia, physical structure, shaft

characteristics, their electrical and physical constants are variable.

Open Loop Block Diagram

Tachogenerator

Coupled DC Motor and Tacho-Generator represent the plant in the servo system. We are to model

this plant for position and speed controller design.

Actual Transfer function of shaft position over applied voltage for armature controlled DC motor

is given by

Transfer function of speed over applied voltage for armature controlled DC motor is given by

Assuming the inductance of motor in physical systems is negligible, we can approximate second

order system by first order system as follows:

4

() /( + )

= = =

() ( + ) + + ( + )

( + ) + 1

By comparing above transfer function by standard first order function given by

G(s) = +1

Where steady state gain = K = /( + )

time constant = = (+ )

Plot 1: Steady state value = K = 0.5 Time constant= = 1.5 sec

Figure 2

5

Plot 2: Steady state value = K = 1.1 Time constant= = 1.5 sec

Figure 3

Figure 4

6

Plot 4: Steady state value = K = 2 Time constant= = 1.5 sec

Figure 5

Plot 5: Steady state value = K = 2.5 Time constant= = 1.5 sec

Figure 6

Model Derived

It is observed from the above responses that the time constant for the system is 1.5 sec whereas

amplitude varies with amplitude of the step input applied as shown in the table 1. Hence we can

write transfer function as:

()

G(s) = () = 1.5+1

7

Serial Plot Steady state value K Volts 0.63*K Time constant (sec)

# (Volts)

1 Plot 1 0.5 0.315 1.5

2 Plot 2 1.1 .693 1.5

3 Plot 3 1.4 .882 1.5

4 Plot 4 2.0 1.67 1.5

5 Plot 5 2.5 1.59 1.5

Table 1

8

3. LabView and MccDAQ (USB 1208-FS)

Interfacing

MccDAQ (USB 1208-FS) is a data acquisition card developed and manufactured by Measurement

computing. It serves to develop an analog/digital interface between real time analog signals and

digital computer. All we need to do is to connect USB 1208-FS with computer using USB

connector and then apply analog signal to any one of analog channel available on DAQ device.

The following figure shows the various components of MccDAQ device.

Along with other pins, MccDAQ has 8 analog input channels, 2 analog output channels and 16

digital I/O connections. Input voltage on analog input channel ranges from -10 volts to +10 volts

for single ended mode of input and ranges from -20 volts to +20 volts for differential ended mode.

The output ranges for 2 analog output channels are 0 to 4.096 volts. Above its maximum limit,

DAQ goes into saturation and then it must be restarted to release its state from saturation to normal

mode. This device supports sampling rate of 50K samples / sec for all the input analog channels.

The pin configuration of USB 1208-FS along with description is given in the following figure.

9

Labview:

Labview (Laboratory Virtual Instrument Engineering Workbench) is a system-design platform and

development environment for a visual programming language from National Instruments. It

supports real time data acquisition from sensors via data acquisition cards and also provides control

signals (data writing) to real plants via same DAQ cards. Labview can be considered as one of the

best platform to implement digital controllers in an easy and sophisticated way.

Labview has two main panels, front panel and block diagram window. It includes library for

different applications and devices.

Steps for Interfacing MccDAQ with Labview:

First install Labview software.

Then install mccdaq (200 MB) driver software to enable communication between DAQ card

and labview.

After installation of mccdaq, universal libraries of DAQ card appear in labview.

Then in folder C, go to program files and then to Measurement Computing and launch

InstaCal application. This would install and calibrate the channels of DAQ installed with

PC. InstaCal is the way of communicating DAQ with PC.

After initializing DAQ from InstaCal, open Labview and access DAQ through ULx libraries

10

Sending and Receiving through DAQ

. To control speed of Dc Motor, we need to receive analog data from speed sensor of Dc motor,

process it through digital controller implemented in Labview and then sending commands back to

drive circuit of Dc servomotor. The DC servosystem used in our project is MS 150D. The analog

speed data from tacho output is fed to pin 1 (Analog Input Channel 0) of DAQ and the ground of

tacho is applied to pin 3 (Analog ground) of DAQ card. By processing the sampled speed signal,

the control signal is applied to Dc motor through pin 13 (Analog Output Channel 0). The whole

system is thus implemented in closed loop configuration with the reference signal being applied

within labview. By subtracting the incoming analog speed data from reference signal, error signal

is generated which serves as an input to digital controller. This error signal is passed through digital

controller implemented in labview and then output of digital controller is generated which is

referred to as control signal for the plant.

The following Labview program shows the analog signal being read from analog input channel 0

and displayed on graphical indicator window

The next block diagram depicts the writing portion in which we simply write analog value

(between 0 and 4.) from Knob to output pin 13.

11

4. Design by Emulation

Indirect method of designing digital controller is also called design by emulation. Using these

techniques, a discrete-time controller Gc(z) is determined indirectly as follows. Initially, the

continuous-time controller Gc(s) is designed in the s-domain, using well-known classical

techniques (e.g. root-locus, Bode, Nyquist). Then, based on the continuous-time controller Gc(s) ,

the discrete-time controller Gc(z) may be calculated using one of the discretization techniques are

presented below.

Transformation Techniques

a. Forward Rule

1

s=

Computationally complex

May give an unstable digital controller of stable continuous controller.

b. Backward Rule

1

s=

Computationally complex

Frequency distortion

c. Bilinear Rule

2 1

s=

+1

We use here bilinear transformation because

Gives stable digital controller of continuous controller.

Frequency distortion is comparatively less than backward.

Design Procedure:

0.26

() =

1.35 + 1

Step response to Gp(S) is shown below,

12

As our transfer-function do not have any integrator therefore our output do not track input

faithfully. In order to track input faithfully we need to add and integrator in the system.

Our desired compensator is

( + )

() =

Desired poles: = 2 sec = 10%

4.66(+1.765)

() = ------------------------ (A)

After simplifying

(.+.) ()

() = .: () =

() ()

13

So our corresponding difference equation is

U[k] = U [k-1]+1.018*e[k]-0.9825*e[k-1]

. ( + )( + . )

() () =

( . )( )

Simulation Results:

14

Implementation Results:

15

5. Direct Design Control

Introduction

The classical discrete-time controller design methods are distinguished into indirect

and direct techniques.

Indirect Design Method

Using these techniques, a discrete-time controller Gc(z) is

determined indirectly as follows. Initially, the continuous-time controller Gc(s) is designed in the

s-domain, using well-known classical techniques (e.g. root-locus, Bode, Nyquist). Then based on

the continuous-time controller Gc(s), the discrete-time controller Gc(z) may be calculated using

one of the discretization techniques presented previous section. This design technique is also called

Design by Emulation technique.

These techniques start by deriving a discrete-time mathematical

model of the continuous-time system. Subsequently, the design is carried out in the z-domain,

wherein the discrete-time controller Gc(z) is directly determined. The design in the z-domain may

be done either using the root-locus method, Bode Plots or Nyquist diagrams. These techniques for

controller design is most popular in industrial applications.

Direct Digital Controller Design via the Root-Locus Method

The root-locus method is a direct method for determining GC(z) and is applied as follows. Consider

the closed-loop system shown in Figure. The transfer function H(z) of the closed-loop system is

G ( z)

H ( z) = (1)

1 +G ( z ) F ( z)

1 + G ( z ) F ( z) = 0 (2)

16

Figure 4.1. Continuous-time closed-loop system

Design Procedure

Our open loop plant transfer function

0.25

Gp(s) =

1 .35s+1

Discrete time plant transfer function preceding Zero Order Hold is given by,

Here T=0.02 s;

Gp(z) = 0.0037 (4)

z-0.98531

Desire closed loop poles at,

z = 0.97 j0.0256;

17

Root locus for uncompensated system (4) is,

It clearly shows that root locus of uncompensated system do not pass through our desire close loop

poles. So we need to design digital controller for our system. Since there is no integrator in our

system so our system inherently contain steady state error. In order to eliminate steady state error

we place a pole at z=1.

Our controller transfer function comes out to be,

12.4(0.9658)

Gc(z) = (5)

(1)

Root locus of Gp*Gc (z) is given by,

12.4 3 11.976

Gp*Gc (z) =

272.27( 2 1.9853+0.9853)

18

Figure 4.5. Root Locus of Compensated System

Root Locus of compensated system clearly shows that it passes through the desire closed loop

poles.

19

Simulation Results

Figure 4.7. (i) Upper curve shows response for compensated system

(ii) Lower curve shows response for uncompensated system

20

LabView Block Diagram

Real-time Implementation

On applying step input to compensated system we get following step response.

(ii) Red curve shows the steady state error.

It is clear from the figure our compensated system faithfully track the reference input.

21

6. Deadbeat Control

If the response of closed-loop control system to a step input exhibits the minimum possible

settling time, no steady state error, and no ripples b/w sampling instants, then this type of

response is called Dead Beat Response. Dead beat control method is an analytical method for

the design of controller. The dead-beat control consists of finding what input signal must be

applied to a system in order to bring the output to the steady state in the smallest number of

time instants. Main advantages of the dead beat are as follows:

Minimum possible Rise time Tr

Minimum possible settling time Ts

Smaller overshoot/undershoot

No ripple b/w sampling instants

F(z)

() =

G(z)[1F(z)]

The order of numerator of GD [] must be equal to or lower than the order of the

denominator

If the plant Gp [z] involves a transportation lag, then designed closed-loop system must

involves at least the same magnitude of transportation lag for the system to be realizable.

If G[z] is expanded into a series in z-1, the lowest-power term of series expansion of F[z]

in z-1 must be at least as large as that of G[z]

Ensuring Stability

All unstable poles of G[z] must be included in 1-F[z] as zeros.

Zeros of G[z] that lie inside the unit circle may be cancelled with poles of GD[z]. However,

zeros of G[z] that lie on or outside the unit circle must not be cancelled with poles of GD[z].

Hence, all zeros of G[z] that lie on or outside the unit circle must be included in F[z] as

zeros.

22

Limitations of Method

1. Multiple Closed-loop poles at origin is very sensitive to system parameter variations.

2. Designed system will exhibit minimum settling time with zero steady-state error just for

the input for which it is designed but not for other inputs.

3. An increase in sampling period changes the system the system dynamics and may lead to

system instability

Design Procedure

First step for dead beat design is the selection of closed loop transfer function.

C(z) ()()

= ()() = ()

R(z) 1+

Since it is required that the system exhibit a finite settling time with zero steady-state error, the

system must exhibit a finite impulse response. Hence, the desired closed-loop impulse transfer

function is given by

F[z] = a0 + a z-1 + . + aN z-N where N n n is order of system

1

For the system to be causal, F[z] must not contain any positive terms of z

U[z] = b0 + b1z-1++bN z-N which becomes constant after first N samples.

1-F[z] = (1-z-1) N[z]

Controller is computed as

F(z)

() =

G(z)[1F(z)]

Controller Design

23

Figure 1. Continuous-time closed-loop system

Transfer function of zero-order hold is given by

1

Gh(s) =

s

Whereas transfer function of plant is given by

0.1926

GP(s) =

s+0.7407

0.08048

Z-transform of Z [GP(s) G(s)] = G[z] =

z0.69035

Since G[z] has maximum power of z-1 so

F[z] = a1z-1

Control input is given by

U[z] = b0 + b1z-1 +b2 [z-2+z-3+..]

1-F[z] = [1-z-1] N[z]

For steady-state requirements F(1) = 1

11 1

And N[z] =

1 1

N[z] =1-(1-a1) z-1

Remainder of the above equation must be zero so

24

1-a1 = 0 gives a1=1

So F[z] = z-1

[] = = 1 ) 1 =

G(z)[1F(z)] 0.0805(1 (z1)

Simulation Block

Simulation Result

25

LabView

26

7. Conclusion

We conclude our discussion by comparing the results of implementation of all three designs.

Following plot shows step response of three designed compensator for speed control of DC Servo

System.

Comparison

Settling Time 4.0 sec 1.5 sec 0.5 sec

Overshoot 0% 0% 10%

Table: Comparison of Implemented Compensators

27

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