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Aircraft Handling and

Ramp Supervision
Self-Study

March 2013

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Table of Contents
1. INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................... 3
2. THE AUSTRIAN AIRLINES GROUP ........................................................................... 4
2.1 CORPORATE PROFILE ................................................................................................ 4
2.2 FLEET ................................................................................................................. 5
2.2.1 Aircraft Overview .......................................................................................... 6
2.2.2 The Long-Range Fleet .................................................................................... 6
2.2.3 The Mid-Range Fleet ...................................................................................... 7
2.2.4 The Regional Fleet ......................................................................................... 8
2.3 DESTINATIONS ..................................................................................................... 10
2.4 DELAY CODES ...................................................................................................... 12
3. GUIDELINES AND MANUALS FOR OS RAMP HANDLING AND .............................. 16
LOADCONTROL STAFF............................................................................................... 16
3.2 MANUAL PUBLISHED BY OS ....................................................................................... 16
3.2.1 Ground Handling library via internet............................................................... 17
3.2.2 Overview AHM ............................................................................................ 21
4. SUMMARY OF NORMATIVE ORGANIZATIONS ........................................................ 24
5. BASIC INFORMATION ........................................................................................... 26
5.1 AIRPLANE PARTS - DEFINITION AND FUNCTION ................................................................ 26
5.2 COORDINATED UNIVERSAL TIME (UTC) ........................................................................ 28
5.2.1 Time zones ................................................................................................. 28
5.3 DANGER AREAS IN THE VICINITY OF THE AIRCRAFT ........................................................... 29
5.3.1 Venting Area .............................................................................................. 29
5.3.2 Air Intake Area ........................................................................................... 30
5.3.3 Exhaust / Blast Area .................................................................................... 31
5.3.4 Propeller Area ............................................................................................. 31
5.4 FOUR FORCES ON AN AIRPLANE .................................................................................. 32
5.5 PHONETIC ALPHABET .............................................................................................. 34
5.6 RUNWAY DESIGNATOR ............................................................................................ 35
6. IATA/ICAO TERMS AND DEFINITIONS ................................................................. 37
7. PERSONAL NOTES ................................................................................................. 43

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1. Introduction
Dear colleagues,
Welcome to the Self-study for the Aircraft Handling and Ramp Supervision Course!

This booklet is a short introduction for personnel engaged in aircraft handling. It


covers topics like

Austrian Airlines Group


Corporate profile, Austrian Airlines Group fleet, Destinations, Hub Vienna

Guidelines and Manuals

Normative organizations:
IATA, ICAO, JAA-T, FAA, SITA, EUROCONTROL

Basic information
Phonetic Alphabet, Runway Designator, Coordinated Universal Time, Airplane
Parts, Definition, Four Forces on an Airplane, Danger Areas

IATA/ICAO terms and definitions

Please make sure, that you have enough time to deal with the subject. A good
knowledge of the basics laid down in the self-study is mandatory for the following
Aircraft Handling and Ramp Supervision Course.
On the first day of the ARS you will have to pass an entry test (multiple-choice). The
pass mark is 80%. If you do not pass the entry test you will not be able to participate
in the course.

Not all specific information concerning your airport can be provided in the self-study.
Thus it is your own responsibility to make yourself familiar with the situation at your
home base.

We wish you a lot of pleasure and success in your job!

Aircraft Handling Team


Ground Handling Training CGQT

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2. The Austrian Airlines Group
2.1 Corporate Profile
The Austrian Airlines Group is an independent, competition oriented, Austrian airline
ensemble, belonging to the Lufthansa Airlines Group.

The Austrian Airlines Group provides an attractive portfolio of services in the


scheduled, cargo and charter segments. Top levels of quality and punctuality, an
outstanding price-performance ratio, a dense network of connections via the central
Vienna hub, individualized fare selection options and the proven Austrian touch are
just some of the features used successfully by the Group to distinguish itself from
competitor airlines.

In line with the Focus East strategy, the main markets of the Austrian Airlines Group
are its Central and East European services and connections to the Middle East.
Long-haul services to North America and the Far East complete the Groups product
range.

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2.2 Fleet
The Austrian Airlines Group operates a total of 75 aircraft. The Group serves around
130 destinations in 66 countries on 4 continents.

In 2012, the Group carried more than 11.5 million passengers. Aircraft of various
types and sizes allow an efficient operation on given segments. Departure and arrival
times are coordinated following well-structured banks so as to offer ideal national and
international connections at the Vienna hub.
The aircraft types Airbus 321 / 320 / 319, Boeing 777 / 767 / (737), Fokker 100 / 70
and Dash 8-400Q will bring you to the destination of your choice.
The Austrian Airlines Group fleet grows every year, thus continually lowering the
average age of the aircraft. With an average age of 8.4 years (31.12.2006), the fleet
of the Austrian Airlines Group is approximately 3 years younger than the European
average and is one of the most modern in the world.
For more information about the Austrian Airlines AG please refer to the official home
page www.austrian.com or the internal home page www.one-intra.net (password
protected).

Detailed information about the fleet is published in the Austrian Ground Handling
Library
https://www.austrian-ogp.com/content/site/opssupport/fleetdeclarations/index.html
and on the Austrian Airlines Group Homepage
http://www.austrianairlines.ag/AustrianAirlinesGroup/OurFleet/OurFleet.aspx?sc_lang
=en

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2.2.1 Aircraft Overview
Austrian has concentrated its flight operations within the 100 percent subsidiary
Tyrolean Airways. Therefore Austrian flies "operated by Tyrolean".

Design / Livery Long-Range Fleet Mid-Range Fleet Regional Fleet


Number of A/C 10 27 38

Aircraft Types 4 Boeing 777 06 Airbus A321 15 Fokker 100


6 Boeing 767 14 Airbus A320 09 Fokker 70
07 Airbus A319 14 Dash 8400
(2 Boeing 738)

2.2.2 The Long-Range Fleet

B777-200IGW(772)

OE-LPA Sound of Music 307.49C/258M


OE-LPB Heart of Europe 307.49C/258M
OE-LPC Dream of Freedom 309.49C/260M
OE-LPD Spirit of Austria 308.48C/260M

Boeing B777

B767-300ER(763)

OE-LAW China 230.30C/200M


OE-LAX Salzburger Festspiele 225.26C/199M
OE-LAY Japan 225.36C/189M
OE-LAZ India 225.36C/189M
OE-LAE Wiener Sngerknaben 225.36C/189M
OE-LAT Thailand 240.30C/210M

Boeing B767

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2.2.3 The Mid-Range Fleet
A319-112 (319)

OE-LDA Sofia 138CM


OE-LDB Bucharest 138CM
OE-LDC Kiev 138CM
OE-LDD Moscow 138CM
OE-LDE Baku 138CM
OE-LDF Sarajevo 138CM
OE-LDG Tbilisi 138CM

Airbus A319

A320-214 (320)

OE-LBI Marchfeld 174CM


OE-LBJ Hohe Tauern 174CM
OE-LBK Steir. Thermenland 174CM
OE-LBL Ausseerland
OE-LBM Arlberg
OE-LBN Osttirol 168CM
OE-LBO Pyhrn-Eisnwurzen 168CM
OE-LBP Neusiedlersee 168CM
OE-LBQ Wienerwald 168CM
OE-LBR Bregenzer Wald 168CM
OE-LBS Waldviertel 168CM
OE-LBT Wrthersee 168CM
OE-LBU Mhlviertel 168CM
OE-LBV Weinviertel 168CM
OE-LBW Innviertel 168CM
OE-LBX Mostviertel 168CM

Airbus A320

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A321-111 (321)

OE-LBA Salzkammergut 200CM


OE-LBB Pinzgau 200CM
OE-LBC Sdtirol 200CM

A321-211 (322)

OE-LBD Steirisches Weinland 200CM


OE-LBE Wachau 200CM
OE-LBF Wien 200CM

Airbus A321/A322

2.2.4 The Regional Fleet


F100 (100)

OE-LVA Riga 100CM


OE-LVB Vilnius 100CM
OE-LVC Tirana 100CM
OE-LVD Skopje 100CM
OE-LVE Zagreb 100CM
OE-LVF Yerevan 100CM
OE-LVG Krakow 100CM
OE-LVH Minsk 100CM
OE-LVI Prague 100CM
OE-LVJ Bratislava 100CM
OE-LVK Timisoara 100CM
OE-LVL Odessa 100CM
OE-LVM Krasnodar 100CM
OE-LVN Dnepropetrovsk 100CM
OE-LVO Chisinau 100CM

Fokker 100

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F70

OE-LFG Innsbruck 80CM


OE-LFH Stadt Salzburg 80CM
OE-LFI Klagenfurt 80CM
OE-LFJ Graz 80CM
OE-LFK Krems 80CM
OE-LFL Linz 80CM
OE-LFP Wels 80CM
OE-LFQ Dornbirn 80CM
OE-LFR Steyr 80CM

Fokker 70

DH8-400Q (DH4)

OE-LGA Krnten 76CM


OE-LGB Tirol 76CM
OE-LGC Land Salzburg 76CM
OE-LGD Steiermark 76CM
OE-LGE Obersterreich 76CM
OE-LGF Niedersterreich 76CM
OE-LGG Budapest 76CM
OE-LGH Vorarlberg 76CM
OE-LGI Eisenstadt 76CM
OE-LGJ St. Plten 76CM
OE-LGK Burgenland 76CM
OE-LGL Altenrhein 76CM
OE-LGM Villach 76CM
OE-LGN Gmunden 76CM

Dash 8-400Q

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2.3 Destinations
Central and Eastern Europe:

Middle East:

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Western Europe:

Long Range:

Detailed information about the destination is published on the Austrian Airlines Group
webpage:
http://www.austrian.com/layouts/austrian/global/content.aspx?r=1&s=http://mag3.i-
magazine.de/Files/mag/deb9df9afce8d95068563a555a23dac0/&t=Austrian%20Image
folder
http://austrian.innosked.com/(S(tysg20utl1vica55enp41g45))/default.aspx?country=
AT&l=de

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2.4 Delay Codes
To standardize the expression of delay reasons, IATA has assigned numbers for each
delay, the so-called delay codes.

These codes are sorted into 12 groups according to the reason of the delay (e.g.
Passenger and Baggage, Cargo, Mail, Aircraft and Ramp Handling, Technical and
Aircraft Equipment)

Some airlines, like the Austrian Airlines Group, have additional codes to give more
precise information about the delay(s). Additional codes are called sub codes and
usually expressed by letters added to the numbers.

Delay codes have to be used in all departure messages for flights that are operating
behind schedule as well as in all delay messages.

Please see AHM VOL.1 / 6.2 for more details about delay codes.

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2.5 Hub Vienna

Vienna International Airport (VIE) is Austrias biggest and busiest airport and
additionally the hub of Austrian Airlines. VIE is in operation 24 hours a day and
on its 2 runways it can handle a capacity of 60 movements per hour.
In 2011 the passenger volume was 21.1 million. Austrian Airlines share reached over
11.2 million passengers.
The main markets are Central and East European services and connections to the
Middle East. Long-haul services to North America and the Far East complete the
product range.

The connection time of only 25 minutes requires a well prepared flow of


passengers and their baggage. It is the load controllers duty to separate the
customers baggage into different priority categories like Hot baggage (transfer bag
with connection time of 25 to 45 minutes), Transfer baggage (over 45 minutes
transfer time), Priority baggage (local baggage of business class passengers and
Star Alliance Gold Card Holders) and Local baggage (non-priority local baggage). In
addition VIE needs a separation of transfer baggage and local baggage, as they are
handled in different baggage sorting areas.

In order to enable a smooth transfer of passengers and dead load to connecting


flights, all ground operation activities are to be performed during a minimum
ground/turn-around time from 35 to 100 minutes, depending on the aircraft
type (Dash4 to B777). In addition night curfews at destination airports, slots and crew
rest times have to be taken into consideration. Nevertheless the main goal remains:
safety first!

Beside the convenience of our passengers, safety and quality, also commercial criteria
like fuel saving and environmental protection must be fulfilled by aircraft handling
staff. E.G. Bulk load utilization in ULD aircrafts helps in many ways to save fuel and
increases the revenue.

These and many more rules and regulations will be instructed during the ARS course.

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2.5.1 Hub Control Center

OS-Positions in the HCC:

Staff Planning for


Check-In / Boarding
/
HON-Disposition
CGAH/Hub Control
Center

Hub Operation Manager


Hub Operation Controller
Connex Controller
Editing Controller VIEKK

Operations Manager

External partner in the HCC:

Contact Phone: +43 - (0)5 - 1766 - 62000


Fax: +43 - (0)5 - 1766 - 69256
SITA: VIEKOOS
E-mail: hubcontrol@austrian.com

Team with close HCC-cooperation:

CGAR/ Ramp Services VIE


is responsible for -> Direct Ramp Transfers for Short Connex Pax
-> Incoming assistance on remote positions
-> Quality Assurance (checking services of the supplier)
-> Supporting the Turnaround-process to save time
-> Station Relief for KK/KO

Please see AHM Introduction Chapter 0.9 for all important contacts and phone
numbers.

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3. Guidelines and Manuals for OS
Ramp Handling and
Loadcontrol Staff

3.1 Manuals published by IATA


IATA Airport Handling Manual (AHM)
IATA Dangerous Goods Regulations Manual (DGR)
IATA Live Animals Regulations Manual (LAR)

3.2 Manual published by OS


Passenger Handling Manual (PHM), (Charter Handling Manual)
Aircraft Handling Manual (AHM)
Cargo Handling Manual (CHM)
Charter Handling Manual
Station Management Manual (STM)

Standard access to all manuals published by OS is provided via internet (world wide
web) www.austrian-ogp.com (Austrian Ground Handling Library), where you can also
find a lot of other essential information. Detailed information will be given in the next
chapter.

CD-ROMs (ground handling manuals, forms and supplies) are issued on a seasonal
basis and shall serve as a backup only.

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Responsible editor, responsible for distribution:

Austrian Airlines AG
Ground Operations
Ground Operation Standards and Procedures / CGQA

Office Park 2, P.O. Box 100


A-1300 Vienna Airport - Austria

E-Mail: procedures.ground@austrian.com

3.2.1 GROUND HANDLING LIBRARY VIA INTERNET


Log in

Link: www.austrian-ogp.com

Fill in USERNAME and PASSWORD for access to the Austrian Ground Handling
Library.

Username and Password are distributed individually.


In case of any questions please contact: procedures.ground@austrian.com

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Main Topics

Select the desired Main Topic: GOP, Manuals, Forms & Supplies, OPS Support, News

The Ground Handling Library contains following main topics:

GOP Ground Handling Procedure Updates


GOP current All GOPs published during the last 3 months
GOP archive All GOPs dating back 1 year

Manuals Ground Handling Procedure Manuals

Aircraft Handling Manuals


AHM Introduction
Aircraft Handling AHM Vol.1, General Part
AHM Vol.2, Aircraft Guides NON-ULD
AHM Vol.2, Aircraft Guides ULD
Passenger Handling PHM Passenger Handling Manual

Cargo Handling CHM Cargo Handling Manual

Charter Handling Charter Handling Manual

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Station Management Manual STM Station Management Manual

Wetlease Operations Wetlease Operations

Checklists Checklists

Other Documentation
CONFIRM VIA WEB the receipt and the
implementation of all updates as per actual
revision of the respective manual(s).

Forms and Supplies for Aircraft,


Forms & Supplies
Passenger and Baggage Handling
General Information about How to order forms and supplies
material ordering

Aircraft Handling Forms Templates of aircraft handling forms

Aircraft Safety Template of a Ground Incident/


Accident/Damage Report
Passenger and Baggage Samples of all passenger and baggage handling
Handling Forms and Supplies supplies, templates of passenger handling forms

Cargo Forms

Miscellaneous

OPS Support Operations Support

DOW / DOI DOW/DOI tabales for the whole Austrian Airlines


Airlines Group Fleet

Fleet declaration for the currently utilized


Fleet Declarations
Fleet and its operating configurations

Pantry codes for all Austrian Airlines Group


Pantry Codes
operated scheduled and charter flights

Seasonal payload restrictions, aircraft and


Payload Restrictions
destination dependent

General information about potable water and


Potable Water water uplift data for all Austrian stations

A319 Hold Versions

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X-Bag-Embargo Current X-bag embargos for legs and time periods

CRO-Forum

Baggage Station Performance

Delay Statistics

US DOT baggage rules

News

The NEWSTICKER shows special highlighted subjects derived from the CGQA news
channel or topics requiring your immediate action and attention

Press the NEWS button and find all procedure news sorted
by publication date, latest on top

By clicking more, detailed information can be displayed

Icons in the detailed view offer following possibilities:


Back back to news overview
Recommend forward this page to other e-mail recipients

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3.2.2 OVERVIEW AHM
AHM Introduction

Scope and Purpose, Validity of contents, Terms and Definitions, References to


other Manuals and Computer Systems, Abbreviations List, Phonetic Alphabet
(ICAO), Austrian Airlines and Tyrolean Airways Management Commitment on
Safety, Security and Quality, Structure of AHM Vol.2 / ULD and Non-ULD,
Important Adresses

AHM Volume I General Part

1. Ramp Handling
Aircraft Handling, Fuelling, Ramp Safety

2. Loadcontrol
Company Operating Rules, Staff Qualifications, Load Control Procedure,
Weight and Balance Calculation, Weight Control of Load, Data Communication

3. Loadplanning
General Regulations, Load Conversion Figures, Load Distribution, Loading
Instruction/Report, Unit Load Versions

4. Loading
Baggage, ULDs, Bulk Load, Supporting of Load, Loading Accessories, Ballast,
Dangerous Goods, Live Animals, Miscellaneous Special Loads, Stowing of Load
in the Passenger Cabin, Unloading, Loading Priorities

5. Documentation
Actual Weights, Standard Weights, Loadsheet, Last Minute Changes,
Notification to Captain, General Declaration, Loading and Storage of Aircraft
Handling Documents, Crew and Crew Seats

6. Messages
Priority Indicator, Delay Codes, Departure Message, Arrival Message, Delay
Message, Return to Ramp Message, Diversion Message, Loadmessage,
Container/Pallet Distribution Message, ULD Control Message, Crew
Composition Message, Estimated Zero Fuel Weight Message, OPUS Request
Message, ILOS

7. Miscellaneous
On-Time Performance, Assistance in Flight Planning, Station Organisation

Appendix C
Airside Safety Management

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AHM Volume II, Aircraft Guides

AHM Volume II Non-ULD AHM Volume II ULD Aircraft


12. DH4 31. A319
19. F70 32. A320
20. F100 33. A321
29. B738 39. B767
41. B777

The numbering of the subchapters remains the same with all aircraft types.
Subchapters will not be shown if not relevant.

xx.1 Aircraft Weights and Indices xx.1.1 Max Gross Weights


xx.1.2 Maximum Fuel Tank Capacity
xx.1.3 Standard Taxi Fuel
xx.1.4 Dry Operating Weights and Indices
xx.1.5 Tables for Correction of DOW/DOI
xx.2 Balance Calculation xx.2.1 Instructions for Use
xx.2.2 Centre of Gravity Limits
xx.2.5 Empty Flight Procedure
xx.2.7 Entries on the Loadsheet
xx.2.9 Last Minute Changes
xx.2.10 List of Balance Tables
(Load & Trim Sheets)
xx.2.11 Stretcher
xx.3 Cabin xx.3.1 Summary of Cabin Versions
xx.3.2 Cabin Layout
xx.3.3 Cabin Cross Section and Dimensions
xx.3.4 Maximum Number of Passengers and
Crew
xx.4 Compartments xx.4.1 General
xx.4.2 Weight Limits and Volumes
xx.4.3 Security Locker/ULD: Locations of ULD
restraint Fittings
xx.4.4 Provisions for Securing Load
xx.4.5 Compartment Dimensions
xx.4.6 Container and Pallet Configurations
xx.5 Loading xx.5.2 Baggage
xx.5.3 Compartment Heating and Ventilation
xx.5.4 Container
xx.5.5 Dangerous Goods
xx.5.6 Ground Stability
xx.5.7 Live Animals
xx.5.9 Load Planning
xx.5.10 Loading Restrictions
xx.5.11 Maximum Dimension Tables
xx.5.13 Miscellaneous Special Load
xx.5.14 Miscellaneous Stowing Regulations
xx.5.17 Technical Equipment
xx.6 Loading System xx.6.1 Description
xx.6.2 Operation

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xx.7 Aircraft Servicing xx.7.1 Arrangement of Ground Handling
Equipment
xx.7.2 De-Icing/Anti-Icing
xx.7.3 Disinfection of Aircraft
xx.7.4 Catering Service
xx.7.5 Engine Starting
xx.7.6 Fuelling
xx.7.7 Operations of Cabin Doors/Stairways
xx.7.9 Operation of Compartment Doors
xx.7.11 Potable Water Servicing
xx.7.13 Servicing Panels
xx.7.14 Servicing Points
xx.7.15 Toilet Servicing
xx.7.17 Wheel Chocks
xx.7.18 External Passenger stairways
xx.8 Aircraft Information xx.8.1 Aircraft Dimensions
xx.8.2 Danger Areas
xx.8.3 Door Dimensions
xx.8.5 Door Sill Heights above Ground Level
xx.8.6 Minimum Turning Radii
xx.9 Miscellaneous xx.9.1 Aircraft Handling Forms
xx.9.2 Ground Heating
xx.9.6 Prevention of Damage to the
Engine, the Fuselage and the Wing
xx.9.7 Prevention of Damage to the
aircraft RH engine
xx.9.9 Positioning of Safety Cones

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4. Summary of normative
Organizations
Organisation Members Main Objective

STAR ALLIANCE 25 airlines: Cooperation between member


Air Canada, Air China, airlines;
Founded: 1997 Air New Zealand, ANA, use synergies to safe money, e.g.
Asiana Airlines, coordinated schedules, same service
Head Quarter: Austrian, standard, common infrastructure,
Frankfurt/Main (Germany) Avianca/TACA Airlines, common handling companies;
Brussels Airlines, Copa
www.staralliance.com Airlines, Egyptair,
Ethiopian Airlines, LOT,
Lufthansa, SAS,
Shenzhen Airlines,
Singapore Airlines,
South African Airways,
Swiss, TAM Airlines,
TAP Portugal, Thai,
Turkish AirlinesUnited,
US Airways,
2 regional members:
Adria, Croatia Airlines

IATA 270 airlines Set global safety standards that have


International Air to be observed by all members and
Transport Association checked in form of IATA Operational
Safety Audit; simplify processes in air
Founded: 1945 traffic, thus reducing costs and
enhancing passenger convenience
Head Quarter:
Montreal (Canada)

www.iata.org

ICAO 191 member countries Define restrictions and privileges of


International Civil all Contracting States; develop
Aviation Organisation international Standards and
Recommended Practices for the safe
Founded : 1944 operation of aircraft; guidelines for
personnel licensing, registration
Head Quarter : marks, environmental protection,
Montreal (Canada) airworthiness of aircraft

www.icao.int

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Organization Members Main Objective

JAA-T 42 member countries Develop and implement


Joint Aviation Authorities - common safety regulatory
Transition standards and procedures for
European region; provide
Founded: 1990 training for the aviation
community;
Head Quarter:
JAA LO - Cologne (Germany)
JAA TO Hoofddorp
(Netherlands)

www.jaa.nl

FAA Not applicable Set safety standards for aircraft


Federal Aviation manufacturers, operators and
Administration of the maintenance; manage ATC
United States of America facilities and air navigation aids;
research work; promote
Founded: 1958 aviation safety outside US;

Head Quarter:
Washington DC (US)

www.faa.gov

SITA Airlines, airports, air Provide extensive


Socit Internationale de transport related communication network;
Tlcommunication organizations, develop new technologies for
arienne manufacturers, tour air-to-ground communications;
operators, computer facilitate and speed up
Founded: 1949 reservations systems communication processes
between all involved in travel
Head Quarter: industry;
Geneva (Switzerland)

www.sita.aero

Eurocontrol 39 member countries Strategic and tactical flow


mainly in Europe management; controller
Founded: 1963 training; development of safety-
proofed technologies and
Head Quarter: procedures; controller training
Brussels (Belgium)

www.eurocontrol.int

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5. BASIC INFORMATION
5.1 Airplane Parts - Definition and Function

Airplanes are transportation devices which are designed to move people and cargo
from one place to another. Airplanes come in many different shapes and sizes
depending on the mission of the aircraft. The airplane shown on this slide is a turbine-
powered airliner which has been chosen as a representative aircraft.

For any airplane to fly, you must lift the weight of the airplane itself, the fuel, the
passengers, and the cargo. The wings generate most of the lift to hold the plane in
the air. To generate lift, the airplane must be pushed through the air. The air resists
the motion in the form of aerodynamic drag. Modern airliners use winglets on the tips
of the wings to reduce drag. The turbine engines, which are located beneath the
wings, provide the thrust to overcome drag and push the airplane forward through the
air. Smaller, low-speed airplanes use propellers for the propulsion system instead of
turbine engines.

To control and manoeuvre the aircraft, smaller wings are located at the tail of the
plane. The tail usually has a fixed horizontal piece (called the horizontal stabilizer) and
a fixed vertical piece (called the vertical stabilizer). The stabilizers' job is to provide

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stability for the aircraft, to keep it flying straight. The vertical stabilizer keeps the
nose of the plane from swinging from side to side, while the horizontal stabilizer
prevents an up-and-down motion of the nose. (On the Wright brother's first aircraft,
the horizontal stabilizer was placed in front of the wings. Such a configuration is called
a canard after the French word for "duck").

At the rear of the wings and stabilizers are small moving sections that are attached to
the fixed sections by hinges. In the figure, these moving sections are coloured brown.
Changing the rear portion of a wing will change the amount of force that the wing
produces. The ability to change forces gives us a means of controlling and
manoeuvring the airplane. The hinged part of the vertical stabilizer is called the
rudder; it is used to deflect the tail to the left and right as viewed from the front of
the fuselage. The hinged part of the horizontal stabilizer is called the elevator; it is
used to deflect the tail up and down. The outboard hinged part of the wing is called
the aileron; it is used to roll the wings from side to side. Most airliners can also be
rolled from side to side by using the spoilers. Spoilers are small plates that are used
to disrupt the flow over the wing and to change the amount of force by decreasing the
lift when the spoiler is deployed.

The wings have additional hinged, rear sections near the body that are called flaps.
Flaps are deployed downward on takeoff and landing to increase the amount of force
produced by the wing. On some aircraft, the front part of the wing will also deflect.
Slats are used at takeoff and landing to produce additional force. The spoilers are
also used during landing to slow the plane down and to counteract the flaps when the
aircraft is on the ground. The next time you fly on an airplane, notice how the wing
shape changes during takeoff and landing.

The fuselage or body of the airplane, holds all the pieces together. The pilots sit in the
cockpit at the front of the fuselage. Passengers and cargo are carried in the rear of
the fuselage. Some aircraft carry fuel in the fuselage; others carry the fuel in the
wings.

As mentioned above, the aircraft configuration in the figure was chosen only as an
example. Individual aircraft may be configured quite differently from this airliner. The
Wright Brothers 1903 Flyer had pusher propellers and the elevators at the front of the
aircraft. Fighter aircraft often have the jet engines buried inside the fuselage instead
of in pods hung beneath the wings. Many fighter aircraft also combine the horizontal
stabilizer and elevator into a single stabilator surface. There are many possible aircraft
configurations, but any configuration must provide for the four forces needed for
flight.1

1
Printed with kind permission of NASA Glenn Research Center. National Aeronautics and Space
Administration. 14 MAR. 2006. Airplane Parts Definitions and Function. 28 AUG. 2007.
<http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/K-12/airplane/airplane.html>

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5.2 Coordinated Universal Time (UTC)
UTC is a high-precision atomic time standard. It has uniform seconds defined by
International Atomic Time, with leap seconds announced at irregular intervals to
compensate for the earth's slowing rotation and other discrepancies. Leap seconds
allow UTC to closely track Universal Time, a time standard based not on the uniform
passage of seconds, but on the Earth's angular rotation.

5.2.1 TIME ZONES

Time zones around the world are expressed as positive or negative offsets from UTC.
Local time is UTC plus the time zone offset for that location, plus an offset (typically
+1) for daylight saving time, if in effect.

As the zero-point reference, UTC is also referred to as Zulu time (Z).

Following examples give the local time at various locations at 12:00 UTC when
daylight saving time is not in effect:

Time Local time at


City State Country
calculation 12:00UTC
San Francisco California United States UTC 8 04:00
Toronto Ontario Canada UTC 5 07:00
Stockholm Sweden UTC + 1 13:00
Cape Town South Africa UTC + 2 14:00
Mumbai India UTC + 5,30 17:30

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5.3 Danger Areas in the Vicinity of the Aircraft

5.3.1 VENTING AREA


Fuel vents are openings on the underside of the wingtips which serve to ventilate the
fuel tanks. The area around the fuel vents is called venting area.

During the flight fuel is used and the space is replaced by air. During fuelling the air is
pressed out of the tanks through the vents. Of course it is not pure air that escapes
but a mixture of air and fuel vapors.

Even after fuelling is finished, this mixture will escape because of the vaporization of
fuel. Fuel vapors are heavier than air and sink to the ground. They are very easily
ignitable.

Around and beyond the wing tips there is an increased fire risk!

Safety distance around the venting area: 3m radius around fuel vents for kerosene-
type fuel

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5.3.2 AIR INTAKE AREA
This area is in front of running jet engines. The suction of the compressor of a jet
engine is five times bigger than a whirlwind.
There is a risk that persons or objects may be sucked into the running engine.

Never go behind the aircrafts nose while engines are running which are positioned at
the wings (Airbus, Boeing etc).

Never go behind the wings while engines are running which are positioned at the back
of the fuselage (F70, F100 etc.)

Please see AHM VOL.2 / XX.8.2 for details about the extend of the intake area.

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5.3.3 EXHAUST / BLAST AREA
The exhaust area is the area behind the aircraft affected by the blast of the running
engines.

This blast is strong enough to lift or topple even persons and objects!

The exhaust gas speed of a B747 with idling engines is as high as 160 km/h and the
exhaust gas is also extremely hot. The blast area can be considerably extended as a
result of the thrust required under unfavourable conditions (bad condition of the
tarmac surface, inclination of tarmac, wind, snow, ice, etc.)

Please see AHM VOL.2 / XX.8.2 for more details about normal blast areas.

5.3.4 PROPELLER AREA


As the Propeller Area is the embarking and disembarking area used by the
passengers, the propeller area must be guarded.

Propeller
Area

The propeller area has to be guarded by one of the following methods:


reflective safety cones/posts with barrier cords

hand luggage trolley

propeller tie: normal turnaround DH3; DH4 only night stop;


The propeller tie is either attached to the main gear or the stair handrail.

Hand luggage trolley and safety cones are to be placed at a distance of at least one
metre from the propeller turning area before passengers are disembarking.

If none of the above listed securing methods can be accomplished, the propeller
danger area must be secured by other suitable means of security (e. g. by the ground
personnel, until the hand luggage trolley is in position).

Whenever the rear passenger door is used on the DH4, the propeller danger area has
to be additionally guarded by reflective safety cones.

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5.4 Four Forces on an Airplane

A force may be thought of as a push or pull in a specific direction. A force is a vector


quantity so a force has both a magnitude and a direction. When describing forces, we
have to specify both the magnitude and the direction. This slide shows the forces that
act on an airplane in flight.

Weight is a force that is always directed toward the centre of the earth. The
magnitude of the weight depends on the mass of all the airplane parts, plus the
amount of fuel, plus any payload on board (people, baggage, freight, etc.). The
weight is distributed throughout the airplane. But we can often think of it as collected
and acting through a single point called the centre of gravity. In flight, the airplane
rotates about the centre of gravity.

Flying encompasses two major problems; overcoming the weight of an object by some
opposing force, and controlling the object in flight. Both of these problems are related
to the object's weight and the location of the centre of gravity. During a flight, an
airplane's weight constantly changes as the aircraft consumes fuel. The distribution of
the weight and the centre of gravity also changes. So the pilot must constantly adjust
the controls to keep the airplane balanced, or trimmed.

To overcome the weight force, airplanes generate an opposing force called lift. Lift is
generated by the motion of the airplane through the air and is an aerodynamic force.
"Aero" stands for the air, and "dynamic" denotes motion. Lift is directed
perpendicular to the flight direction. The magnitude of the lift depends on several
factors including the shape, size, and velocity of the aircraft.

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As with weight, each part of the aircraft contributes to the aircraft lift force. Most of
the lift is generated by the wings. Aircraft lift acts through a single point called the
centre of pressure. The centre of pressure is defined just like the centre of gravity, but
using the pressure distribution around the body instead of the weight distribution.

The distribution of lift around the aircraft is important for solving the control problem.
Aerodynamic surfaces are used to control the aircraft in roll, pitch, and yaw.

As the airplane moves through the air, there is another aerodynamic force present.
The air resists the motion of the aircraft and the resistance force is called drag. Drag
is directed along and opposed to the flight direction. Like lift, there are many factors
that affect the magnitude of the drag force including the shape of the aircraft, the
"stickiness" of the air, and the velocity of the aircraft. Like lift, we collect all of the
individual components' drags and combine them into a single aircraft drag magnitude.
And like lift, drag acts through the aircraft centre of pressure.

To overcome drag, airplanes use a propulsion system to generate a force called


thrust. The direction of the thrust force depends on how the engines are attached to
the aircraft. In the figure shown above, two turbine engines are located under the
wings, parallel to the body, with thrust acting along the body centreline. On some
aircraft, such as the Harrier, the thrust direction can be varied to help the airplane
take off in a very short distance. The magnitude of the thrust depends on many
factors associated with the propulsion system including the type of engine, the
number of engines, and the throttle setting.

For jet engines, it is often confusing to remember that aircraft thrust is a reaction to
the hot gas rushing out of the nozzle. The hot gas goes out the back, but the thrust
pushes towards the front. Action <--> reaction is explained by Newton's Third Law of
Motion.
The motion of the airplane through the air depends on the relative strength and
direction of the forces shown above. If the forces are balanced, the aircraft cruises at
constant velocity. If the forces are unbalanced, the aircraft accelerates in the direction
of the largest force.

Note that the job of the engine is just to overcome the drag of the airplane, not to lift
the airplane. A 1 million pound airliner has 4 engines that produce a grand total of
200,000 of thrust. The wings are doing the lifting, not the engines. In fact, there are
some aircraft, called gliders that have no engines at all, but fly just fine. Some
external source of power has to be applied to initiate the motion necessary for the
wings to produce lift. But during flight, the weight is opposed by both lift and drag.
Paper airplanes are the most obvious example, but there are many kinds of gliders.
Some gliders are piloted and are towed aloft by a powered aircraft, then cut free to
glide for long distances before landing. During re-entry and landing, the Space Shuttle
is a glider; the rocket engines are used only to loft the Shuttle into space. 2

2
Printed with kind permission of NASA Glenn Research Center. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 14
MAR. 2006. Four Forces on an Airplane. 28 AUG. 2007. <http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/K-
12/airplane/airplane.html>

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5.5 Phonetic Alphabet
The use of a phonetic alphabet should reduce the risk of confusing letters. By using
[Delta] and [Bravo] instead of [di] and [bi] the letters can be easily distinguished. The
phonetic alphabet for aviation is mainly used in two-way radio communication, where
bad signals, noise and foreign accents make communication difficult. It is approved by
ICAO, FAA and NATO as the standard for aircraft and radio communication.

A Alfa N November
B Bravo O Oscar
C Charlie P Papa
D Delta Q Quebec
E Echo R Romeo
F Foxtrot S Sierra
G Golf T Tango
H Hotel U Uniform
I India V Victor
J Juliet W Whiskey
K Kilo X X-Ray
L Lima Y Yankee
M Mike Z Zulu
3

3
International Civil Aviation Organization. Alphabet .- Radiotelephony. 27 AUG. 2007.
<http://www.icao.int/cgi/goto_m.pl?icao/en/trivia/alphabet.htm>

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5.6 Runway Designator
A runway is a strip of land intended for aircraft take-off and landing.

Center Line

Runway Designator
Holding
Area
Marking

The numbers of runways are chosen based on their magnetic heading. The last
number is omitted, i.e. if the runways heading is 283 it is named 28.

270 90

180

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A runway always has two numbers, depending on the direction of travel. This means
that runway 28 (westbound use!) is actually the same strip of land as runway 10
(eastbound use!).

Two parallel runways have the additional letter L for left and R for right, depending
on the pilots view.

10L 28R

10R 28L

As a result of magnetic variation it might become necessary to change the runway


designator.

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6. IATA/ICAO Terms and
Definitions
Aerodrome A defined area on land or water intended to be used either wholly or in
(= Airport) part for the arrival, departure and surface movement of aircraft.
Aerodrome A unit established to provide air traffic control service to aerodrome
control tower traffic
Aeronautical
A publication issued by or with the authority of a state and
information
containing aeronautical information of a lasting character essential
publication
to air navigation.
(AIP)
All aircraft in flight or operating on the manoeuvring area of an
Air traffic
aerodrome.
Air traffic
Authorization for an aircraft to proceed under conditions specified by an
control
air traffic control unit.
clearance
Air traffic A service provided for the purpose of :
control 1. preventing collisions:
service a/ between aircraft and
b/ on the manoeuvring area between aircraft and
obstructions
2. expediting and maintaining an orderly flow of air
traffic.
Air traffic A generic term meaning variously, area control centre, approach
control unit control office and aerodrome control tower.
Air traffic A generic term meaning variously, flight information service, alerting
service service, air traffic advisory service and air traffic control service.
Air Waybill The document entitled "Air Waybill/Air Consignment Note" made out
by or on behalf of the shipper which evidences the contract between
the shipper and carrier(s) for carriage of goods over routes of the
carrier(s).
Aircraft
Planned utilisation layout of aircraft interior space.
configuration
Aircraft pallet A platform with a flat under-surface, to standard aircraft
requirements on which goods are assembled and secured by
nets/straps/igloos, and subsequently locked into the aircraft, to
achieve rapid loading/unloading on compatible aircraft conveying
and restraint systems. As such, it becomes a component of the
aircraft loading and restraint system.
Aircraft
A unique alpha/numeric designation for an aircraft.
registration
A control area or portion thereof established in the form of a corridor
Airway
equipped with radio navigation aids.
ALERFA The code word used to designate an alert phase.
Allowed traffic The load which can be carried on the aircraft on any one sector and
load is the difference between the allowed weight for take-off and the
operating weight.
Alternate An aerodrome to which an aircraft may proceed when it becomes either
aerodrome impossible or inadvisable to proceed to or to land at the aerodrome of
(ALT) intended landing (take-off alternate, en-route alternate and destination
alternate).
Alternate
Planned alternative en route and destination airport(s) for a flight.
Airport

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Altitude The vertical distance of a level measured from mean sea level.
Apron
(= Tarmac, A defined area, on a land aerodrome, intended to accommodate aircraft
Ramp, Parking for purposes of loading or unloading passengers, mail or cargo, fuelling,
Area) parking or maintenance.
Area control A unit established to provide air traffic control service to controlled flights
centre (ACC) in control areas under its jurisdiction.
Balance
condition A numeric expression of the position of the centre of gravity.
Balance limits The end points forward and aft of the range within which the centre
of gravity must lie for safe flight.
Ballast Deadload weight carried to achieve a particular balance condition.
Bulk Loading piece by piece.
Cabin A compartment where passenger seats are installed.
Cabin Crew Persons performing duties on the flight other than in the cockpit.
Cabin section A division of the cabin into zones for the purpose of balance.
Cargo Any goods carried on an aircraft which are covered by an air waybill.
Cargo A traffic document listing the details of the cargo to be carried on a
manifest flight.
Category The nature of the load.
Ceiling The height above the ground or water of the base of the lowest layer of
cloud below 6,000 m (20,000 ft) covering more than half the sky.
Centre of (C of G) The C of G of an aircraft, is the point at which its total
gravity weight may be considered to act as a concentrated force.
Class Segregation of passengers according to the facilities and services
offered.
Clearance
limit The point to which an aircraft is granted an air traffic control clearance.
Cockpit That part of an aircraft from which the crew control the aircraft.
Cockpit Crew Persons operating the flight in the cockpit.
Compartment A space designated within a hold.
Containerized An aircraft of which the cargo compartments are equipped with a
aircraft unit load devices conveyance and restraint system, in order to
accommodate aircraft containers or pallets. This may be either a
wide-body or a narrow-body aircraft.
Controlled An airspace of defined dimensions within which air traffic control service is
airspace provided to IFR flight and to VFR flights in accordance with the airspace
classification.
Cruising level A level maintained during a significant portion of a flight.
Current flight The flight plan, including changes, if any, brought about by subsequent
plan clearances.
Dangerous Articles or substances which are capable of posing a significant risk
goods to health, safety or property when transported by air and which are
classified as such in the IATA Dangerous Goods Regulations.
Deadload Baggage, cargo, mail, ballast and equipment in compartments not
included in dry operating weight of the aircraft.
Deck A structural floor level. For aircraft having one structural level only,
this floor level shall be referred to as the "main deck". For aircraft
having more than one structural floor level, the different floor levels
shall be referred to as "lower deck", "main deck" and "upper deck",
starting from bottom to top.

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Departure The airport from which the aircraft last departed, using the same
Airport flight number.
Destination
Airport Ultimate intended terminating airport of a flight.
DETRESFA The code word used to designate a distress phase.
Diplomatic
mail Governments' property carried under special agreements.
Elevation The vertical distance of a point or a level, on or affixed to the surface of
the earth, measured from mean sea level.
En route Equivalent to "Through". Movement or point between point of
departure and point of destination.
Endurance The length of time an aircraft can continue flying under given conditions
(END) without refuelling.
Equipment in (EIC) Equipment which is carried on the aircraft but which is not
compartment manifested and which is not elsewhere included in the weight
composition, such as additional flight kit.
Estimated
elapsed time The estimated time required to proceed from one significant point to
(EET) another.
Filed flight The flight plan as filed with an ATS unit by the pilot or his designated
plan representative, without any subsequent changes.
Flight The operation of an aircraft between two or more points.
Flight
information
centre (FIC) A unit established to provide flight information service and alerting service.
Flight level A surface of constant atmospheric pressure which is related to a specific
pressure datum, 1013 hectopascal (hPa), and is separated from other such
surfaces by specific pressure intervals.
Flight number The alpha-numerical designator of a flight, prefixed by a two-letter or
three-character designator.
Flight plan Specified information provided to air traffic services units, relative to an
intended flight or portion of a flight of an aircraft.
Floating pallet A unit load device (OLD), including its load, which is positioned over
at least two pallet positions, and is not secured by the pallet locking
devices of the OLD restraint system, but is restrained to the aircraft
structure by means of tie-down fittings and lashings.
Fuelling Fuelling and de-fuelling, aircraft fuel tank calibration, aircraft fuel
flow tests and the draining of aircraft tanks.
Galley The integral part of the aircraft where pantry/catering material is
stored.
General A standard document giving certain details about a flight required for
declaration aircraft clearance by government authorities in certain countries.
Glide path A descent profile determinate for vertical guidance during a final approach.
Heading The direction in which the longitudinal axis of an aircraft is pointed, usually
expressed in degrees from North.
Hold A space confined by ceiling, floor, walls and bulkhead, used for
carrying load.
Holding point A specified location, identified by visual or other means, in the vicinity of
which the position of an aircraft in flight is maintained in accordance with
air traffic control clearance.
IFR The symbol used to designate the instrument flight rules.
INCERFA The code word used to designate an uncertainty phase.
Index unit An expression of moment, i.e. weight x lever arm caused by weight
added to the aircraft, in order to establish the C of G.
Load Any item carried in an aircraft other than is included in the basic
operation weight.

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Load control A function to ensure the optimum utilization of the aircraft capacity
and distribution of load as dictated by safety and operational
requirements.
Load planning A part of load control.
Loaded index An expression of the C of G of an aircraft after it has been fuelled
and/or loaded.
Loading Stowing load or ULDs on board the aircraft in accordance with
loading instructions.
Loading Instructions given by Load Control to the person responsible for the
instruction aircraft loading.
Loading report Signed loading instruction, with any deviations recorded, passed
back to Load Control for action as required.
Loadsheet A completed loadsheet contains all weight data pertaining to a
particular flight, i.e. the weight of the aircraft, crew, pantry, fuel,
passengers, baggage, cargo and mail. It also contains where
necessary details of the distribution of this load in the aircraft.
Message Where quoted it is assumed that the fastest possible means of
sending a message will be used. This refers to SITA, telex or data
link.
Meteorological Meteorological report, analysis, forecast, and any other statement relating
information to existing or expected meteorological conditions.
Missed
approach
procedure The procedure to be followed if the approach cannot be continued.
Movement The arrival or departure of an aircraft.
Net weight The difference between total weight and the tare weight.
Nets A network of webbing affixed to an aircraft within its holds or to an
aircraft OLD for the purpose of restraining a load within the hold or in
the OLD.
NOTAM A notice distributed by means of telecommunication containing information
concerning the establishment, condition or change in any aeronautical
facility, service, procedure or hazard.
Origin Airport The place from where the flight commences.
Passenger A traffic document listing the names of passengers to be carried on a
manifest flight.
Payload The weight of passengers, baggage, cargo and mail and includes
both revenue and non-revenue items.
Pilot-in-
command
(PIC) The pilot responsible for the operation and safety of the aircraft during
(=commander) flight time.
Radar An approach, executed by an aircraft, under the direction of a radar
approach controller.
Radar The situation which exists when the radar position of a particular aircraft is
identification seen on a radar display and positively identified by the air traffic controller.
Ramp agent A person who supervises and co-ordinates on the ramp the tasks of
ground handling for an aircraft departure or arrival.
Repetitive A flight plan related to a series of frequently recurring, regularly operated
flight plan individual flights with identical basic features, submitted by an operator for
(RPL) retention and repetitive use by ATS units.
Runway (RWY) A defined rectangular area on a land aerodrome prepared for the landing
and take-off of aircraft.
Runway visual The range over which the pilot of an aircraft on the centre line of a runway
range (RVR) can see the runway surface markings or the lights delineating the runway
or identifying its centre line.

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Section A subdivision of a non-containerised/palletised compartment, i.e. net
section.
Special load A load which, owing to its nature or value, requires special attention
and treatment during the process of acceptance, storage,
transportation, loading and unloading.
Take-off The act of leaving a supporting surface, including the take-off run and the
acts immediately preceding and following the leaving of the surface.
Take-off fuel The amount of fuel on board less the fuel consumed before the take-
off run.
Tare weight The weight of an empty ULD. It includes all liners and/or fittings, etc.
when these are required by the specification or as registered with
IATA.
Taxiing Movement of an aircraft on the surface of an aerodrome under its own
power, excluding take-off and landing.
Taxiway A defined path on a land aerodrome established for the taxiing of aircraft
(TWY) and intended to provide a link between one part of the aerodrome and
another, including
aircraft stand taxi lane
apron taxiway
rapid exit taxiway
Tie-down Equivalent to "Restrain/Secure/Lash", means the term used to
describe the securing of the bulk-load or part thereof to fixed
restraint points within an aircraft or in a ULD, to conform to restraint
and safety requirements.
Tie-down Attachment points for the tie-down equipment to secure load on
points aircraft and/or ULDs.
Touchdown The point where the nominal glide path intercepts the runway.
Traffic The activity of the transportation of passengers, baggage, cargo and
mail.
Transfer Traffic which arrives on a flight and continues on another flight of the
same airline or other airline within a defined time limit.
Transit Traffic which arrives on a flight and continues on the same flight.
Trip fuel The amount of fuel planned to be consumed from take-off to the
station of first intended landing.
Underload The difference between the allowed traffic load and the payload (total
traffic load).
Unit load ULD. A unit in which deadload is bulk loaded and subsequently
device loaded as a unit into the aircraft.
Unloading Removing load from an aircraft.
Version The designator used to indicate the aircraft configuration together
with the details of the equipment carried.
VFR The symbol used to designate the visual flight rules.
Weight The term "weight" is used herein in lieu of the correct technical term
"mass", in order to conform to standard industry terminology.

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Impressum

Austrian Airlines AG
Ground Handling Training

groundhandling.training@austrian.com

Editorial Head Office

Austrian Airlines AG
Office Park 2, P.O. Box 100
A-1300 Vienna Airport

Copyright

Copyright 2012, all right reserved.

No part of this publication may be


reproduced, recast, reformatted or
transmitted in any form by any means,
electronic or mechanical, including
photocopying, recording or any other
information storage and retrieval system,
without prior written permission from the
responsible editor.
The training manual is an internal publication
and shall only be used for the special Aircraft
Handling and Ramp Supervision course of the
Austrian Airlines Group.

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7. Personal Notes

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www.austrian.com

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