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Tubil, Aprilyn A.

Section N
W (5:00- 9:00 pm)
Integration of Technology in Instruction


This chapter enabled us to realize the transformation of teaching and learning from the
past years to the present century. Teacher, student, and instruction have been the constant entities
of education from several centuries back until the present time. However, strategies style and
educational tools and technologies improve in the many generations for better delivery of the
lesson and learning of content.
The teachers of the early generations were compared to the teachers of 21 st century. In the
early years, teachers were regarded as instruments for information dissemination and
communicators of knowledge in which the students obediently receive and believe. Teachers
were always in authority over the students. This was during the period in which teacher-centered
approach was observed in the education system. This approach seems to weaken the aim of
acquiring quality learning for this makes the students passive learners. The 21 st century teachers
were believed to be more immersed in the use of technologies and would get away from being
digital immigrant teachers. They do not merely transfer knowledge to the students. More than
teaching the subject matter, they teach students how to learn to live. Teachers of the 21 st century
were: channel, communicator, learner, futurist, leader, exemplar, collaborator and venture player.
To students, early generations were indeed different in todays generation. Having
technologies at their side make them more advanced in information where they do not need to
have a long distance walk just to access information from the books in the library. Almost
information and tools that they need are already at the palm of their hands. They only need to
access and use the technologies rightfully and appropriately. Todays students can communicate
with their classmates even to their teachers, friends, family and relatives through a variety of
resources: computers, laptops, notebooks, smartphones, and tablets. They can even access
information about anything, anytime, anywhere at their fingertips. This generation has been
called as the digital generation.
The traditional educational practices have been effective during the old times, but they
are no longer effective in the 21st century. These traditional educational practices would no
longer provide the 21st century skills needed by the students for them to be at par and productive
with the learning of students globally and for them to be able t live life in the real world to
answer the needs of the society and of the community.
My Reflection

The first chapter talked about the teachers and students in the

digital age. The whole chapter was very interesting. We were able to

differentiate the roles of the teachers and students in the earlier years

and in the 21st century of instruction. It was very helpful to be

introduced first with their differences before discussing the next


We were able to know that teachers of today were far different

from teachers of yesteryears. From the way they handle the students,

delivery of the instruction and to the techniques and strategies they

used to enhance and develop the skills of the students. The differences

given in the table show that there was a big improvement in delivering

the lesson and on the process of instruction. It can be reflected that

there was an improvement because of the presence and adaptation of

technology. Teachers of the 21st century were believed to be more

immersed in the use of technologies and would get away from being

digital immigrant teachers. The differences among students of the early

generations and the 21st century students were also shown. In as much

as the roles of the teachers change to meet the needs of the students

in todays education, the students roles likewise need to change to

CHAPTER 2 in theories and in practice

become more competent, knowledgeable
The chapter introduced the standards that administrators, teachers, and students should
observe in the use and integration of technology in education. The chapter also explains how on
entity of Tech-PACK is connected and interfaced with the other entities. Likewise, it shows how
the Tech-PACK process works in integrating technology in education.
Setting standards help us achieve quality output may it be in the house, office, and
school. This is in turn will give us fulfillment in our activities for our family, friends, staff, heads,
people in the society and the community. In education, administrators and teachers with the
support of the national educational departments and organizations define their standards that
would guide and help the students in possessing the knowledge and skills that are required of
them to make them successful learners and professionals in the future.
The use of technology in education is likewise guided by standards to develop among
learners the skills that they need to possess for the 21 st century for them to be able to serve not
only themselves but the world. This is where the International Society for Technology in
Education (ISTE) comes in. ISTE is a nonprofit organization that promotes the use of technology
to support and enhance teaching and learning. There are three standards that have been
developed by ISTE for better connection and empowerment among administrators, teachers and
students: Standards for Administrators; Standards for Teachers and Standards for Students.
Standards are criteria that define what is expected from the administrators, teachers and learners.
In teaching, teachers are trained on how to teach and manage a class. Before stepping
inside the classroom, they have made their lesson plans on what to teach and how to teach, they
make sure that they have all the materials needed for the lesson. The use of technology is one of
the materials that teachers make use to deliver the lesson successfully to the learners. However,
sometimes the use of technology becomes ineffective because of insufficient knowledge on the
true purpose and proper use of technology. This is why Technological Pedagogical Content
Knowledge (TPACK) by Mishra,P. & Koehler, M. and Technology Integration Planning (TIP) by
Roblyer, M.D. & Doering, A.H. came into existence, to guide teachers on how to integrate
technology into teaching.
Tech-PACK, previously known as TPCK, later TPACK, is a framework that integrates
technology in education to help encapsulate the complex interactions among content, pedagogy,
and technology. Tech-PACK provides a picture of the entire process of technology integration
that helps identify what is essential and what is not in any discussions of teacher using
technology for teaching subject matter.
Technology Integration Planning (TIP) is a model created for teachers as a guide that
ensures the efficiency of integration of technology in education. TIP gives teachers a systematic
way to identify and address challenges involved in integrating technology into teaching
practices. TIP model shows teachers how to establish a milieu in which technology can
effectually enrich learning.
My Reflection

The 2nd chapter introduces the standards that administrators,

teachers, and students should observe in the use and integration of

technology in education. This chapter was very informative and

interesting. In this lesson, the explanation of how one entity of Tech-

PACK is connected and interfaced with the other entities likewise,

shows how the Tech-PACK process works in integrating technology in

education. This chapter opens up the idea of how technology became

part and be applicable in education.

The three standards that have been developed by International

Society for Technology in education were first introduced and that were

Standards for Administrators, for Teachers and for students. These were

for better connection and empowerment among the administrators,

teachers and students. The building of the strong bond between the

important people of the school was provided and their significance

towards achieving the goal of teaching and learning. Tech-PACK

discussion followed and it shows the framework that integrates

technology in education to encapsulate the complex interactions

among content, pedagogy, and technology. Thus, it provides a picture

of the entire process of technology integration that helps identify what

was essential and what wasCHAPTER

not in any
3 discussions of teacher using
The chapter enabled us to understand digital media and other technologies that support
teaching and learning. Its impact and applications define the purpose of the digital tools that help
teaching and learning be at par with other institutions in the 21st century.
Students learn differently, some are visual learners, while others are auditory and tactile
learners. No matter what kind of learner you are, you engage yourself in the process of learning:
planning, implementing, inspecting, and evaluating your learning activities.
The learning processes can be interpreted into four steps called TIME plan. TIME means
Target, Implement, Monitor and Evaluate. The TIME plan can further assist both teachers and
students whenever they want to learn by themselves new hardware and software which can be
My Reflection
integrated in teaching and learning.
In understanding digital media, media by definition is the plural of medium. It has
developed toThemeanchapter deals
facilitating with communication
or linking digital technology be it viaand media
a radio, phone,literacy.
Web, TVItor
some other instruments. The purpose of medium is to help in conveying a message. When we
enables us to understand digital media and other technologies that
transmit message using more than one medium, we refer to it as multimedia, whether it is
computer-based or not. Multimedia
support teaching is a combination
and learning. Its impactof two and or applications
more media. Inwill computer,
define the
media in multimedia refer to graphics, audio (sound effect, music, voice-over and the like), text,
and purpose
animation. of
the digitalthen tools
is a powerful avenue
that help in communicating
teaching and learninginformation
be atand
messages to other people. While digital media s defined as those technologies that enables users
to make withforms
other of institutions.
communication,The lesson and
interaction, andentertainment
discussion in was very
digital fruitful.
format. Digital
media software refers to any computer-based presentation or application software that uses
multimedia elements
The time but plan
not allwas
digital media software
introduced firstareinconsidered
the lesson.interactive digital plan
The time media.
Interactive digital media allows users to interact with the program by means of input coming
from promotes successful
the user through learning.
appointing No(mouse,
device matter stylus),
what kind of learner,
keyboard, voice, they
finger will
movements, and then the digital media performs an action in response.
beIt was
a fact inthat the process
the learning of learning:
dynamics planning,
in the classrooms implementing,
have changed due to the
presence and integration of digital media applications. In reference with the Cone of Experience
inspecting and evaluating learning activities. The learning process can
of Edgar Dale, it indicates that students generally remember 20 percent of what they hear, 30
what they see,intoand four
50 percent
stepsof called
what theythehear
TIMEand plan:
see, 70 Target,
percent ofImplement,
what they say
and write, and 90 percent of what they do. When students are given a chance to hear, see and
interact with aand
Monitor learning environment,
Evaluate. This TIME they plan
can remember as muchboth
further assists as 80 percent of
teachers and the
information. Digital media applications were highly effective educational tools when
appropriately whenever
integrated they want
into teaching to learn by themselves new hardware
during instruction.
The digital tools that support learning were: technology as tutor and technology as
and software which can be integrated in teaching and learning. Then
mindtool. There was also this Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) that provides the students with
thepersonalized support in
understanding oflearning.
digital media was discussed. The differences

between media, multimedia, digital media and its software and the

interactive digital media and their uses followed. The impact of digital

media applications in education was also provided. In this part of book,

the application of media, literally the technology which was slowly

evolving and wide spreading in schools was clearly stated and

Understanding the ICT and computers

The chapter dealt with the roles and functions of ICT and computer and the impact they
brought to education over time.
ICT has transformed every aspect in the teaching and learning process. It can serve
multiple teaching functions. ICT can be used as drill and practice, to help solve problems, to
access information in different fields. It can be used in different teaching and learning modes.
These learning modes include: classroom interactive learning, independent learning, networked
learning, organizational learning, and managed learning. In ICT information can be delivered in
an instant. Because of internet, one can deliver information in a wide coverage at low cost.
ICT created an enormous growth over My the
past years in the field of education. It has
changed many aspects in the teaching and learning process as it affects the educational system,
educational Chapter
learning environment,
4 deals with teaching methods
the roles andand strategiesofand
functions ICTtheand
the students
learn. The development of ICT had made a great impact in education. From the very first
and of
invention thetheimpact
Horn Book they brought
in the to education
year 1650, children wereover time.
provided withThe
alphabetslet and
us a
religious verse which they would copy to help them learn how to write. Then years after, a lot of
inventions the and
followed impact of ICT
supported the and computers
teaching and learningto education.
process of theThis chapter
students. Every
invention contributed a lot to their learning and made every bits of it relevant and meaningful.
was very interesting and very knowledgeable in the sense that it
Until such time that the first computer was invented and introduced. It was the first freely
the roles then
of followed by such technologies
ICT in education: that promote the
how it transformed learning
every of the
students in a whole. The different senses of the students were used through the application of the
in the
devices. In teaching
the year 2015,and learning
Mobile Apps have become the center of effective
classroom learning and thus foster quality education.
The were ICT part of ICT and played aaffects
role in every studentssystem,
life. They
and computers educational
have changed many aspects especially in education. Many researchers have enumerated the
roles educational
and functions learning
of computers. Computers canteaching
environment, increase productivity
methods among students and
and strategies
teachers. They can perform their tasks well and the time that they can save can e used for other
tasks.and the way
Computers the students
facilitate learn.
communication At this
between point teachers
students, of time, andthe focus was There
administrators. on
are many communication tools that are used today to be able to communicate to students, fellow
the administrators
teachers, different inventions of technologies
as well as parents. donecan
Some of the tools bybewell-known
used to submitinventors.
share lessons digitally which can be considered as a form of communication. Computers are used
What were the essence of their of each invention and how it
to access large amounts of information. They are also brilliant aids in teaching. Computers are
used contributed
as an aid in learning
to thethrough the different
learning academic
of students software,
towards software
the support till
past years tools
productivity tools. Computers also facilitate an electronic format for storage of information.
can teach subjects and enhance learning of the students. Using the computer, the students
will be able to gain knowledge of various subjects.
In the evolution of inventions, it can be seen that there was an

improvement on each material based on its physical appearance,

purpose, and ease of use. It shows that over the past years, inventors

minds were focused on how each invention would be make the learning

of each student relevant and meaningful. It also shows how great the

minds of those people are and how concern they are towards
Understanding the Nature
of Instructional Software

The chapter detailed on the system and application software which help administrators,
teachers and students electronically meet the ends of their products. The chapter further
introduced the different application software that allow students and teachers to enhance their
skills in producing creative outputs such as reports, presentations, record keeping and many
Software was categorized into two types: system software and application software. Both
complete the purpose of the individual for acquiring computer at home, school, office, church
and business.
System software consists of programs that control the operations of the computer and its
My Reflection
devices. System software serves as the interface between the user, the application software, and
the hardware. Operating system is one type of system software which contains instructions that
The chapter
contains instructions talks about
that coordinate theactivities
all of the software for computer
of the educators and students.
hardware devices. The
operating system also contains instructions that allow the user to run the application software.
This introduces first the understanding with the nature of instructional
The different operating systems were: Stand-alone operating system like Windows and MAC OS
X; Embedded
software. Operating System
It detailed onlike
the iOS, Googleand
system Android and Blackberry
application OS and
software the Emerging
which help
Operating Systems like that of Googles Chrome that has the potential to revolutionize
administrators, teachers, and students electronically meet the ends of
Application Software or application software programs allow users to perform specific
their products.
tasks lie writing documents,It further introduces
making project the different
presentations, software
video recording application
and many others.
Application Software can be used for different purposes. First, it can be as a productivity/
software that allows students and teachers to enhance their skills in
business tool. Second, it can create graphics and multimedia projects. Third, it supports school
and professional
producingactivities. Fourth, it helpssuch
as with home and personal activities. Lastly,
creative outputs reports, presentations, record
application software facilitates communication.
There were
keeping, and types
manyof software
others. applications
The chapter used in was
schools to help
very in accomplishing
interesting and
activities. First, instructional software which was designed specifically to deliver instruction or
aid with critical
the delivery thinking
of instruction just skills since
like tutorial the drill
software, application
and practiceofsoftware,
simulations, instructional games, problem solving software and special needs software. Second,
productivity software which of was
designed and their
to help sub-categories
teachers and students inwere introduced
creating their reports,
computing of grades, communicating, developing of materials and keeping of records effectively
with their uses and functions towards learning.
and efficiently like word processing software, electronic spreadsheet software, presentation
software and graphics and multimedia software. Lastly, the administrative software which were
programs that It was very important
administrators at schools forused
us to know the
to establish andsoftware
the computer
keeping and
exchanges of information among various institutions and agencies.
and their uses because we would learn a lot if we were able to achieve

and do this. A vast of examples was also provided and this contributed

a lot towards better understanding of each category. It was so

interesting to learn about the different software especially on what

category does the existing software that were used by some teachers

of today belong. It can be witnessed that with the use of these

software, the acquisition of students towards the lesson was better and

The chapter was focused on the closer look of instructional software which gives the
knowledge on selection, benefits, limitations and problems of the recognized software. Also, the
purposes and benefits of the software support tools which were helpful in producing specific
outputs such as brochures, certificates, tests, presentations, web pages and the like were
described in the chapter.
In the chapter, selecting suitable instruction software, its benefits and limitations were
further discussed.
In selecting drill-and-practice software, one must consider that it gave users enough time
to think and answer before proceeding to the next question. It must be able to discriminate
correct answers from incorrect ones and that two errors must be avoided when programs give
feedback. The benefits in using this software were: there was an immediate feedback, motivation
and saves the time of the teacher while its limitation and problems were: perceived misuse and
criticism by constructiveness.
In selecting tutorial software, one must know that it should have extensive interactivity,
thorough user control, appropriate pedagogy, adequate answer-judging and feedback capabilities,
appropriate graphics and adequate record keeping. My Reflection
Tutorial software had the same benefits with
drill-and-practice software. Tutorials were self-contained and self-paced instruction which allows
students to This
learn at their own
chapter time. Thealimitations
provides closer lookand problems of tutorial software
on instructional softwarewere:
criticism by constructivism, lack of good products and reflect only one instructional approach.
In selecting
which gives simulation software, one
the knowledge on must remember
selection, that therelimitations
benefits, was a realisticandand
accurate representation of a system. The benefits of simulation software were: it compresses
time, slowdown processes, get students involved, make experimentation safe, make the
problems of the recognized software. The selection of suitable
impossible possible, save money and others resources, allow repetition with variations and allow
observation of complex processes. Its limitations and problems were: criticism of virtual lab
instruction software, its benefits and limitations will be further
software, accuracy of models and misuse of simulations.
In selecting instructional games, one must consider that it should have appealing formats
discussed. This chapter was very engaging since all the needs in
and activities, instructional value, physical dexterity is reasonable and social, societal and
cultural considerations. Its benefits were: games are more interesting than traditional instruction,
choosing software were provided. A teacher or even a learner will be
retention of information is longer, assists teachers to get students to focus on the topic and makes
learning more engaging and motivational. Though, its limitations and problems were: learning
guided throughout the selection and to the process of instruction.
vs. having fun, confusion of game rules and real life rules, inefficient learning and classroom
Lastly, in selecting
It was problem solving
very helpful that theysoftware, teachersthe
provided should see tothat
things it that the software
should be
that should be able to develop the skills of the students in solving various kinds of content area
problems. Its benefits
considered were: promotes
in selecting what visualization
softwareinto mathematics
be usedproblem in thesolving,
better understanding in visualization of abstract concepts and improves interests in motivation in
doing problem solving
process. activities. Itswill
The teachers limitations
know werethe effectiveness
things that of problem
would solving
hindera software
and suitability in learning strategy of students.
instruction. The benefits were also given so that they would know what

the software may do towards their teaching and to the learning process

of their students. Also, the limitations were given so that teachers will

know their boundaries in selecting the software. They should reflect on

each limitations so that they will not make a wrong move and would not

ruin the delivery of the lesson thus, will not be the reason why the

learning goals will not be achieved. The software support tools followed

that benefited teachers in teaching and students in learning various

classroom situations.

Educational technology and software evaluation are essential in the process of technology
integration in education. The purposes and processes of evaluating software and educational
technology were discussed in this chapter in which in the end we had a knowledge and ability in
evaluating such tool to make teaching, assessing, and learning more effective and functional.
Evaluation was an important part of any process or any entity or item consumed by an
individual, to know how well it works, whether it is effective or not, and to determine whether it
benefits or brings complication to the person. Evaluating the use of educational technology in a
class was important as evaluating the processes done in any project. To evaluate a process or
item is to determine its importance and usefulness. Further, educational technology must: be
suitable for the teaching and learning situations, be motivational, promote learning, be at right
level or age of the learners, address the needs of the curriculum and help meet the learning
outcomes. Educational technology was being evaluated before instruction, during instruction and
after instruction.
My Reflection
In evaluating before instruction, reading various resources about the particular
educational technology that the teacher wants to apply in his/her instruction would help him/her
to determine ifThe
this ischapter discussedbyabout
highly recommended the Next,
other users. evaluation of during
in evaluating educational
the teacher should continue to observe and assess the effectiveness of educational technology
technology. The purposes and processes of evaluating software and
being implemented in classroom use. The teacher take note of the benefits and problems
encountered during technology
educational implementation. Lastly,
were in evaluating
discussed after theatinstruction,
in which the end the teacher
there waswould
finally decide whether the educational technology used in instruction was of help in the teaching
and learning
gained process.
knowledge and ability in evaluating such tool to make teaching,
Evaluating the software particularly the instructional software to be used in class was
likewise important and learningtechnologies.
as evaluating more effective and functional.
The content, documentationThe and chapter was
technical support,
ability levels and assessment and the technical quality and ease of use were the areas that need to
well- informed and very interesting.
be evaluated.
Evaluating educational technologys effectiveness was no easy task for it was the linked
with the students learning.before, during theand
Thus, evaluating after of
effectiveness the instruction
educational were
technology was
connected with the assessment given to students. The skills and students ability have to be taken
into discussed.
consideration These providethea totality
when assessing lot of ofinformation to teachers
students learning. Assessment in inhandling
the field of
education, when defined, was any method used to measure how much the student has learned-
the students, the activities and the process of instruction. These serve
knowledge and performance of students. There were different assessments that may be given to
as alike traditional
guide assessment
to teachers onandwhatalternative assessment which
they supposed to do encompasses
before, during the authentic
assessment, project- based assessment and portfolio assessment.
after theinstruction.
the students submit theirwas
This requirements, projects, and
very important otherthe
since assessments,
teacherstheneed teacher
evaluate all these and their learning processes using checklists, rating scales and rubrics. These
to plan
evaluation the
tools whole
were process
likewise helpfulofininstruction
evaluating thesointegration
that theofgoal will betechnology
educational achieve in
and that the learners will learn in a comprehensible way. The time spent

will not be wasted since the teacher was guided on what to do and thus

would make it meaningful. The areas that should be evaluated were

also provided for teachers to have a good and organized plan. Different

assessments and tools that might be given to students were also

enlisted so that teachers will know what appropriate assessment would

be used to measure the learning of each student and how they should

The chapter enlightened us on the proper and ethical use of software and other school
technologies. Technology and software issues were also elaborated in order for us to be aware
and be guided in doing the right thing and avoiding the unacceptable acts that may lead to
committing mistakes or possible software and technology crimes that are against the law.
In the use of school technologies, both teachers and students must recognize and observe
the ethical use of school technologies to achieve rightfully the main purpose of technology- to
support teaching and learning.
There were five ethical uses in technology and software. First, the unauthorized access
and use of hardware, software, network and computer files where somebody would use
anybodys computer files without permission from the owner that was called unauthorized
access. A person was called a cracker or a hacker if he/she tries to access a computer or network
illegally to access data and commit malicious acts like identity theft. Hacker originally means a
computer enthusiast who does well in computer that benefits other people. To prevent possible
My Reflection
events of hacking, schools install firewalls. This was a security system that blocks unauthorized
access to data on a network. Second, hardware theft and vandalism were some of the security
This chapter
challenges encountered by theenlightened us the
school administrators and proper and ethical
teachers. Computer theft isuse of of
and its devices and hardware while computer vandalism is the act of damaging or breaking the
software and other technologies. Technology and software issues were
hardware, cutting the cables and wires, smashing the computer and its devices- and deleting of
also or computer files.
elaborated The best
in order forprecautionary
us to be ware measure andin keeping
be guidedthe hardware
in doing safe
theis to
have full awareness on its security by not leaving it anywhere and unattended. Third, software
and software
thing piracy was a form the
and avoiding of this. This happens when
unacceptable actsa person
that may copies lead
copyrighted software for personal or business use. Schools enforced policies regarding the
installation and usemistakes
of computeror possible
software software
to make sure thatand technology
the conditions crimes
that have agreedthat
were strictly monitored and followed. Fourth, information theft was a computer crime when one
were against the law. I fine this activity so knowledgeable and it
deliberately steals information for purposes of studying how to compete with other organizations
and develops
companies. one To prevent the access of information through
usetheofuse of computers and networks,
discipline towards the proper technology.
schools implement the use of encryption which was the process of converting readable data to
unreadable one. Lastly, malware acts in software were commonly experienced in e-mails,
cellphones, The ethics
instant or textfor computers
messaging deviceswere
and first
There wereand it greatly
several exampleshelps
of these
such as spam which was an unwanted message being received through e-mails, discussion
then users to minimize their acts towards using the technology. This
boards, text messaging devices and others; phishing which can also be called as carding or
has aThisbigwas a scam
impact tointhe
which an agent
users sincesends
theya are
the ones that should that attempts
reflect to
steal personal and financial information including bank account numbers of the recipient. There
wasto alsothe
malware which
enlisted was theThey
ethics. malicious
shouldsoftware that causes
perform harm to oneethics
the following or moreso computers
then the adware that was software that incorporates the presentation of advertisement as
their for
condition usage andthe
operating time will be relevant and meaningful. The ethical use in

technology and software follows which provides the different acts that

can be done harmfully to the technology. This should be clarified

towards the users so that they will not do this and harm other people.

They will be also be aware to the possible outcome of the acts that can

be done by other people. The acceptable and unacceptable uses of

school technology were also given for the users to be guided well.

The chapter was very relevant. It opens the minds of the users of
Internet and the World Wide Web

This chapter dealt with the delivery systems where teaching and learning may take place.
These alternative delivery systems (ADS) were helpful for learners who cannot come physically
in school but were very eager to learn.
Distance education was first discussed before getting into the details of ADS. Distance
education was a method of education where students can study in their own choice of place and
time, without having to meet their teachers face-to-face. Instruction in distance education was
being delivered with the use of special materials and technologies that may be included in the
alternative delivery system. The different technologies that supported distance education
(alternative delivery system) were: broadcast radio, audio conferencing, video conferencing, web
conferencing and online technologies.
Broadcast Radio. Radio was an ADS which was considered as a powerful tool when
delivering a lesson or disseminating information to a large group of students. This ADS may not
sound so popular, but in actuality this was widely used in both developed and developing
countries. The use of radio has started as early as 1970s to employ active learning through
instructional conversation. The different formats of delivery in broadcast radio can be: discussion
documentary, drama, doc-drama, and interview.
Audio conferencing was also known as telephone/ phone conferencing
(teleconferencing). Teleconferencing was an alternative delivery system in which instruction may
happen through telecommunications system. Exchange of ideas, information, and messages were
articulated remotely from the teacher to students and vice versa with the use of a telephone or
Video conferencing was used by teachers and students to transmit coursework at a
distance. This was another convenient delivery system that schools apply to have teaching and
learning continues even at a distance.
Web conferencing was usually interchangeably used with video conferencing. Though
tools and requirements used in video conferencing were similar with web conferencing, its
purpose was entirely different. Webinars and webcasts were two types of web conferencing.
Webinar was a one-way conference between one or more speakers. Webcast was a live streaming
event, broadcast over the internet.
Other online telecommunication tools that educators can used to deliver instructions were
through electronic mail (e-mail) and Learning Management Systems (LMS). It was a software
application or web-based technology system that allows anyone to create e-learning content and
coursework, deliver e-learning courses to participants and manage learning materials.
My Reflection

Chapters 9 dealt with the delivery systems where teaching and

learning take place. These alternative systems were helpful for learners

who cannot come physically in school but were very eager to learn.

There were available alternative delivery systems discussed in the

chapter. This was very interesting since teachers and students were

provided with different alternative delivery systems for them to use

when they want to study or teach outside the school. They can also

assess the ADS whether those were effective as the formal education

where students meet their teachers in person at the four walls of the


The characteristics of distance education were enlisted first and

give elaboration on what is really meant by distance education. It has

also different benefits and advantages to students. Then there were

different technologies that support Distance Education like broadcast

radio, audio, video and web conferencing and online strategies. These

technologies were very helpful to teachers to deliver their lesson

towards their students from different locations. Each of them has also

different advantages that surely benefited both the teacher and the
Chapter 10
student towards teaching and
COMPONENTS OF learning. The technologies
THE INTERNET AND also provide a
relevant learning although the teacher and the student may not be
Chapter 10 dealt with the Internet and the World Wide Web. This chapter discussed the
components of Internet such as protocols, Internet access providers, connecting to the internet,
and concepts related to World Wide Web.
Using the Internet, one can discover the world, access vast information like news and
educational materials, communicate with people around the world, shop, explore sources of
entertainment like games, music, video, travel, take a course and do business.
Schools, offices, and hoes had different multiple computers that are connected with one
another. When you connect these computers, you call it a network. Networks maybe be a LAN or
a WAN. LAN or Local Area Network is a network that covers only a limited geographical are
like in a classroom, computer laboratory, office or group of buildings. WAN or Wide Area
Network is a network that covers a large geographical area like a city. It consists several LANs.
The worldwide connection of networks are called the internet or simply net. The Internet started
My Reflection
in the late 1960s from the U.S. Department of Defenses Advanced Research Projects Agency
(ARPA). They called this ARPANET. The purpose of building the network was to allow
scientists to Chapter
communicatewas andvery
information onand interesting.
military It projects
and scientific dealt with the
on different
Internet and the World Wide Web. The chapter discussed the
Schools, businesses and home establish connection to the Internet through as ISP or
Internet Service Provider.
components of An ISP is a private
Internet such company
as theor government
Internet that lets one
connect into the vast Internet around the world. ISP offers various Internet connection speeds for
a monthly fee and connecting
providers, a variety of services
to the that may be offered
Internet and theby the ISP either
concept for free to
related for World
a certain
amount. Today, all computers and mobile computers and devices can connect to the Internet.
Wide Web.
Connection Using has
to the Internet thedifferent
like can
DSL,discover the world,
Cable, Satellite access
and the 3G and 4G. vast
Many would interchangeably use the words Internet and World Wide Web. Though World
information like news and educational materials, communicate with
Wide Web is one of the services of the Internet, the World Wide Web (WWW) or simply the web
is a collection of webpages
thefound in this network of computers.
sourcesIt for
is a entertainment
system of hyperlinked
people around world shop, explore likeor
hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. WWW came into existence in early 1990 and
then, it has been widely
music, video,used.
travel, take a course and do business.
Hyperlinks or links allowed users to navigate quickly from one page to another. A
webpage is consists of text, graphics, sounds, videos and even animations. A collection of
The characteristics of internet were first discussed including the
webpages was called a website. Most website had a hompage which is the first page of the
different connections were people made possible to communicate
Web browser or browser was a software that allows user to access and view webpages.
The browsers
within awere the ones
limited areathat
to thethewhole
tags from
howdocument into a functional
the internet works.
and interactive webpages. Examples of browsers were Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome, Internet
Explorer, provides users wide range information towards using the internet.
and Safari.

It was also very important to know the nature of the tool that makes

communication from faraway places possible than just simply use it

without knowing its background and characteristics. Then the different

internet service provider were enlisted like DSL, cable, satellite and the

3G and 4G including their uses towards communication. Next, the World

Wide Web was discussed. WebPages, websites, Homepage, web

browsers and web servers were being defined and were clearly

Chapter 11 dealt with the different roles Internet play in Education. The Internet has
changed education significantly especially on how the teachers, students and parents
communicate with each other, how to find good resources to be used in the classroom and how to
use the Internet to create and develop learning materials and activities. In the chapter, the role o
the Internet as a tool for communication, as a tool for inquiry and as a tool for construction was
The Internet has introduced a lot of developments especially on how teachers and
students communicate and connect with each other. Almost all the students and their teachers as
well have at least a smart phone to be able to give announcements, reminders, ask questions or
simply to send a message.
Communication can be asynchronous and synchronous communication. Examples of
asynchronous communication were: e-mail, discussion boards/forum, blogs, wikis, mailing lists
and tweets. This type of communication is where the person communicates anywhere and
My Reflection
anytime. The person should not be online to receive the message. Synchronous communication
was a type of communication where the people communicate in real time. Examples of this
This and
were: chat, instant chapter deals with
text messaging theconferencing.
and video different roles of Internet play in
Email was the oldest and most common communication tool that was easy to use and
education. The Internet has changed education significantly especially
very reliable. Through email, messages were typed, sent, stored and retrieved. Messages can be
to multiple
how the addresses and canstudents
teachers, be forwarded t other
and recipients.
parents communicate with each
Discussion Board/ Forum create social interaction for students and allow all students to
a voice.
up forums for questions
resources to beabout
useda concept, thoughts on todays
in the classroom and howlecture
or peer help/ review.
to Blog
use orthe
web Internet
log was anto create
online journaland develop
that was publiclylearning
accessible. materials and
Wikis was a web-based communication tool that allows the teacher and students to work
activities. The internets roles as a tool for communication, as a tool for
together, share resources (lesson/notes), and collaborate.
Tweetsandwereastext-based posts that can be upwere
to 140discussed.
characters that were posted within
inquiry a tool for construction This chapter was a
persons profile page. Twitter uses a hashtag, which means a topic with the # symbol such as
#edtech. These topics were used for spreading, organizing, and searching for information. \
very fruitful.
Chat was a widely used communication tool. It was easy to use by both the teachers and
the students.
The netiquette for teachers were first discussed and this opens a
Instant messaging or IM was a service that allows users to use private chatrooms in
for a alert
goodeach other when
discipline they wish
in using thetointernet.
chat whileInternet
text messaging
has a allows
lot offor
instantaneous communication between people that is done with the use of cellphones.
Video conferencing
advantages but itmeans conducting
cannot a conference
be avoided between
that two oralso
it has more participants
a lot of at
different sites by using computer networks to transmit audio and video data.
disadvantages. With the enlisted netiquettes, the teachers were guided

on what are the things that they should do and the things which are

not. Then the presentation of two categories of communication which

are asynchronous and synchronous communication followed in the

discussion together with their examples. The different examples had

their own characteristics, how to apply them and the rules in using

were provided. The tools for inquiry and construction were also given.

These greatly help the teachers and students since they can acquire a

Chapter 12 dealt with the different web tools and resources used in the classroom. The
World Wide Web had vast information that can be used for teaching and learning. This chapter
provided a background of the evolution of the web from web 1.0 to web 5.0. Web 1.0 as a Read
only web, web 2.0 as a read-write web, Web 3.0 as a semantic web, web 4.0 as a mobile web and
web 5.0 as the emotional web are described in the chapter.
The World Wide Web was merely a tool, as in a chalkboard, overhead projector, or VCR.
Tools dont teach. When effectively implemented, they assist in the learning process. If learning
on the part of the students has been helped by the use of a tool, then the tool has been used
According to Tim Berners-Lee, the first implementation of the web in 1999 representing
the Web 1.0 could be considered as the read-only web because the early web allowed users to
search for information and read it.
Web 2.0 was defined by Dale Dougherty in 2004 as read-write web. With Web 2.0,
teachers and students have new ways of creating, collaborating and contributing (3Cs) of
Web 3.0 was the third generation of the web which was suggested by John Maroff of the
My Reflection
New York Times. Web 3.0 was considered as semantic web age according to Tim Berners Lee.
Semantic web was a web that can demonstrate things in the approach which computer can
understand.Chapter 12 dealt with the different web tools and resources used
Web 4.0 connects all devices in the real and virtual world in real-time. In this generation,
in the classroom. The World Wide Web has vast of information that can
the web was now moving towards using artificial intelligence.
Web 5.0
be used forwas about theand
teaching emotional interaction
learning. between humans
The chapter providesand acomputers.
backgroundThe web
here does not perceive the users feel and emotions.
of the Wide Web
evolution offered
of the web excellent
from 1.0resources
to webthat5.0.
be used
1.0 for
as teaching, learning,
a Read only
researching and a lot more. The different categories of web resources were: online tutorials,
Web, Web
instructional 2.0 asand
resources a read-write web, Web 3.0 as a semantic web, web 4.0
primary resources.
In keeping track of web resources we need to create a list of resources for future
as a mobile web and web 5.0 as the emotional web were described in
references. First, we need to use bookmarks then, adding bookmark, next, organize bookmarks
exporting bookmarks.
chapter. The whole chapter was very informative and very
The other web tools that were helpful for teachers and students were storytelling,
electronic book (eBook), Really Simple Syndication (RSS), Social Bookmarking, Podcast and

The use of the World Wide Web as an instructional tool was

gaining positive feedbacks to teachers. Web- Based Instruction uses the

web as a source for instructional information. WBI can be used anytime

and anywhere to access instructional materials. This was also helpful in

a distance education setup. Many teachers nowadays were using web-

based instruction because it is effective, efficient and enjoyable. Aside

from this, it also enhances learning, reduces repetitive teaching tasks

and provides improved instructional materials.

The different web tools were enlisted with their characteristics

and their uses. Then the categories of web resources were also given.

Next, it was followed by consideration on how to keep track to web