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Business Research Methods



Independent & Dependent Variables

Submitted To:

Miss Tasneem Fatima

Submitted By:
Urooj Khursheed (7151-FMS/MBA/F15)

Kishwar Noreen (7154-FMS/MBA/F15)

Abida Hussain (7150-FMS/MBA/F15)

Hira Mustafa (7143-FMS/MBA/F15)

Research Variables

Dependent Variable:

The dependent variable is the variable a researcher is interested in. The changes to the dependent
variable are what the researcher is trying to measure with all their fancy techniques.
Independent Variable:

An independent variable is a variable believed to affect the dependent variable. This is the variable
that you, the researcher, will manipulate to see if it makes the dependent variable change.
Mediator Variable:
In general, a given variable may be said to function as a mediator to the extent that it accounts for the
relation between the predictor and the criterion. Mediators explain how external physical events take
on internal psychological significance.
Moderator Variable:
In general terms, a moderator is a qualitative (e.g., sex, race, class) or quantitative (e.g., level of
reward) variable that affects the direction and/or strength of the relation between an independent or
predictor variable and a dependent or criterion variable.
Serial No. Database Journal Name Year Article Title Authors Key Words
1. Science The Leadership 2011 Impact of Louis. W. Spiritual
Direct Quarterly spiritual Fry, Seam T. Leadership,
leadership on Hannah, Military,
unit Michael Workplace
performance Noel, Fred O. Spirituality,
Walumbwa Performance,
2. Springer Journal of 2012 Spirituality and Kelly A. Spirituality,
Business Ethics Strategic Phipps Strategic
Leadership: leadership,
The Inuence Spiritual beliefs,
of Spiritual Decision
Beliefs on making, Schema,
Strategic Level of analysis
3. Emerald Leadership & 2015 Servant Wallace Employee
Organization leadership and Alexander, creativity,
Development followership Williams Jr Political skill,
Journal creativity: The Randolph- Workplace
influence of Seng , spirituality,
workplace Brandon Servant
spirituality and Mario, Hayek leadership
political skill Stephanie,
Pane Haden
4. JSTOR Journal of 2011 The Impact of Chin-Yi Chen Spiritual
Business Ethics Spiritual and Chin- leadership
Leadership on Fang Yang Organizational
Organizational citizenship
Citizenship behavior
Behavior: A Multi-sample
Multi-Sample analysis
Analysis Finance
Retail industry
5. JSTOR Journal of 2012 Spiritual Louis W. Fry spiritual
Business Ethics Leadership as a Melanie P. leadership,
Paradigm Cohen workaholism,
for organizational
Organizational transformation,
Transformation organizational
and Recovery culture
from Extended
Work Hours
6. Science The Leadership 2012 Assessing the Chin-Yi Spiritual
direct Quarterly spiritual Chen, Chun-I leadership
leadership Li effectiveness;
effectiveness: Self-concept;
Thecontributio Culture;
n of follower's Managerial
self-concept position;
and preliminary Organizational
tests for citizenship
moderation of behavior
culture and
7. AJBM African Journal 2010 The effect of Bulent Spiritual
of Business spiritual Aydin* and leadership,
Management leadership on Adnan organizational
Vol.3 (5) organizational Ceylan learning capacity,
learning metalworking
capacity industry.

8. Globalbiz Proceedings of 2015 Spiritual Usha Devi. Spiritual

Research org the Second Leadership and N Leadership (SL),
European its Relationship Quality of work
Academic with Quality of life (QWL), &
Research Work Life and Organizational
Conference on Organizational Performance
Global Business, Performance (OP)
Economics, An Exploratory
Finance Study
and Banking

9. PUB-MED Global Journal of 2013 Relationship Sadeghifar J, Spiritual

Health Science between Bahadori M1, leadership,
career Baldacchino health
motivation D, Raadabadi professional
and M, Jafari M. educators
in health
educators: a
study in

10. Emerald International 2015 Studying the Reza Iran, Employee

Journal of effect of Salehzadeh, behavior,
Culture, Tourism spiritual Javad Organizational
and Hospitality leadership Khazaei Pool, performance,
Research on Jafar Kia Spiritual
organization Lashaki, leadership, Hotel
al industry,
Hasan Dolati
performance Balanced
and Hadi
: an scorecard
study in
1. Impa
ct of

spiritual leadership on unit performance

Independent Variable: Spiritual Leadership

Dependent Variable: Organizational Commitment, Productivity, Squad Military Performance, PDR
Character, PDR Competence
Mediator: Calling/Meaning, Membership

2. Spirituality and Strategic Leadership: The Inuence of Spiritual Beliefs on

Strategic Decision Making
Independent Variable: Leaders Personal Spiritual Beliefs
Dependent Variable:Decision Making (Information Available to the Leader, The Information Considered
by the Leader, The Way Information is Used by the Leader)
Moderator: Organizational Context, Leadership Style
Mediator: Constructive Development, Meta-Belief

3. Servant leadership and followership creativity: The influence of workplace

spirituality and political skill
Independent Variable: Servant Leadership
Dependent Variable: Employee Creativity
Mediator: Workplace Spirituality
Moderator: Leader Political Skill

4. The

Spiritual Leadership on Organizational Citizenship Behaviour: A Multi-Sample


Independent Variable:
Leaders spiritual leadership
Hope/ faith
Altruistic love
Dependent Variable:
Spiritual survival

5. Spiritual Leadership as a Paradigm for Organizational Transformation

And Recovery from ExtendedWork Hours Cultures

Independent Variable:
Spiritual leadership
Hope/ faith
Inner life
Dependent Variable:
Individual and

organizational outcomes
Organizational commitment
Financial performance
Employee life satisfaction
Corporate social responsibility
Spiritual wellbeing
Calling (make a difference life has meaning/purpose
Membership (be understood/ be appreciated)

6. Assessing the spiritual leadership effectiveness: The contribution of

follower's self-concept and preliminary tests for moderation of culture and

Independent Variable:
Spiritual leadership
Dependent Variable:
Organizational commitment
OCB( altruism)
Transcendental motivation toward work/organization
Transcendental self-concept

7. The effect of spiritual leadership on organizational learning capacity

Independent Variable: Spiritual Leadership

Dependent Variable: Organizational Learning Capacity (systems orientation, organizational climate
for learning orientation, knowledge acquisition and utilization orientation and information
sharing and dissemination orientation.)
8. Spiritual Leadership and its Relationship with Quality of
Work Life and Organizational Performance An Exploratory Study

Independent Variable: Spiritual Leadership

Dependent Variable: Organizational Performance
Mediator: Quality Of Work Life

9. Relationship between career motivation and perceived spiritual

leadership in health professional educators: a correlational study
in Iran.

Independent Variable: Leader values, Attitudes & Behavior

Dependent Variable: Organizational Outcomes
Mediator: Follower needs for spiritual survival

10. Studying the effect of spiritual leadership on organizational performance: an

empirical study in hotel industry
Independent Variable: Spiritual Leadership

Dependent Variable: Performance

Mediator: Calling, Membership