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# 1.

1.1 Pumps

et al., 1979)

## equipment required to pump water. Factors include the how genuine

and reliable the service it may give, the cost of equipment, and the

1.3.1 Work

## The work done by a pump is equal to the product of

mass flow and the total head against which the flow is

moved.

## kinetic energy and potential energy.

1.3.2.1 Kinetic Energy

flowing fluid.

elevation.

pump.

pump.

## The total dynamic head is the sum of the static

water applications.

The total static head is the sum of the static suction

## diameter, length, material and condition, and the

number of fittings.

## 1.3.10 Power Input

The power input of a pump ( P p ) is a function of

## its efficiency and is equal to

Pw
P p= (Equation 1-2)
Ep

## In which Ep is the pump efficiency expressed as a decimal.

2. Fittings
Fittings are commonly used in pipe and plumbing systems to

## connect straight pipes, to adapt different sizes or shapes, and to regulate

flow of fluid. Component head losses, also known as minor head losses, are

associated with flow through fittings such as elbows, tees, valves and bends.
2.1 Loss Coefficients

h
The pressure loss ( L) through a fitting in a pipe at a

k V2
h L=
2g

(Equation 1-3)

## 2.1-1) which is approximately constant and generally assumed with turbulent

fluid flow, v as the velocity (m/s, ft/s), and g as the gravitational

2 2
acceleration (9.81m/ s , 32.2 ft/ s ).

Table 2.1-1: The tabulation shows common values of loss coefficient, k for
various fitting types.

## Type of Fitting Loss Coefficient, k

0.35
45 Elbow
0.2
0.75
90 Elbow Curved
0.45
90 Elbow Square or Mitred 1.3
180 Bend 1.5
Tee, Run Through 0.4
Tee, as Elbow 1
Tee, as Elbow 1
Tee, Branching Flow 1
Coupling 0.04
Union 0.04
0.17
0.9
Gate valve
4.5
24
2.3
2.6
Diaphragm valve
4.3
21
6
Globe valve, Bevel Seat
9.5
6
Globe Valve, Composition seat
8.5
9
13
Plug disk
36
112
Angle valve 2
Y valve or blowoff valve 3
0.05
0.29
Plug cock 1.56
17.3
206
0.24
0.52
1.54
Butterfly valve
10.8

118
2
Check valve 10
70
Foot valve 15
7
15
Water meter
10
6
Source: www.neutrium.net

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