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Pumps and Pumping System


1.1 Pumps

Pumps are essential to lift water from a lake, reservoir or river to

water treatment plant and preceded by another lift needed to force

water into mains and elevated storage. It is necessary to raise the

water by means of pumps at one or more points in the system. (Steel

et al., 1979)

1.2 Selection of Pumps

Steel et al. (1979) explained that there are several factors to be

considered by a waterworks engineer when deciding upon the

equipment required to pump water. Factors include the how genuine

and reliable the service it may give, the cost of equipment, and the

operation cost. The necessity for reliability and uninterrupted

operation is the most important consideration.

1.3 Work and Efficiency of Pumps

Total head losses are crucial in considering pumps.

1.3.1 Work

The work done by a pump is equal to the product of

mass flow and the total head against which the flow is

moved.

1.3.2 Total Head

The total head characterizes the energy that is

carried by flowing fluid and is expressed as the sum of

kinetic energy and potential energy.


1.3.2.1 Kinetic Energy

Energy involving the velocity of

flowing fluid.

1.3.2.2 Potential Energy

Energy involving the pressure

within a pipe and its corresponding

elevation.

1.3.3 Static Suction Lift

The vertical distance from the centerline of the

pump to the free level of the liquid to be pumped.

Considered source of supply is below the centerline of

pump.

1.3.4 Static Discharge Head

The vertical distance from the centerline of the

pump to the free level of the liquid to be pumped.

Considered source of supply is above the centerline of

pump.

1.3.5 Total Dynamic Head

The total dynamic head is the sum of the static

suction lift, the static discharge head, the friction head

and the velocity head. Velocity head is negligible in most

water applications.

1.3.6 Total Static Head


The total static head is the sum of the static suction

lift and static discharge head.

1.3.7 Friction Head

The friction head is the summation of losses in the

pipelines (due to pipe sizes, lengths and materials as

calculated) and the energy loss produced by flow

through various fittings.

1.3.8 Head Loss

The head loss in the system is a function of a pipes

diameter, length, material and condition, and the

number of fittings.

1.3.9 Water Power

The water power required is the net output of the

pump and is equal to

Pw =kQH (Equation 1-1)

In which Pw (watts) is the power, Q (volume per time) is

the flow rate, H is the total head, and k is a constant

dependent upon fluid density and units

1.3.10 Power Input


The power input of a pump ( P p ) is a function of

its efficiency and is equal to

Pw
P p= (Equation 1-2)
Ep

In which Ep is the pump efficiency expressed as a decimal.

2. Fittings
Fittings are commonly used in pipe and plumbing systems to

connect straight pipes, to adapt different sizes or shapes, and to regulate

flow of fluid. Component head losses, also known as minor head losses, are

associated with flow through fittings such as elbows, tees, valves and bends.
2.1 Loss Coefficients

h
The pressure loss ( L) through a fitting in a pipe at a

specified velocity may be calculated as a function of velocity

head,

k V2
h L=
2g

(Equation 1-3)

Where k is the loss coefficient for a specific fitting (see Table

2.1-1) which is approximately constant and generally assumed with turbulent


fluid flow, v as the velocity (m/s, ft/s), and g as the gravitational

2 2
acceleration (9.81m/ s , 32.2 ft/ s ).

Table 2.1-1: The tabulation shows common values of loss coefficient, k for
various fitting types.

Type of Fitting Loss Coefficient, k

0.35
45 Elbow
0.2
0.75
90 Elbow Curved
0.45
90 Elbow Square or Mitred 1.3
180 Bend 1.5
Tee, Run Through 0.4
Tee, as Elbow 1
Tee, as Elbow 1
Tee, Branching Flow 1
Coupling 0.04
Union 0.04
0.17
0.9
Gate valve
4.5
24
2.3
2.6
Diaphragm valve
4.3
21
6
Globe valve, Bevel Seat
9.5
6
Globe Valve, Composition seat
8.5
9
13
Plug disk
36
112
Angle valve 2
Y valve or blowoff valve 3
0.05
0.29
Plug cock 1.56
17.3
206
0.24
0.52
1.54
Butterfly valve
10.8

118
2
Check valve 10
70
Foot valve 15
7
15
Water meter
10
6
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