Introduction to Projectile Motion

A physics projectile is an object moving in space under the effect of gravitational effect of earth alone is called the projectile motion and the object is called the projectile. A projectile is project the object at once till its original inertia occur and gravity is attracts downward. The another object does not projected by force. The gravity project the object in both horizontal and vertical directions and both has velocity and displacement. When we consider the projectile motion, the following assumptions are made: 1)There is no resistance due to air. 2) The effect due to curvature of earth is negligible. 3) The effect due to rotation of earth is negligible.. 4) For all points of the trajectory, the acceleration due to gravity "g" is constant in magnitude and direction.

Projectile Motion : Types
Two types of projectiles - The projectile motion are divided into two types 1) Horizontal projectile
If a body is projected horizontally from a certain height with a certain velocity, then the body is called a horizontal projectile

2) Oblique projectile
If a body is projected at a certain angle with the horizontal, then the body is called an oblique projectile.

Projectile Motion : Horizontal Projectile
Horizontal Projectile motion- Nature of Trajectory of Horizontal Projectile
Consider a ball projected with velocity in a horizontal direction from point P at height h from the ground. During gravity force is perform in vertically downward for ball acceleration. Due to this acceleration the ball follows a curved path and after sometime t, the ball reaches at point Q with velocity . The magnitude and direction of are quite different from those of . The change in velocity during this time may be evaluated by subtracting from . It may be noted that change in velocity is directed along . This indicates that the horizontal velocity imparted to ball remains unaffected by the vertical motion caused due to gravitational acceleration .

Nature of Trajectory of Horizontal Projectile
Suppose a body is thrown horizontally from a point O with a velocity " v" , at a certain height from the ground. Let x(t) and y(t) be the horizontal and vertical distances respectively covered by the projectile in time "t". Then the equation of motion of projectile for the horizontal direction is ---(1) the equation of motion for vertical direction is y(t)=Vy(0)t + 1/2at2 -----(2) y(t)=1/2 gt2 ------ (3) { since at t= 0 sec Vy(0)= 0 m/sec} Combining equation 1 and 2, we get Y(t)=1/2 g(x/v)2 = Kxt2 ----(4) , which is a second degree equation in x and first degree in y , Hence the equation of parabola. so, we conclude that a body thrown horizontally from a certain height above the ground follows a parabolic trajectory till it hits the ground. Let the ball fall on ground at point R. The distance OR is the horizontal range. If T is the time taken by ball to reach the ground, than keeping in mind that initial velocity in vertical direction is zero, we have for vertical distance h, h = gT2 , that is T = Therefore horizontal range R = Horizontal velocity x Time R = vT = v .

Projectile Motion : Oblique Projectile
Oblique Projectile motion- Trajectory of an Oblique Projectile Consider a projectile thrown with velocity v(o) at an angle theta with the horizontal , which can be resolved into two components (i) V(0) cos( ) along X- axis (ii) V(0) sin( ) along Y -axis. The horizontal motion of the projectile is uniform motion and the vertical motion is controlled by the force of gravity

This is a first degree in "y" and second degree in "x. hence the trajectory of projectile is parabola
Equations Maximum height- H= V(0)^2 sin( )^2/2g Time of flight- T= 2 v(0)sin( )/g Horizontal range- R= v(0)^2sin(2 )/g

{when - 45 °, R= Rmax= v(0)^2/g}

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