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Structures

P.M. Stylianidis , D.A. Nethercot, B.A. Izzuddin, A.Y. Elghazouli

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London, SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: A fundamental aspect of the progressive collapse behaviour of building structures is the response of axially re-

Received 20 February 2015 strained beams following partial or total loss of the load bearing capacity of a supporting member. Owing to

Received in revised form 8 April 2015 the various complex effects involved such as material and geometric nonlinearity, advanced numerical ap-

Accepted 8 April 2015

proaches tend to be the most effective tools for modelling performance. Such approaches, however, lack the sim-

Available online 18 April 2015

plicity needed for common use and may provide only limited capability for understanding structural behaviour.

Keywords:

For such purposes, more limited analysis approaches that can address adequately the basic features of perfor-

Analytical method mance are likely to be more productive. One such method for modelling the response of axially restrained

Arching action steel and composite beams following column loss is presented in this paper. The method involves explicit model-

Catenary action ling of the connection behaviour and employs conventional structural analysis principles to describe beam per-

Column loss formance using accessible spreadsheet calculations. Following careful verication against detailed numerical

Composite structures analyses and validation against available experimental results, the proposed method is deemed capable of

Robustness modelling the various complex features of response with excellent accuracy. Therefore, it may form a promising

advance in studying and understanding the basic mechanics of the problem.

2015 The Institution of Structural Engineers. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

sive collapse is somewhat doubtful [5]. Relevant studies [610] have

The last two decades have seen an increasing growth of general in- demonstrated that tying alone does not account for all the mechanisms

terest into the behaviour of building structures in progressive collapse; likely to be necessary to arrest collapse, while the connection deforma-

this has been stimulated to a considerable extent by successive notable tions required in order to develop catenary action i.e. the load carrying

incidents such as the collapses of the Murrah Building in 1996 and the mechanism associated with tying are often considerably greater than

WTC Twin Towers in 2001. However, progressive collapse and the asso- the available deformation capacities.

ciated property of robustness have been recognised in some quarters for As the interest in the more scientic treatment of the topic increases,

many decades, with their origin being traditionally dating back to the so the need for a sound understanding of the mechanisms by which pro-

well-known collapse of the Ronan Point building in 1968. Most of the gressive collapse is triggered becomes more important. Research stud-

current formal design approaches to assessing or increasing resistance ies during the past decade have been directed at meeting this need by

to progressive collapse essentially originate as a direct consequence of seeking to move the design basis from prescriptive requirements to ap-

the work conducted in the UK following the Ronan Point collapse [1]. proaches based on understanding, modelling and quantitative assess-

These approaches however, have tended to be of a prescriptive nature ment. Much of the recent work conducted worldwide [e.g. 615] is

since they only impose certain conditions on the basis that their inclu- based on the alternative load path concept. Most frequently, the alter-

sion will ensure better performance than had they been omitted, there- native load path analysis considers the consequences of a threat-

by offering limited capability for assessing the actual level of robustness independent sudden column removal on the surrounding structure. It

possessed by the structure. may incorporate the essential features of the problem such as dynamic

One such common approach for addressing progressive collapse in effects, material and geometric nonlinear effects and interaction be-

steel and composite buildings is through the provision of a suitable tween the various structural and non-structural components. Therefore,

level of tying resistance in the frame components. Tying requirements the alternative load path approach offers the advantage of demonstrat-

aim at enhancing structural robustness by increasing the degrees of ing the actual structural behaviour in a quantitative manner.

continuity, ductility and load transfer capacity. Various forms of the The level of structural analysis used to examine the behaviour of the

tie-force method are addressed in most design codes such as the damaged structure may vary from static applications employing elastic

Eurocodes [2] and recent US Guidelines to robustness [3,4]. By general theory and dynamic load factors to sophisticated numerical approaches

including dynamic effects, second-order geometric effects and inelastic

Corresponding author at: Tel./fax: +357 25 106334. material behaviour [16]. Studies have shown that rather different out-

E-mail address: p.stylianidis@outlook.com (P.M. Stylianidis). comes result depending on which analysis approach is employed [17,

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.istruc.2015.04.001

2352-0124/ 2015 The Institution of Structural Engineers. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

138 P.M. Stylianidis et al. / Structures 3 (2015) 137152

18]. Apparently, the more sophisticated the analysis the more represen- Static load-deection analyses may be conducted using convenient

tative the results. However, linear static applications have the advan- methods that incorporate whatever degree of sophistication is consid-

tage of being simple to implement, while sophisticated analyses may ered appropriate. Although advanced nite element models may be

be extremely demanding in terms of computing capability and there- employed, simplied analytical methods are likely to be more suitable

fore unsuitable for routine use. Much of the recent research work on for conducting rapid parametric studies and understanding the me-

the topic involved the use of such computationally intensive analyses chanics of the problem, provided they are capable of addressing suf-

[e.g. 1315]. Although such studies may be useful for identifying specic ciently the basic features of the behaviour.

features of behaviour for further consideration, for the purposes of se- The basic features of beam behaviour following column removal are

curing detailed understanding of the structural response and thus mak- discussed in the next section where it is conrmed that performance de-

ing direct quantitative links between cause and effects, more limited pends to a considerable extent on the behaviour of the connections be-

approaches are likely to be more productive. tween the beam and its supporting members. A mechanical approach

Based on that concept, work at Imperial College London during the for modelling connection behaviour in progressive collapse, which has

past decade has been concerned with the development of an alternative been previously devised at Imperial College [20], is briey described

method for implementing the alternate load path approach in a way next. Based on that mechanical approach, an analytical method for

that all the essential features of the problem are addressed but which modelling the response of steel and composite beams using convention-

does not require unduly complex analysis. The basic framework has al structural analysis principles is developed in the reminder of the

been developed by Izzuddin et al. [19] and it is described in Figs. 1 and paper. It is demonstrated that the new analytical method may effective-

2. It permits reduction of the level of structural representation considered ly address the basic features of behaviour to a similar degree of accuracy

in the analysis as described in Fig. 1, with the responses at higher levels as detailed numerical models. This new development streamlines con-

being assembled from the responses at lower levels based on a simple siderably the necessary analyses, thereby making it possible to conduct

multi-level approach. Whatever the level of structural idealisation, only rapid parametric studies that provide insights into the behaviour of

nonlinear static analysis is required with the dynamic effects being building structures during progressive collapse and facilitates under-

accounted for based on an energy-balance concept as described in Fig. 2. standing of the mechanics of the problem.

For any level of suddenly applied gravity load (Pn = nPo), the maximum

dynamic displacement (wd,n) is determined from the nonlinear static re-

sponse based on the equivalence between the work done by the load 2. Key features of beam response following column removal

and the energy absorbed by the structure as shown in Fig. 2(a) and (b).

By plotting the suddenly applied gravity loading against the maximum The double-span mechanism created by two adjacent beams follow-

dynamic displacement, a pseudo-static (Pwd) curve representing the ing loss of the intermediate column as illustrated in Fig. 3 represents a

maximum nonlinear dynamic response is obtained as demonstrated in simple and commonly used representation of the alternative load path

Fig. 2(c). Therefore, the maximum dynamic displacement corresponding concept for examining beam and connection behaviour. Either the dam-

to the actual gravity load Po can be readily determined from the aged unloaded structure is considered and the gravity loading is then

pseudo-static response. applied, or the intact loaded structure is considered and then notional

The Imperial College method provides, within a simplied frame- column removal is performed. Depending on the position of the re-

work, a complete representation of the progressive collapse phenome- moved column within the frame, a degree of axial restraint may be pro-

non. Essentially, the analysis phase can be limited only to the vided to simulate interaction with the surrounding structure. The

prediction of the nonlinear static responses of the individual beams. double-span beam approach has been adopted in several recent

(a) Full structure / affected structural bay (d) Individual beam systems

Fig. 1. Sub-structural levels for progressive collapse assessment (based on Izzuddin et al. [19]).

P.M. Stylianidis et al. / Structures 3 (2015) 137152 139

P P P

P = Po

2 Po 2 Po

Dynamic

demand

1Po 1Po

,1 ,2 w ,1 ,2

numerical and experimental studies of progressive collapse where non- combinations may be seen during the different stages of the response

linear static applications were employed [11,12,2126]. as demonstrated in the typical diagram of Fig. 4(b) [27].

Previous studies have shown that the form of behaviour varies de- At relatively small deections, the behaviour may be enhanced by

pending on the type of the connections employed. Axially restrained compressive arching action as shown in Fig. 4(a). Both the beam axial

beams with semi-rigid or rigid connections suffering column loss exhib- compression and the connection bending moments may reach relative-

it the form of loaddeection response shown in Fig. 4(a) [19,27], ly high values during that stage as shown in Fig. 4(b). The compressive

where the corresponding behaviour in the absence of axial restraint is arching action may be limited by reduction in the stiffness of the con-

also presented. The gure describes the full range of behaviour indepen- nection compression zone due to instability effects as illustrated in

dently of any deformation limits that may be imposed by the available Fig. 3(a). Following a peak in the load carrying capacity (i.e. between

ductility of the connections in practice. The response comprises various points B and C), the effects of arching action gradually decrease and

phases, where different mechanisms are mobilised in each phase to re- the beam axial load becomes tensile in the subsequent stages (i.e. be-

sist collapse. Following the initial elastic phase which essentially resem- yond point D). While transferring from the compressive arching to

bles behaviour under normal loading conditions, the post-elastic the tensile stage, the beam may exhibit an unstable snap-through re-

response (i.e. beyond point B in Fig. 4) is governed by the effects of ma- sponse until a new stable equilibrium position is adopted. Meanwhile,

terial and geometric nonlinearity. the peak of the compressive axial load is associated with a neutrally sta-

As shown in Fig. 3, the support connections are subject to hogging ble compressive arching condition where the load carrying capacity is

bending moments, whereas the mid-span connections are subject to similar to the corresponding capacity in the absence of axial restraint

sagging bending moments after column loss. In the absence of axial re- (i.e. point C).

straint, the response depends exclusively on the bending moment ca- The same effect arises at the end of the compressive arching stage

pacity and rotational stiffness of the connections. In the post-limit when the compressive axial load decreases to zero (i.e. point D). In

phase, the stiffness of the system decreases with decreases in the rota- the subsequent tensile stage, any increase in the deection entails sig-

tional stiffness of the connections due to material yielding or instability nicant increases in the load carrying capacity, as shown in Fig. 4(a),

effects. In addition to the bending moments, the connections are subject due to the axial tension developed in the beam. As the ratio between

to axial forces that are generated in the beams due to the effects of geo- the beam tensile force and the connection bending moment increases,

metric nonlinearity in the presence of axial restraint. Various the bending moment effects become less signicant and connections

Mid-span joint

Removed column

140 P.M. Stylianidis et al. / Structures 3 (2015) 137152

Compressive Transient Tensile Connection

tic

se arching tensile catenary bending

as

a C

El ph stage stage stage moment

Axially Axially E D

restrained unrestrained

beam beam

B

C D

B

E

A A

Beam deflection Beam axial compression Beam axial tension

(a) Beam nonlinear static load-deflection response (b) Beam axial load - connection bending moment interaction

Fig. 4. Typical forms of beam and connection behaviour following column removal.

undergo extensive tensile deformations. At very large deections (i.e. proposed by Del Savio et al. [28]. Each spring model comprises a set of

following point E), prying action in the connections (i.e. between the rigid bars where each bar is associated with a distinct zone (i.e. ten-

beam compressive anges and the supporting members) may be elim- sion, compression or shear) of the connection connected with linear

inated as illustrated in Fig. 3(b) and tensile catenary action becoming springs that model the behaviour of the various connection components

the principal load carrying mechanism. A comprehensive analysis of and rigid links that transfer the total tensile (FT) and compressive (F C)

the behaviour following column removal is provided elsewhere [27]. forces to the support.

Therefore, some important features of the behaviour are identied: In the method proposed in [20], each spring is modelled based on a

bi-linear force-deformation approximation, where the component char-

Beams may undergo very large deections, resulting in extensive acteristics are determined using the principles of EC3 [29] and EC4 [30].

connection deformations that develop well beyond the elastic range. Important features of the behaviour such as material nonlinearity,

Performance is governed by nonlinear geometric effects. strain-hardening and deformation reversal are accounted for. However,

In the presence of axial restraint, compressive arching and tensile rather more sophisticated characterisation approaches based on tri-

catenary actions are mobilised. linear or multi-linear approximations may also be adopted.

The compressive arching and tensile catenary effects depend on the The proposed method comprises a mechanical approach for assem-

ability of the connections to transmit the axial forces generated in bling the behaviour of the various components to form the overall con-

the beams. nection behaviour at each stage of beam response following column

The beam axial forces may develop disproportionally to the connec- removal. In particular, explicit formulae linking the connection defor-

tion bending moments during the different stages of the response. mations i.e. rotations (, ) and horizontal deformations (u, u) as de-

The support connections of the double-span beam are subject to ned in Fig. 5 with the connection bending moments (M, M) and

hogging bending moments whereas the mid-span connections are beam axial load (N) are provided as follows:

subject to sagging bending moments. Therefore, they may exhibit

quite different responses depending on their type and geometry. 0 0 0 0 0 0

M 1 Nz 1 1 1

The connection compressive components may undergo deformation

reversal following a decrease in the axial compression towards the

end of the compressive arching stage. M 1 Nz1 1 2

A different form of response develops at very large deections dur-

ing the tensile stage when the beams actually exhibit catenary be-

0 0 0 0 0 0

haviour owing to the absence of prying action in the connections. u M 2 Nz 2 2 3

u M 2 Nz2 2 : 4

It is conrmed that the performance of the connections is of crucial

importance for the response of the structures during progressive col-

lapse. Beam behaviour depends to a considerable extent on the ability The parameters i, i and i depend on the properties of the connec-

of the connections to transmit the sorts of loading (i.e. bending mo- tion components and may vary along with variations in the stiffness of

ments and axial forces) generated following an initial damage whilst the components during the analysis. Full details may be found in [20].

delivering the deformations needed to arrest collapse without In the present paper, the addition of a note denotes that the quantity

exhausting their ductility limits. Therefore, a correct description of the is associated with the hogging region (i.e. the region of the support

connection behaviour under the sorts of conditions experienced after connection).

column removal is fundamental for any realistic analysis. Any possible combination between the connection bending mo-

ments (hogging or sagging) and the beam axial load seen during the

3. Modelling of connection behaviour for progressive compressive arching and tensile catenary stages may be accounted for,

collapse analysis with the corresponding different modes of connection deformations

being explicitly modelled. Material nonlinearity is considered in a sim-

By considering the key features discussed in the previous section, plied yet reasonably sufcient manner, thus allowing for a complete

Stylianidis and Nethercot [20] developed a mechanical method for de- representation of the full range of the behaviour up to failure. The re-

scribing the behaviour of bare steel and composite connections during sponse may be traced in a step-by-step fashion using only spreadsheet

progressive collapse. In the case of a double-span beam condition im- calculations. Failure can be determined by comparing the component

posed by column removal, the response is simulated by the spring deformations with the corresponding deformation limits in each step

models shown in Fig. 5, which have been devised based on the concept of the analysis.

P.M. Stylianidis et al. / Structures 3 (2015) 137152 141

Removed column

zone zone zone zone zone

FC

F' T ' M

N

N

M' FT

C

F'

Component

Rigid link

Support connection Mid-span connection

: Beam flexural rigidity

: Beam axial rigidity

: Support axial stiffness

: Support connection stiffness

: Mid-span connection stiffness

: Beam span

: Uniformly distributed load

: Mid-span point load

: Support connection bending moment

: Mid-span connection bending moment

: Beam axial load

: Beam deflection

: Support connection rotation

: Mid-span connection rotation

: Support axial deformation

142 P.M. Stylianidis et al. / Structures 3 (2015) 137152

4. Analytical representation of the beam nonlinear static response 4.1. Connection bending moments

following column removal

Following column removal, the support connections of the double-

Based on the axially restrained double-span beam concept, an ana- span beam are subject to hogging bending moments (M) whereas the

lytical method for describing the nonlinear static response of bare mid-span connections are subject to sagging bending moments (M) as

steel and composite beams following column removal is developed in shown in Fig. 6(c). The bending moment diagram depends both on

this section. Provided the double-span beam structure is symmetric in the connection characteristics and the exural stiffness of the beam

terms of geometry and loading with respect to the centreline of the re- whereas it may also be inuenced by the presence of axial load at rela-

moved column as illustrated in Fig. 6(a), the two individual beams ex- tively large deections. Composite beams exhibit different behaviour

hibit identical independent responses. Therefore, consideration may under sagging and hogging bending moments. Under hogging bending

be given only to half of the structure. Based on this assumption, the moment, the concrete is in tension and it is likely to be cracked,

unloaded structure in its damaged condition is modelled as shown in resulting in a reduction in the axial and exural stiffness of the compos-

Fig. 6(b). ite section. Since this may inuence performance, the model of

The behaviour of the beam section is considered as linear elastic Fig. 6(b) is modied as shown in Fig. 7, where the beam component

and therefore it may be described based on the axial and exural ri- comprises two sections with different stiffness. The uncracked stiffness

gidity. Some effects such as yielding and local buckling are likely to (i.e. EI, EA) is considered in the region of sagging bending moment and

develop only in the vicinity of the connections and therefore they the reduced cracked stiffness (i.e. EI, EA) is considered in the hogging

may be included in the connection modelling, whereas out-of- moment region. The width of the concrete ange may be determined

plane effects, such as lateral buckling, are ignored. Similarly, the be- based on the effective breadth approach of EC4 [30]. The nominal dis-

haviour of the adjacent structure is considered as elastic and, there- tance between zero bending moments may approximately be assumed

fore, the effects of axial restraint are modelled by employing a linear as constant and determined according to the EC4 simplied approach

elastic boundary spring. The stiffness of the boundary spring may ap- by treating the double-span beam structure as a single-span beam sup-

proximately be assumed as the stiffness provided by the structural ported at both ends. The uncracked section modulus can be determined

components in the immediate vicinity of the damaged structure based on the traditional transformed section method with transforming

i.e. the axial stiffness of the beam and the connection on the opposite the effective breadth of the concrete ange to an equivalent breadth of

side of the support connections [8] and/or the exural stiffness of the steel.

intact column sections that support the double-span beam [12]. Al- The bending moments and shear forces can be determined based on

ternatively, it may be assessed based on the forcedeformation the stiffness method and the concept of releasing clamped structures.

ratio obtained from a linear elastic analysis of the neighbouring The nodal forces corresponding to the element loads (i.e. q) of the

structure loaded by axial forces applied in the direction of the equivalent clamped structure are dened as described in Fig. 8. The dis-

double-span beam [11]. However, detailed modelling of the connec- placement modes of the released structure are shown in Fig. 9. For each

tion behaviour, accounting for the effects of material nonlinearity

and the interaction between bending moments and axial forces,

Equivalent

is considered. In particular, the connection behaviour is modelled

clamped

using the mechanical approach described in the previous section [20]. structure

Therefore, the rotational springs shown in Fig. 6(b) actually represent Lh Ls

the detailed spring models of Fig. 5.

Two schemes of gravity loading are considered including uni-

formly distributed load (q) and mid-span point load (P). The internal Fixed-end

qL2h qL2s

forces and component deformations developed following the appli- bending

12 12 moment

cation of the gravity loading are described in Fig. 6(c), where the in-

ternal forces are considered to be positive when acting in the diagram

illustrated directions. Using conventional structural analysis princi-

ples, explicit relationships between the gravity loading (q or P) and

qL2h qL2h qL2s qL2s

the beam deection (w) as well as analytical expressions linking 12 12 12 12

the component forces (i.e. M, M and N) and deformations (i.e. , Fixed-end

and s) with the gravity loading and beam deection are derived. reactions

The set of those analytical expressions forms an explicit method for qL h qL h qL s qL s

describing the complete behaviour. A detailed description of the 2 2 2 2

method is given next.

qL2h qL2s _ qL2h _ qL s

2

12 12 12 12 Equivalent

nodal forces

qL s qL h qL s

+

2 2 2

EI', EA' EI, EA

Lh Ls M0

L Internal

forces

M' Q0

M (Directions

M' (_) M0 indicate

positive sign

(+) M Q0 convention)

Q

Fig. 7. Modelling of composite beams with non-uniform stiffness. Fig. 8. Nodal forces of the clamped structure.

P.M. Stylianidis et al. / Structures 3 (2015) 137152 143

Displacement 2

4EI 0 8EI 24EI 0 24EI qL

mode 1 M 2 w 2 w 11

L L L L 48

Displacement

0 24EI 0 24EI 96EI 0 96EI qL

mode 2 Q 2 3 w 3 w : 12

L2 L L L 4

0

Displacement The set of the above expressions does not include the effects of the

mode 3 beam axial load, but those effects may be incorporated by considering

0 the equilibrium conditions. Based on Fig. 10, the following equilibrium

equations are obtained for each section:

Displacement w

mode 4 0 qL2 0 L 0

M Q M N 13

8 2 2

Displacement

mode 5 qL2 0 L 0 Nw

M Q M : 14

0 8 2 2

The axial load is considered to be applied to the centroid of the beam

cross-section. In composite beams, the centroids of the effective cross-

uniform section, the nal forces are obtained by considering the sum of

sections in the hogging and sagging moment regions are different

the nodal forces caused by the deformations shown in Fig. 9 and the

when cracking of the concrete under tension is considered. Therefore,

equivalent nodal forces dened in Fig. 8:

Z represents the distance between the centroids of the two cross-

2 3 sections. Most likely, the concrete at the mid-span of the beam is subject

4EI0 2EI 0 6EI0 2 3

6 L 2 7 2 3 qL2h to compression, therefore Z is included in Eq. (13) instead of Eq. (14).By

2 0 3 6 h Lh Lh 7 0 6 7 substituting M and M0 from Eqs. (7) and (8) respectively into Eq. (13)

M 6 07 6 12 7

6 2EI0 4EI

0

6EI 7 6 7 6 2 7

4 M 5 6

0

2 7 4 56

0 qLh 7 5 as well as M0 and M from Eqs. (10) and (11) respectively into Eq. (14)

6 L Lh Lh 7 6 7

Q

0 6 h 7 0 6 12 7 and solving each of the resulting equations for Q0, the following expres-

6 0 0 7 w 4 qL 5

4 6EI 6EI 0 12EI 5 sions are obtained:

2 2 h

Lh Lh L3h 2

0 24EI0 0 24EI0 0 96EI 0 0 qL 2N w

2 3 Q 2 3 w 15

4EI 2EI 6EI 6EI 2 3 L 2

L L 4 L 2

6 L qL2s

6 Ls L2s L2s 7

7 2

3 6 12 7

2 0 3 6 s

6 2EI 4EI 6EI 6EI 7

0 6 7

2 7 6

M 2 7

6 M 7 6 Ls6 7 6 7 6 qLs 7

6 7 Ls L2s Ls 7 6 7 6 7

4 Q 0 5 6

6 6EI 6EI 12EI 12EI 7

7

6 0 7 6 12 7:

4 w 5 6 qLs 7

0

Q

24EI 0 24EI 96EI 0 96EI qL Nw

2 3 w 3 w : 16

6 2 3 7 6 7 L2 L L L 4 L

Q 6 Ls L2s L3s Ls 7 w 6 2 7

6 7 4 5

4 6EI 6EI 12EI 12EI 5 qL

2 2 3 s As compared to Eqs. (9) and (12) respectively, the additional com-

Ls Ls Ls L3s 2

ponents included in Eqs. (15) and (16) represent the effects of the

6

beam axial load.

The shear force at the mid-span of the beam is:

Specifying the exact location of the point of inection can be rather

difcult since it varies along with possible variations in the connection 0 qL

bending moments and the beam axial load during the analysis. Unless Q P: 17

2

it is located very close to either of the connections however, its inuence

on the bending moment diagram is rather insignicant. Therefore, to

simplify the process, a constant point of inection is considered at the

mid-span of the beam (i.e. Lh = Ls = L / 2). Based on this assumption,

Eqs. (5) and (6) are developed as shown next (where, Q does not q

N M0

need to be further considered and it is excluded from the following set

of equations): w/ 2 - Z

M' N

0 8EI 0 0 4EI0 0 24EI0 0 qL2 Q0

M 2 w 7

L L L 48

L/ 2

0 4EI0 0 8EI0 0 24EI 0 0 qL2 P

M 2 w 8 M0 q

L L L 48

M

0 0

24EI 0 24EI 0 96EI 0 qL

0 w/ 2 N

0

Q 2 3 w 9

L2 L L 4 Q0 N

L/ 2

0 8EI 0 4EI 24EI 0 24EI qL2

M 2 w 2 w 10

L L L L 48 Fig. 10. Equilibrium of the system.

144 P.M. Stylianidis et al. / Structures 3 (2015) 137152

By substituting the above expression into Eqs. (15) and (16) and 4.2. Beam axial load

solving the set of the resulting equations for 0 and w0, the following

equations are obtained: The connection bending moments and the axial load generated in

the beam should be in equilibrium with the beam gravity loading.

3 3 2 2 Based on Fig. 10, the overall equilibrium equation is obtained as

0 1 0 1 2 qL 3qL PL PL NwL

w 18 shown next:

2 2 L 192EI 192EI0 48EI 48EI 0 48EI

NL w

qL2

24EI 0 2 M

0

PLN w M: 24

2

0 L 0 L 1 qL4 3qL4 PL3 PL3

w w 19 By substituting M and M from Eqs. (22) and (23) into Eq. (24), the

8 8 2 768EI 768EI0 192EI 192EI0

following expression that links the beam axial load with the gravity

NL w

2 2

NwL

: loading and the beam deection is obtained:

192EI 96EI0 2

!

1 qL2

By incorporating the above expressions for and w , Eqs. (7) and 0 0 N 3 q PL 3 P3 25

3 2

(11) are developed as shown next:

where:

0 3EI 0 0 EI0 4EI0 0 0 0

M 2 w q 1 P 2 N 3 20 0 0 0 0

L L L 3 w; 3 ; 3 ; 3 :

EI 0 3EI 4EI

M 2 w q 1 P 2 N 3 21

L L L In the presence of axial restraint, the beam section, the axial support

and the connections are subject to axial deformations due to changes in

where: the geometry effects. For calculating the beam axial load, detailed repre-

sentations of those deformations are required. Based on the second-

5 w

2 0 2 0 0

0 17L EI L 0 5L EI L 0 EI w order approximation shown in Fig. 11, the total axial deformation may

1 ; 2 ; 3

96 96EI 24 24EI 24EI 12 2 be expressed with respect to the beam deection as = w2 / 2 L. There-

L2 EIL2 5L EIL EI w 5w fore, the following equation may be adopted:

1 ; 2 ; 3 :

32 32EI0 24 24EI 0 12EI 20

24

w2 0 a

u u b : 26

2L

Finally, by substituting and from Eqs. (1) and (2) into Eqs. (20) In Eq. (26), u and u represent the horizontal deformations of the

and (21) and solving the set of resulting equations for M and M, the fol- support and mid-span connections (Fig. 5), a is the sum of the axial de-

lowing expressions that link the connection bending moments with the formations of the beam section and the axial support and b is an addi-

beam deection, the beam gravity loading and the beam axial load are tional deformation due to bending of the beam. For consistency, a

obtained: reference line should be assigned in parallel with the beam longitudinal

axis and each of the above deformations should be determined with re-

0 0 0 0 0

M N q P 22 spect to that line. The reference line may be located at any level of the

beam depth.

The deformations of the connections can be determined based on

the connection mechanical approach described in Section 3 [20] using

M N q P 23 Eqs. (3) and (4). The horizontal deformation of each connection de-

pends on the corresponding rotation and the distance between the con-

nection centre of rotation and the line considered as a reference for

where:

assessing the axial deformation of the system. Since the connection

0 rotation depends on the interaction between the applied bending mo-

1 2 ; 1 2

0 ment and axial load, the sign of the connection horizontal deformation

1 2 ; 1 2

0

1 2 ; 1 2 may differ from the sign of the axial load transferred from the beam.

0

1 2 ; 1 2 As noted previously, the behaviour of the beam section and the axial

support is considered as linear elastic. Therefore, the sum of the axial

1 0 0 L 3 8EI0 1 z 3EI 0 3 03

1 z 3 z ; 2

a01 1 1

EI L EI

0

1 0 4w 8EI w

1 0 1 31 ; 2 1

1 L L L

L 3EI 1 01

0

1 0 1 ; 2

1 EI EI

0 0

L 3EI 2 2

1 0 2 ; 2

1 EI EI

0 0

3 L 8EI 1 3EI 3 L

01 0 ; 01 0 ; :

1 1 EI L EI 1 1 EI Fig. 11. Approximation of second-order geometric effects.

P.M. Stylianidis et al. / Structures 3 (2015) 137152 145

max

Therefore, the total axial deformation is expressed in terms of M, M,

=0 Reference N, w, q and P by incorporating the expressions for u, u, a and b i.e.

N. A. line 1 Eqs. (3), (4), (27) and (30) respectively into Eq. (26).

Reference

line 2

By substituting M, M and N from Eqs. (22), (23) and (25) respective-

max

ly into the nal expression for the total axial deformation dened in

Section 4.3, an equation linking the beam gravity loading (q and P)

Fig. 12. Beam exural deformation along different reference lines.

with the beam deection (w) is obtained. The resulting equation may

be developed in two ways:

deformations of these components (a) can be obtained using an effec-

By solving the equation with respect to q, the following qw rela-

tive axial stiffness dened as Ka = 1 / (1 / Ks + L / EA) where Ks is the

tionship is obtained:

stiffness of the axial support and EA / L is the axial stiffness of the beam

section (Fig. 6) as follows: 1 3 P

q : 31

2

a N

a: 27

K

By solving the equation with respect to P, the following Pw rela-

tionship is obtained:

The total axial deformation may also be inuenced by the exural

deformation of the beam section. This depends on the level of the line 1 2 q

considered as a reference for dening the total axial deformation. As P 32

3

shown in Fig. 12, no additional deformation due to beam bending

should be considered when the reference line coincides with the where:

beam neutral axis (i.e. Reference line 1). If any other reference line is

2

adopted however (e.g. Reference line 2), the corresponding exural de- w 0 0 0

1 3 2 2 2 2 Y 1

formation of the beam section should be taken into account. 2L 3

In composite beams, the level of the neutral axis is different in the L2 0 0

2 3 2 2 Y 1 Y 3

hogging and sagging moment regions. Therefore, it is not possible to de- 3 2 3

ne a specic line in parallel with the longitudinal axis which is not sub- L 0 0

3 3 2 2 Y 1 Y 4

ject to deformation due to beam bending. Provided the reference line 3 3

coincides with the hogging neutral axis, the corresponding deformation 0 0 0 0 1

2 2 z 2 z2 a Y 1 Y 2 :

due to sagging bending moment should be taken into account. This may K

be approximated as follows:

ZLs

Each of the above load-deection relationships applies to a different

b M x dx: 28

EI scheme of gravity loading. In particular, Eq. (31) links the beam deec-

0

tion (w) with a uniformly distributed loading (q) applied to the beam.

However, it may also consider the effects of a constant point load (P) ap-

Based on Fig. 13, Mx is calculated as: plied to the mid-span of the double-span beam. Clearly, in the absence

2 of mid-span point load (i.e. P = 0), Eq. (31) is simplied accordingly.

qx Nwx

Mx M Px : 29 Similarly, Eq. (32) links the beam deection with a point load (P) ap-

2 L plied to the mid-span of the double-span beam, while it may also ac-

count for the presence of a constant uniformly distributed load (q).

Therefore, Eq. (28) is developed as shown next:

where: The set of the equations obtained in Sections 4.14.4 forms an ana-

lytical method for describing the complete static behaviour of axially re-

Ls wL2s L3s L2s strained beams following column removal. The nonlinear load

Y1 ; Y2 ; Y3 ; Y4 : deection response can be accurately traced in a step-by-step fashion

EI 2EIL 6EI 2EI

i.e. using the spreadsheet approach by gradually increasing the beam

The length of the sagging moment region (Ls) may be approximately deection and assessing the corresponding level of gravity loading

taken as L / 2 or calculated precisely during the analysis. using Eq. (31) or Eq. (32). Apart from the loaddeection response,

the beam axial load and the connection bending moments may be

assessed in each step of the analysis using Eqs. (25), (22) and (23) re-

P

q spectively. In addition, the connection deformations can be dened

N using Eqs. (1)(4), thereby making it possible to make direct compari-

Mx sons with the corresponding deformation limits in each step and thus

M' M determine the ultimate capacity of the system. Therefore, a detailed rep-

wx/L w

N resentation of the full range of the response up to failure is developed.

x N Although the method has been based on axially restrained compos-

Ls ite beams, it is also applicable to axially restrained bare steel beams as

L well as composite or bare steel beams with different boundary condi-

tions. Those cases may be covered by applying minor simplications

Fig. 13. Assessment of sagging bending moment. as described next:

146 P.M. Stylianidis et al. / Structures 3 (2015) 137152

When the beam comprises only a bare steel section, a uniform stiff- total depth of the slab is 130 mm. Full shear connection between the

ness should be considered (i.e. equal stiffness in both the hogging steel beam sections and the composite slab is considered and the width

and sagging moment regions). Connection behaviour may still be of the slab is determined based on the effective breadth approach of

modelled based on the mechanical approach described in Section 3, EC4 [30].

by employing suitable connection spring models. More information As shown in Fig. 15(a), the beam-to-column joints of the bare steel

is provided in the corresponding publication [20]. structure consist of ush endplate connections with four rows of bolts.

The behaviour of axially unrestrained beams may be modelled by con- The same bare steel connection arrangements are used as part of the

sidering an innitesimal value for the stiffness of the axial support composite joints employed in the composite structure as shown in

(Ks). In the absence of axial restraint, no axial load should be generated Fig. 15(b), where the slab is intended to contribute to the behaviour.

in the beams and therefore performance should be governed only by The material properties of the various steel components are given in

exural effects. Beams may be considered as axially unrestrained Fig. 15.

when the degree of axial restraint provided by the surrounding struc- The study involves notional removal of the central column as

ture is relatively low, e.g. when the beam is located adjacent to the depicted in Fig. 14. Following column removal, the two internal beams

edge of the frame. will form a double-span beam mechanism while the two adjacent

The behaviour of cantilever beams may be approximated by consider- beams on either side will provide a degree of axial restraint to the sys-

ing innitesimal values for both the stiffness of the axial support (Ks) tem. Various alternative arrangements are considered for each structure

and the rotational stiffness of the mid-span connection (Sj). Some including different combinations of beam span lengths (L), connection

beams may be regarded as cantilevers when, apart from the absence endplate thicknesses (tp) and amounts of connection reinforcement. In

of axial restraint, the degree of rotational restraint provided by one particular, the following combinations are applied:

of the supporting members is relatively low. A representative example

is shown in Fig. 1(d) where the primary beam is modelled as a) Bare steel structure with L = 6 m and various connection endplate

cantilever. thicknesses (i.e. tp = 8, 10, 12 and 14 mm).

b) Bare steel structure with tp = 10 mm and various beam span lengths

(i.e. L = 4, 6, 8 and 10 m).

The proposed method comprises in-plane analyses of the beam c) Composite structure with tp = 10 mm, L = 6 m and various amounts

behaviour following column removal. In effect, progressive collapse of connection reinforcement (i.e. 2, 4, 6 and 8 reinforcement bars).

triggered by the loss of a load bearing member is likely to be a d) Composite structure with tp = 10 mm, 416 connection reinforce-

3-dimensional problem. Owing to the inherent simplications, the pro- ment and various beam span lengths (i.e. L = 4, 6, 8 and 10 m).

posed method is incapable of addressing 3-dimensional effects such as

changes in the effective width or membrane action likely to be generat-

ed in the slab, which may only be simulated by detailed nite element 5.2. Modelling of connection behaviour

analyses [15,31,32]. Although the importance of such effects should be

appropriately appraised, the proper use of simpler analysis tools similar For the set of the above structural arrangements, the mechanical

to the analytical method proposed herein offers several advantages over properties of the connection components are determined based on the

complex and time-consuming detailed analyses as discussed in component method of EC3 [29] and EC4 [30]. Each bolt-row consists

Section 1. of several basic components acting in series, i.e. endplate in bending,

bolts in tension and beam web in tension the columns are considered

5. Verication study as rigid and therefore no consideration is given to the contribution of

the column web in bending. The effective design resistance and elastic

5.1. Layout of the study stiffness of each bolt-row, as dened based on the corresponding prop-

erties of the constitutive components, are given in Table 1. In this study,

The analytical method developed in Section 4 is veried herein against the post-limit stiffness of each bolt-row is dened based on the corre-

detailed numerical models using the nonlinear structural analysis pro- sponding effective elastic stiffness by considering 1% strain-hardening.

gram ADAPTIC [33]. Consideration is given to the substructure shown in The mechanical properties of the connection reinforcement are present-

Fig. 14 which consists of four identical beams carrying a uniformly distrib- ed in Table 2. Similarly to the bolt-rows, the post-limit stiffness is

uted gravity loading (q) and supported by UC305 305 118 steel modelled based on the corresponding elastic stiffness by considering

columns, with the beam longitudinal axes being perpendicular to the 1% strain-hardening.

major axes of the column cross-sections. Two different types of structure Modelling of the compression zone of the bare steel connections and

are considered including bare steel and composite. The bare steel struc- the support connections of the composite structure should account only

ture comprises only UB406 140 39 steel beam sections (i.e. the com- for the behaviour of the beam ange/web in compression which is

posite slab shown in Fig. 14 is excluded) while the composite structure approximated as rigid-perfectly plastic with a design resistance of

comprises the same steel beam sections acting compositely with a com- 660.0 kN. On the other hand, the compression zone of the mid-span

posite slab. The slab consists of reinforced concrete C30/37 cast on a trap- composite connection comprises the concrete slab which is under

ezoidal steel decking. The height of the steel decking is 60 mm and the compression. For simplicity, a constant centre of compression at the

q q q q

beam connection connection connection column Columns: UC 305305118

L L L L

P.M. Stylianidis et al. / Structures 3 (2015) 137152 147

90 FC

Br 1 z M

70 F' N

Br 2

70

Br 3 N

70 M' z' F

Br 4

C

6 F'

50

20 Rebar M

60 z FC

F' T

90

Br 1 N Z N

70

Br 2

70 M'

Br 3

70 z' FT

Br 4

C

6 F'

(b) Composite

Beams: UB 40614039 [S355] ; Columns: UC 305305118 [S355] ; Endplates: 400150 t p [S275] ; Bolts: M20 [8.8] ; Rebar: 16 [S460]

mid-thickness of the solid section of the slab is considered in this bolt-row forcedeformation characteristic with respect to the resistance

study however, a rather more detailed approach that accounts for of the bolts. The limits presented in Table 3 are based on the above

the actual depth of the slab in compression based on the distribution criteria, where it is shown that the deformation capacity is limited by

of the stresses may be adopted [20]. failure of the bolts when the endplate thickness is 12 or 14 mm.

Connection failure is dened as the failure of a single connection In the composite structure, failure of the support connections may

component in the tension zone. Most likely, failure of a bare steel be governed by fracture of the reinforcement. Deformation limits are

endplate connection is governed by the deformation capacity of the determined based on the model proposed by Anderson et al. [34], by

most remote bolt-row with respect to the centre of compression. There- considering 10% ultimate strain for the bare reinforcement. For 6 m

fore, the top (i.e. Br 1) and the bottom (i.e. Br 4) bolt-rows are regarded beam span, the limits are given in Table 2. For 4 m, 8 m and 10 m

as the most critical components of the support and mid-span connec- beam span lengths, the deformation capacities of 416 connection rein-

tions respectively. In this study, the bolt-row deformation capacity is forcement are dened as 13.5 mm, 11.0 mm and 7.0 mm respectively.

considered as equal to 100 times the yield deformation on the presump-

tion that the force in the bolt-row does not exceed the tensile resistance

of the bolts. Otherwise, the deformation capacity is determined from the 5.3. Modelling of axial restraint

Table 1 The degree of axial restraint depends on the axial stiffness provided

Mechanical properties of connection bolt-rows. by the neighbouring structure on either side of the double-span beam

Endplate thickness Bolt-row Design resistance Elastic stiffness mechanism. In this study, an axial restraint is imposed by the adjacent

(mm) (kN) (kN/mm) beams and connections as depicted in Fig. 14. Since the behaviour of

8 Br 1 66.1 261.6 both components is considered as linear elastic, the axial support

Br 2 34.4 141.5 may be modelled based on the corresponding effective elastic stiffness

Br 3 34.4 141.5 (i.e. Ks). The axial stiffness of the beam-to-column connections is differ-

Br 4 64.3 255.1 ent when subject to tension or compression. Therefore, different values

10 Br 1 103.2 470.5

Br 2 53.8 264.0

Br 3 53.8 264.0 Table 2

Br 4 100.5 459.8 Mechanical properties of connection reinforcement.

12 Br 1 148.7 720.2

Rebar Design resistance Elastic stiffness Deformation capacitya

Br 2 77.4 425.5

amount (kN) (kN/mm) (mm)

Br 3 77.4 425.5

Br 4 144.7 705.6 216 176.2 212.4 7.0

14 Br 1 183.7 974.9 416 352.3 424.7 13.2

Br 2 105.4 613.0 616 528.5 637.1 13.8

Br 3 105.4 613.0 816 704.7 849.5 14.2

Br 4 182.3 958.0 a

Corresponding to 6 m span.

148 P.M. Stylianidis et al. / Structures 3 (2015) 137152

Deformation capacities of the most critical bolt-rows.

(mm) Beam elements

Support Mid-span

connectionBolt-row 1 connectionBolt-row 4 L

Support connection Mid-span connection

8 31.8 32.0

10 27.3 27.4

spring model spring model

12 18.8a 19.7a (a) Bare steel

14 10.3a 10.7a

a

Limited by the tensile resistance of the bolts.

Boundary spring Rigid links Concrete flange

are obtained for the compressive and tensile stiffness of the axial sup-

port for each arrangement as shown in Table 4. Beam elements

L

5.4. ADAPTIC modelling Support connection Mid-span connection

spring model spring model

The models employed in the ADAPTIC [33] numerical analyses are (b) Composite

presented in Fig. 16. Due to symmetry, only half of the double-span

beam system is considered. The steel beams and the concrete ange Fig. 16. Finite element beam models.

are modelled by cubic elasto-plastic 2D beam-column elements that

allow for material and geometric nonlinearity. Composite action and

deformation of the bottom bolt-row of the mid-span connection apart

full shear connection between the two components is effected through

from the 10 m beam span case where resistance is governed by failure

a series of rigid links. The spring models shown in Fig. 15 are employed

of the support connection due to rebar fracture. Performance after the

for simulating the responses of the connections. The rigid links included

specied failure points is only of academic interest.

in the spring models are modelled by 2D contact elements while the

In some cases, minor discrepancies are observed at very large de-

various connection components are modelled by 2D elasto-plastic ele-

ections and typically well beyond failure. The analytical method is

ments based on the mechanical properties dened in Section 5.2. The

based on the assumption that the behaviour of the beam section is

axial restraint is approximated by a linear elastic boundary spring

linear elastic, whereas the advanced numerical analyses may ac-

using the effective stiffness values obtained in Section 5.3.

count for nonlinear effects due to yielding and/or local buckling. Al-

though such effects are intended to be described by the connection

5.5. Analyses and results behaviour, yielding of the beam web most likely in the vicinity of

the connections due to the substantial tensile forces developed at

Full descriptions of the behaviour of the different arrangements fol- large deections may indeed result in decreases in the stiffness of

lowing column removal have been obtained by numerical nonlinear the system.

static analyses using ADAPTIC and analytical applications using the pro- An important feature of the proposed analytical method is that it

posed method. The analytical load-deection curves have been deter- is not limited only to the prediction of the loaddeection response

mined using the qw relationship of Eq. (31), by setting P = 0 (i.e. no but it can provide a complete description of performance including

point gravity load is applied to the mid-span of the double-span representations of the behaviour of the various constitutive compo-

beam). Starting from the unloaded condition, a step-by-step analysis nents. Using Eqs. (22), (23) and (25), the connection bending

was conducted for each case using the Excel spreadsheet software, moments (M and M) and the beam axial load (N) have been deter-

where the beam deection was increased by 1 mm and the correspond- mined at each step of the analysis and they are plotted against the

ing gravity loading was assessed at each step of the analysis. The beam deections in Fig. 18. Again, agreement between the results

resulting curves are compared with the corresponding ADAPTIC predic- of the two methods of analysis is excellent and it is therefore

tions in Fig. 17 where it is conrmed that agreement between the two established that the analytical method may address in detail every

methods of analysis is excellent. aspect of performance.

Failure points due to reaching the specied connection deformation Although both methods of analysis are based on similar model-

limits are also predicted with excellent accuracy as shown in Fig. 17. For ling simplications (i.e. they are both in-plane analyses and thus

each bare steel arrangement, the deformation capacity of the support incapable for addressing 3D effects), the potential of describing the

connection is dened as critical. On the other hand, collapse resistance complete behaviour of axially restrained beams using only spread-

of the composite arrangements is dened based on the limit sheet calculations instead of sophisticated nite element software

is a promising advance in studying the mechanics of the problem.

Provided the various formulae are suitably incorporated into a

spreadsheet program, the proposed method may easily be applied

Table 4

Stiffness of axial support.

for rapid examinations of different alternatives. The interplay

between the behaviour of the various components and the inuence

L (m) Ks (kN/mm) of each individual component on overall performance can be

Bare steel frame Composite frame assessed directly by comparing the corresponding results. This is

Compressive Tensile Compressive Tensile facilitated considerably by the faculty of illustrating graphically the

complete set of the results as shown in Figs. 17 and 18. Therefore,

4 261 221 301 250

6 174 143165a 187228b 166197b important aspects of the behaviour such as the effects of the beam

8 131 120 151 137 axial load on the connection response, the physical reasons behind

10 104 97 121 111 the compressive arching and tensile catenary actions and the

a

Depending on the endplate thickness. connection deformation modes likely to govern performance can

b

Depending on the amount of reinforcement. be comprehensively explored.

P.M. Stylianidis et al. / Structures 3 (2015) 137152 149

80 80

q (kN/m) q (kN/m)

70 70

L=4m

60 60 L=6m

tp = 8 mm

50 50 L=8m

tp = 10 mm

40 tp = 12 mm 40 L = 10 m

30 tp = 14 mm 30

20 20

10 10

w (mm) w (mm)

0 0

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000

(a) Bare steel beams with various connection endplate thicknesses (b) Bare steel beams with various span lengths

(L = 6 m) (tp = 10 mm)

80 80

q (kN/m) q (kN/m) L=4m

70 70

60 60 L=6m

216

50 50 L=8m

416

L = 10 m

40 616 40

30 816 30

20 20

10 10

w (mm) w (mm)

0 0

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000

(c) Composite beams with various amounts of reinforcement (d) Composite beams with various span lengths

(L = 6 m, tp = 10 mm) (tp = 10 mm, rebar 4 16)

ADAPTIC Dashed curves: Analytical method Failure defined by ADAPTIC Failure defined by analytical method

6. Validation against experimental results restraint is provided by the adjacent frames owing to the rotational stiff-

ness possessed by the adjacent connections of the support joints. The

The proposed analytical method has also been validated against the rotational stiffness of each adjacent connection (Sj) is approximated

results of an experimental study performed at the University of Lige as as 3046.7 kNm based on the elastic stiffness of the bolt-rows and the

part of the collaborative research project on structural robustness re- post-limit stiffness of the reinforcement bars i.e. it is assumed that

ported in [11]. The study adopted the concept of column removal to ex- when the axial restraints are actually activated, the design resistance

amine the behaviour of a composite frame building designed according of the reinforcement bars has already been exhausted owing to exces-

to the provisions of EC4. A substructure was isolated from the frame and sive rotation of the support connection on the other side of the support

tested as shown in Fig. 19(a). It comprises a symmetric double-span joint. Therefore, the adjacent frame provides an axial stiffness (Kj) of

composite beam with a missing column in the middle and an adjacent 2.74 kN/mm which is obtained based on the rotational stiffness of the

system on each side representing the axial restraint provided by the adjacent connection as described in Fig. 19(b). The sum of the axial stiff-

neighbouring structure. Details of the beam-to-column joints are pre- ness provided by the horizontal jack and the axial stiffness provided by

sented in Fig. 20. The same joint congurations were also tested in iso- the adjacent frame yields a total axial stiffness (Ks) of 6.02 kN/mm.

lation against combined loading at the University of Stuttgart [11]. The test involved progressive application of a vertical load to the

The mechanical approach for modelling connection behaviour de- mid-span of the double-span beam system through a vertical jack, as

rived by Stylianidis and Nethercot [20] was validated against the results shown in Fig. 19(a), until collapse of the specimen. The analytical meth-

of the joint tests performed at the University of Stuttgart. In that valida- od developed in Section 4 has been used for simulating performance by

tion study, the mechanical properties of the various components have considering half of the symmetric double-span beam system as shown

been dened based on the actual material properties given in [11]. in Fig. 19(c). For describing the load-deection curve, Eq. (32) which

The properties of the tensile components are given in Table 5. The com- links the mid-span deection with a point load applied to the mid-

pression zone of the support connection which is subject to hogging span of the system has been employed. The analytical prediction is

moment after column loss comprises the beam ange/web and the col- shown in Fig. 21 where it is conrmed that it closely resembles the cor-

umn web in compression. The behaviour of those components has been responding test curve.

approximated by a bi-linear characteristic dened by 290.2 kN design In the test, the reinforcement in the vicinity of the support connec-

resistance, 1283.8 kN/mm effective elastic stiffness and 13.0 kN/mm tion fractured at approximately 615 mm mid-span deection. Although

post-limit stiffness. The centre of compression of the mid-span connec- the system was still able to support some additional load applied by the

tions which are subject to sagging moments after column loss was vertical jack until collapse, the stiffness reduced considerably after the

assumed at the mid-thickness of the concrete slab section in compres- reinforcement loss as shown in Fig. 21. The proposed analytical method

sion based on the rectangular stress distribution assumption. More does not account for the effects of progressive failure of the various con-

details about the connection modelling may be found in the corre- nection components but essentially considers that failure of the most

sponding publication [20]. critical connection component triggers collapse of the system. There-

As shown in Fig. 19(a), two horizontal jacks calibrated so as to exhib- fore, comparison should be limited only to the behaviour up to failure

it a tensile stiffness of 3.278 kN/mm on each side of the substructure of the connection reinforcement. This includes the elastic phase, a plas-

were employed. As described in Fig. 19(b) however, additional axial tic phase governed by exural effects where some gradual gain in

150 P.M. Stylianidis et al. / Structures 3 (2015) 137152

M' (kNm) M (kNm) N (kN)

150 150 1000

750

120 120 500

90 90 250

60 60 0

-250

30 30 -500

w (mm) w (mm) w (mm)

0 0 -750

0 200 400 600 800 1000 0 200 400 600 800 1000 0 200 400 600 800 1000

(I) Support connection bending moment (II) Mid-span connection bending moment (III) Beam axial load

ADAPTIC Analytical method: tp = 8 mm tp = 10 mm tp = 12 mm tp = 14 mm

(a) Bare steel beams with various connection endplate thicknesses (L = 6 m)

M' (kNm) M (kNm) N (kN)

150 150 1000

750

120 120 500

90 90 250

60 60 0

-250

30 30 -500

w (mm) w (mm) w (mm)

0 0 -750

0 200 400 600 800 1000 0 200 400 600 800 1000 0 200 400 600 800 1000

(I) Support connection bending moment (II) Mid-span connection bending moment (III) Beam axial load

ADAPTIC Analytical method: L=4m L=6m L=8m L = 10 m

(b) Bare steel beams with various span lengths (tp = 10 mm)

M' (kNm) M (kNm) N (kN)

350 350 1000

300 300 750

250 250 500

200 200 250

150 150 0

100 100 -250

50 50 -500

w (mm) w (mm) w (mm)

0 0 -750

0 200 400 600 800 1000 0 200 400 600 800 1000 0 200 400 600 800 1000

(I) Support connection bending moment (II) Mid-span connection bending moment (III) Beam axial load

ADAPTIC Analytical method: 2 16 4 16 6 16 8 16

(c) Composite beams with various amounts of reinforcement (L = 6 m, tp = 10 mm)

M' (kNm) M (kNm) N (kN)

350 350 1000

300 300 750

250 250 500

200 200 250

150 150 0

100 100 -250

50 50 -500

w (mm) w (mm) w (mm)

0 0 -750

0 200 400 600 800 1000 0 200 400 600 800 1000 0 200 400 600 800 1000

(I) Support connection bending moment (II) Mid-span connection bending moment (III) Beam axial load

ADAPTIC Analytical method: L=4m L=6m L=8m L = 10 m

(d) Composite beams with various span lengths (tp = 10 mm, rebar 4 16)

resistance due to strain-hardening is observed and the tensile stage given joint conguration is approximately 10 mm. Based on this defor-

where performance is enhanced by the tensile axial load developed in mation limit, it has been possible to obtain an explicit prediction of fail-

the beams. The analytical prediction represents the behaviour in each ure of the substructure i.e. denoting, in effect, a distinct reduction of

of those phases with great accuracy. its capability for supporting additional loading due to reinforcement

In the relevant validation study reported in [20], which involved an- rupture in the vicinity of the support connection. The failure point de-

alytical representations of the joint behaviour, it was determined that ned based on the analytical process is in good agreement with the cor-

the deformation capacity of the connection reinforcement for the responding experimental prediction as shown in Fig. 21.

P.M. Stylianidis et al. / Structures 3 (2015) 137152 151

1.055 m

1.055 m Adjacent

connection

Support

connection

Mid-span

connection

P/2 h

Adjacent frame

1.5 m 2.0 m 2.0 m Axial stiffness provided by the adjacent frame: K j S''j / h 2

P/2

Total axial stiffness provided by the horizontal

jack and the adjacent frame: K s = K Hj + K j

2.0 m 2.0 m

Overall, agreement between the analytical predictions and the test employing suitable modelling approaches and implementing quantita-

results may be regarded as excellent in the sense that the analytical tive comparisons between alternative arrangements rather than relying

method relies on some deliberate simplications and assumptions. on prescriptive rules. A continuing research programme at Imperial Col-

One such simplication is associated with the representation of the be- lege London aims at providing such a facility through the development

haviour of the connection components. Although the simplied bi- of a complete design framework. The present paper presents part of the

linear approximations have been deemed to be effective in describing work conducted on simplifying the analysis required to describe the be-

the basic features of performance [20], more sophisticated simulations haviour of building structures following column removal.

i.e. using tri-linear or multi-linear characteristics may provide more An explicit analytical method for modelling the nonlinear static re-

detailed representations. The mechanical approach for modelling con- sponse of axially restrained steel and composite beams following col-

nection behaviour derived in [20] is sufciently general to allow various umn removal is developed. A detailed description of the derivation

techniques for component characterisation. Therefore, it offers the pos- process including denition of all the necessary assumptions and sim-

sibility of incorporating whatever degree of sophistication is considered plications is provided. The procedure is based on the slope-deection

appropriate. In this regard, the connection characteristics may also be approach which is developed in a way that suitable representations of

developed so as to incorporate explicit representations of failure, thus the connection behaviour during progressive collapse are incorporated

allowing for modelling the effects of progressive failure of the constitu- into the analysis.

tive components on the beam response. The proposed analytical method comprises a set of explicit formulae

that link the imposed beam deection with the beam gravity loading

7. Conclusions and the various component forces and deformations such as connec-

tion bending moments, beam axial load and connection rotations de-

Methods for assessing the susceptibility of building structures to veloped during the different stages of the response. Behaviour can be

progressive collapse need to become more similar to conventional actually traced through an incremental step-by-step analysis using the

structural design in terms of understanding structural behaviour, spreadsheet method, thus allowing for detailed representations of the

full range of the response up to failure to be derived.

Verication studies are conducted based on results obtained from

500

rigorous numerical analyses using ADAPTIC and available tests, where

40 60 Rebar 1 excellent agreement is obtained in all cases. The results conrm that

40 Rebar 2 the proposed method is capable of describing explicitly the rather

40 60 Rebar 3

45 Br 1

8 5 3 8 70 Table 5

Br 2

45 Mechanical properties of the connection tensile components [20].

M20 Component Design resistance Elastic stiffness Post-limit stiffness

30 100 30 (Dimensions in mm)

(kN) (kN/mm) (kN/mm)

Beams: IPE 140 ; Columns: HEA 160 ; Endplates: 160 1608 Rebar row i 54.3 264.6 5.3

Bolt-row 1 144.4 118.7 5.8

Bolt-row 2 144.4 100.1 5.7

Fig. 20. Joint layout [11].

152 P.M. Stylianidis et al. / Structures 3 (2015) 137152

200 [9] Nethercot DA, Stylianidis P, Izzuddin BA, Elghazouli AY. Resisting progressive col-

P (kN) lapse by the use of tying resistance. In: Uy B, editor. Steel and Composite Structures.

160 Research Publishing; 2010. p. 94109.

[10] Nethercot DA, Stylianidis P. Utilising catenary action as a method for resisting pro-

gressive collapse. In: Hieng Ho Lau, editor. Advances in Steel and Aluminium Struc-

120 tures. Research Publishing; 2011. p. 228.

[11] Kuhlmann U, Rlle L, Jaspart J-P, Demonceau J-F, Vassart O, Weynand K, et al. Robust

80 Decrease in stiffness structures by joint ductility. Final Report EUR 23611, Luxemburg; 2009.

[12] Sadek F, Main JA, Lew HS, Robert SD, Chiarito VP, El-Tawil S. An experimental and

due to rupture of joint

40 computational study of steel moment connections under a column removal scenar-

reinforcement

io. NIST Technical Note 1669. Gaithersburg, MD: National Institute of Standards and

w (mm) Technology; 2010.

0 [13] Fu F. Progressive collapse analysis of high-rise buildings with 3-D nite element

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 modelling method. J Constr Steel Res 2009;65:126978.

Test Analytical method [14] Sadek F, Main JA, Lew HS, Bao Y. Testing and analysis of steel and concrete beam-

column assemblies under a column removal scenario. J Struct Eng 2011;137(9):

Analytical prediction of reinforcment rupture in the vicinity of the joint 88192.

[15] Li H, El-Tawil S. Three-dimensional effects and collapse resistance mechanisms in

steel frame buildings. J Struct Eng 2014;140(8).

Fig. 21. Beam load-deection predictions. [16] Marjanishvili SM. Progressive analysis procedure for progressive collapse. J Perform

Constr Facil 2004;18(2):7985.

complex behaviour of axially restrained beams. It is shown that the [17] Marjanishvili S, Agnew E. Comparison of various procedures for progressive collapse

analysis. J Perform Constr Facil 2006;20(4):36574.

basic features of the response such as material and geometric nonlinear- [18] Kim J, Kim T. Assessment of progressive collapse-resisting capacity of steel moment

ity are modelled sufciently, thereby the dominant mechanisms that frames. J Constr Steel Res 2009;65:16979.

govern performance such as compressive arching and tensile catenary [19] Izzuddin BA, Vlassis AG, Elghazouli AY, Nethercot DA. Progressive collapse of multi-

storey buildings due to sudden column loss part I: simplied assessment frame-

actions are effectively taken into account. work. Eng Struct 2008;30:130818.

This new development forms an effective and efcient analysis pro- [20] Stylianidis PM, Nethercot DA. Modelling of connection behaviour for progressive

cedure that contrasts in its simplicity of application with detailed nu- collapse analysis. J Constr Steel Res 2015 [Accepted for publication].

[21] Khandelwal K, El-Tawil S, Kunnath SK, Lew HS. Macromodel-based simulation of

merical methods. It offers the capability of conducting comprehensive progressive collapse: steel frame structures. J Struct Eng ASCE 2008;134(7):10708.

parametric studies by examining different alternatives, which is an es- [22] Kim T, Kim J, Park J. Investigation of progressive collapse-resisting capability of steel

sential component for studying in detail the mechanics of the behav- moment frames using push-down analysis. J Perform Constr Facil ASCE 2009;23(5):

32735.

iour. In addition, it provides quantitative representations of the

[23] Yang B, Tan KH. Numerical analyses of steel beam-column joints subjected to cate-

behaviour of each constitutive component and thereby assists with un- nary action. J Constr Steel Res 2012;70:111.

derstanding the effects of the various structural parameters on overall [24] Guo L, Gao S, Fu F, Wang Y. Experimental study and numerical analysis of progres-

performance. Therefore, the proposed analytical method represents a sive collapse resistance of composite frames. J Constr Steel Res 2013;89:23651.

[25] Yang B, Tan KH. Behaviour of composite beam-column joints in a middle-column-

promising advance in modelling, studying and understanding the struc- removal scenario: experimental tests. J Struct Eng ASCE 2014;140(2).

tural behaviour of steel and composite structures during progressive [26] Li L, Wang W, Chen Y, Lu Y. Effect of beam bolt arrangement on catenary behaviour

collapse. of moment connections. J Constr Steel Res 2015;104:2236.

[27] Stylianidis P. Progressive collapse response of steel and composite buildings. [PhD

Thesis] UK: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College

References London; 2011.

[28] Del Savio AA, Nethercot DA, Vellasco PCGS, Andrade SAL, Martha LF. Generalised

[1] Ofce of the Deputy Prime Minister. The Building Regulations 2000, part A, schedule component-based model for beam-to-column connections including axial versus

1: A3. London, UK: Disproportionate Collapse; 2004. moment interaction. J Constr Steel Res 2009;65:187695.

[2] EN 1991-1-7. Eurocode 1: actions on structures part 17: general actions accidental [29] EN 1993-1-8. Eurocode 3: design of steel structures part 1.8: design of joints, Brus-

actions, Brussels; 2006. sels; 2005.

[3] General Services Administration Alternate Path Analysis & Design Guidelines for [30] EN 1994-1-1. Eurocode 4: design of composite steel and concrete structures part

Progressive Collapse Resistance. USA: General Services Administration; 2003. 1.1: general rules and rules for buildings, Brussels; 2004.

[4] DoD. Unied Facilities Criteria (UFC): design of buildings to resist progressive col- [31] Alashker Y, Li H, El-Tawil S. Approximations in progressive collapse modelling. J

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[6] Liu R, Davison B, Tyas A. A study of progressive collapse in multi-storey steel frames. [33] Izzuddin BA. Nonlinear dynamic analysis of framed structures. [PhD Thesis] UK: De-

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