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ULTIMATE

VISUAL
Zygomorphic
flower shape

Green striped
markings Upper sepal

Column
(fused male Anther cap
and female
parts)
Pollinium
(pockets of
pollen)
Spreading
petal
Spreading
petal

Rostellum
Stigma

Lateral (side)
Labellum sepal
(slipper-
shaped petal)
Flower stalk

R E V I S E D A N D U P D A T E D

GLFWLRQDU\
VISUAL
dictionary
Glabella

Eye

Thoracic
pleurae

Tail area
Tail shield

PREHISTORIC TRILOBITE
DIGITAL VIDEO CAMERA OVERHEAD VIEW OF OUR GALAXY
Liquid crystal
display (LCD) Location of
solar system

Viewfinder

Power switch

Cassette
compartment
lid
Battery

First
electron Nucleus
shell Second
electron
shell

Nucleus Windshield

Steering
Fault plane wheel
Dip of
fault plane
ANATOMY OF A
FLUORINE-19 ATOM
Radiator

Hade of Headlight
fault
plane

STRUCTURE OF A FAULT
Exhaust
port

Floral
design

VELOCETTE OHV ENGINE MOSAIC DESIGN MODEL T FORD


VISUAL
dictionary Pedicel
(flowerstalk)

Sepal

Achene
(one-seeded
dry fruit)

Remains
of stigma
and style

STRAWBERRY

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ORIGINAL EDITION (Ultimate Visual Dictionary)


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ULTIMATE VISUAL DICTIONARY, 1994

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4
Canopy Fin
Spinneret
Prosoma
(cephalothorax)

Heat shield
Main landing
gear

Leg SIDE VIEW OF ARV SUPER 2 AIRPLANE

EXTERNAL FEATURES
OF A SPIDER CONTENTS
Barrel Third
INTRODUCTION 6 stage
motor
THE UNIVERSE 8
Permanent
black ink Delta II
PREHISTORIC EARTH 54 launch
vehicle
second
PLANTS 110 stage

FOUNTAIN PEN AND INK ANIMALS 164


MARS PATHFINDER
THE HUMAN BODY 208
Face light Low pressure
emitting gases
diodes GEOLOGY, GEOGRAPHY,
Movable (LEDs) AND METEOROLOGY 262
tail
PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY 304
RAIL AND ROAD 322
SEA AND AIR 370 Central
electrode
THE VISUAL ARTS 428 BALL CONTAINING HIGH
TEMPERATURE GAS (PLASMA)
SONY AIBO ARCHITECTURE 456
ROBOT DOG
MUSIC 500 Nonbreakable
plastic
Parallel SPORTS 522
bands
THE MODERN WORLD 564
APPENDIX 616 Shock
absorber

FOOTBALL HELMET
ONYX INDEX 624

5
Introduction
HE VISUAL DICTIONARY is a
T completely new kind of reference
book. It provides a link between pictures
annotated, color photographs showing the skin,
muscles, and bones of the human hand. In this entry
you will quickly find that the bone you are searching
for is called the distal phalanx, and for good measure
and words in a way that no ordinary you will discover that it is attached to the middle
dictionary ever has. Most dictionaries phalanx by the distal interphalangeal joint.
simply tell you what a word means, but Perhaps you want to know what a catalytic converter
the VISUAL DICTIONARY shows youthrough looks like. If you look up catalytic converter in an
acombination of detailed annotations, ordinary dictionary, you will be told what it is and
explicit photographs, and illustrations. possibly what it doesbut you will not be able to tell
what shape it is or what it is made of. However, if
In the VISUAL DICTIONARY, pictures define you look up catalytic converter in the index of the
the annotations around them. You do not VISUAL DICTIONARY, you will be directed to the Modern
read definitions of the annotated words, engines entry on page 344where the introduction
gives you basic information about what a catalytic
you seethem. The highly accessible converter isand to page 350where there is a
format of the VISUAL DICTIONARY, the spectacular exploded-view photograph of the
thoroughness of its annotations, and mechanics of a Renault Clio. From these pages you
will find out not only what a catalytic converter looks
the range of its subject matter make like, but also that it is attached at one end to an
it a unique and helpful reference tool. exhaust pipe and at the other to a muffler.
Whatever it is that you want to find a name for, or
whatever name you want to find a picture for, you
How to use the VISUAL DICTIONARY will find it quickly and easily in the VISUAL DICTIONARY.
You will find the VISUAL DICTIONARY simple to use. Perhaps you need to know where the vamp on a
Instead of being organized alphabetically, it is shoeis; or how to tell obovate and lanceolate leaves
divided by subject into 14 sectionsTHE UNIVERSE, apart; or what a spiral galaxy looks like; or whether
PREHISTORIC EARTH, PLANTS, ANIMALS, THE H UMAN BODY, birds have nostrils. With the VISUAL DICTIONARY at
etc. Each section begins with a table of contents hand, the answers to each of these questions, and
listing the major entries within that section. For thousands more, are readily available.
example, The Visual Arts section has entries on
Drawing, Tempera, Fresco, Oils, Watercolor, Pastels, The VISUAL DICTIONARY does not just tell you what the
Acrylics, Calligraphy, Printmaking, Mosaic,and names of the different parts of an object are. The
Sculpture. Every entry has a short introduction photographs, illustrations, and annotations are all
explaining the purpose of the photographs and specially arranged to help you understand which
illustrations, and the significanceof the annotations. parts relate to one another and how objects function.
If you know what something looks like, but dont With the VISUAL DICTIONARY you can find in seconds
know its name, find the term you need by turning thewords or pictures that you are looking for; or
to the annotations surrounding the pictures; if you you can simply browse through the pages of the
know a word, but dont know what it refers to, use book for your own pleasure. The VISUAL DICTIONARY
the comprehensive index to direct you to the is not intended to replace a standard dictionary
appropriate page. or conventional encyclopedia, but is instead a
stimulating and valuable companion to ordinary
Suppose that you want to know what the bone reference volumes. Giving you instant access to the
at the end of your little finger is called. With a language that is used by astronomers and architects,
standard dictionary, you wouldnt know where musicians and mechanics, scientists and
to begin. But with the V ISUAL DICTIONARY you simply sportspeople,it is the ideal reference book for
turn to the entry called Handswithin THE HUMAN specialists and generalists of all ages.
BODYsectionwhere you will find four fully

6
Sections of the VISUAL DICTIONARY PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY is a visual journey
The 14 sections of the VISUAL DICTIONARY contain a through the fundamental principles underlying
total of more than 30,000 terms, encompassing the physical universe, and provides the essential
a wide range of topics: vocabulary of these sciences.

In the first section, THE UNIVERSE, spectacular In RAIL AND ROAD, a wide range of trains, trams
photographs and illustrations are used to show and buses, cars, bicycles, and motorcycles are
thenames of the stars and planets and to described. Exploded-view photographs show
explainthe structure of solar systems, galaxies, mechanical details with striking clarity.
nebulae, comets, and black holes.
SEA AND AIR gives the names for hundreds
PREHISTORIC EARTH tells the story in annotations of parts of ships and airplanes. The section
of how our own planet has evolved since its includes civil and fighting craft, both
formation. It includes examples of prehistoric historical and modern.
floraand fauna, and fascinating dinosaur
modelssome with parts of the body stripped THE VISUAL ARTS shows the equipment and
awayto show anatomical sections. materials used by painters, sculptors, printers,
and other artists. Well-known compositions
PLANTS covers a huge range of species havebeen chosen to illustrate specific artistic
from the familiar to the exotic. In addition techniques and effects.
to the colorphotographs of plants included in
this section, there is a series of micrographic ARCHITECTURE includes photographs of
photographs illustrating plant detailssuch exemplary architectural models and illustrates
as pollen grains, spores, and cross-sections of dozens of additional features such as columns,
stemsand rootsin close-up. domes, and arches.

In the ANIMALS section, skeletons, anatomical MUSIC provides a visual introduction to


diagrams, and different parts of animals bodies the special language of music and musical
have been meticulously annotated. This section instruments. It includes clearly annotated
provides a comprehensive guide to the photographs of each of the major groups of
vocabularyof zoological classification and traditional instrumentsbrass, woodwind,
animalphysiology. strings, and percussiontogether with modern
electronic instruments.
The structure of the human body, its parts, and
itssystems are presented in THE HUMAN BODY. The SPORTS section is a guide to the playing
The section includes lifelike, three-dimensional areas, formations, equipment, and techniques
models and the latest false-color images. Clear needed for many of todays most popular sports.
and authoritative annotations indicate the
correct anatomical terms. In THE MODERN WORLD, items that are a
familiar part of our daily lives are taken apart
GEOLOGY, GEOGRAPHY, AND METEOROLOGY to reveal their inner workings and give access to
describes the structure of the Earthfrom the the language used by their manufacturers. It
inner core to the exosphereand the physical also includes systems and concepts, such as
phenomenasuch as volcanoes, rivers, glaciers, the internet, that increasingly influence our
and climatethat shape its surface. 21st century world.

7
THE UNIVERSE
ANATOMY OF THE UNIVERSE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
GALAXIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
THE MILKY WAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
NEBULAE AND STAR CLUSTERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
STARS OF NORTHERN SKIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
STARS OF SOUTHERN SKIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
STARS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
SMALL STARS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
MASSIVE STARS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
NEUTRON STARS AND BLACK HOLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
THE SOLAR SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
THE SUN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
MERCURY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
VENUS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
THE EARTH. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
THE MOON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
MARS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
JUPITER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
SATURN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
URANUS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
NEPTUNE AND PLUTO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
ASTEROIDS, COMETS, AND METEOROIDS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
THE UNIVERSE

Anatomy of the universe Fireball of rapidly


expanding, extremely
hot gas lasting about
one million years
THE UNIVERSE CONTAINS EVERYTHING that exists, from the tiniest subatomic particles
to galactic superclusters (the largest structures known). No one knows how big
the universe is, but astronomers estimate that it contains at least 125 billion
galaxies, each comprising an average of 100 billion stars. The most widely
accepted theory about the origin of the universe is the Big Bang
theory, which states that the universe came into being in a huge
explosionthe Big Bangthat took place between 10 and 20
billion years ago. The universe initially consisted of a very
hot, dense fireball of expanding, cooling gas. After about
one million years, the gas began to condense into
localized clumps called protogalaxies. During the
next five billion years, the protogalaxies continued
condensing, forming galaxies in which stars were
being born. Today, billions of years later, the
universe as a whole is still expanding, although
there are localized areas in which objects are
held together by gravity; for example, many
galaxies are found in clusters. The Big Bang
theory is supported by the discovery of faint,
cool background radiation coming evenly from
all directions. This radiation is believed to be
the remnant of the radiation produced by the
Big Bang. Small ripples in the temperature of
the cosmic background radiation are thought
to be evidence of slight fluctuations in the
density of the early universe, which resulted
in the formation of galaxies. Astronomers do
not yet know if the universe is closed, which
means it will eventually stop expanding and
begin to contract, or if it is open, which
means it will continue expanding forever.
FALSE-COLOR MICROWAVE MAP OF
COSMIC BACKGROUND RADIATION
Pale blue indicates
Pink indicates warm cool ripples in
ripples in background background radiation
radiation

Low-energy
microwave radiation
corresponding to -454F (-270C)

Red and pink band High-energy gamma


Deep blue indicates indicates radiation radiation corresponding
background radiation corresponding to -454F from our galaxy to 5,400F (3,000C)
(-270C); (remnant of the Big Bang)

10
A N AT O M Y O F T H E U N I V E R S E

ORIGIN AND EXPANSION OF THE UNIVERSE OBJECTS IN THE UNIVERSE

Quasar (probably the center


of a galaxy containing a
massive black hole)

Universe about five


billion years after
Big Bang

C LUSTER OF FALSE-COLOR IMAGE


Protogalaxy GALAXIES IN VIRGO OF 3C273 (QUASAR)
(condensing gas cloud)

Galaxy spinning and


flattening to become
spiral shaped

NGC 4406 NGC 5236


(ELLIPTICALGALAXY) (BARRED SPIRALGALAXY)
Dark cloud
(dust and gas
condensing
to form a
protogalaxy)

Elliptical
galaxy in
which stars
form rapidly NGC 6822 THE ROSETTE NEBULA
(IRREGULARGALAXY) (EMISSION NEBULA)

Universe today
(1317 billion years
after Big Bang)

THE JEWEL BOX THE SUN


Cluster of (STAR C LUSTER) (MAINSEQUENCE STAR)
galaxiesheld
together by gravity

Elliptical galaxy
containing old stars
and little gas and dust
Irregular galaxy
Spiral galaxy
containing gas,
dust,and young stars EARTH THE MOON

11
THE UNIVERSE

Galaxies OPTICAL IMAGE OF NGC 4486


(ELLIPTICAL GALAXY) Globular cluster
containing very
A GALAXY IS A HUGE MASS OF STARS, nebulae, old red giants
and interstellar material. The smallest
Central region
galaxies contain about 100,000 stars, while containing old
the largest contain up to 3 trillion stars. red giants
There are three main types of galaxy,
Less densely
classified according to their shape: elliptical, populated region
SOMBRERO, which are oval shaped; spiral,
ASPIRAL GALAXY which have arms spiraling Neighbouring galaxy
outward from a central bulge (those whose arms OPTICAL IMAGE OF LARGE MAGELLANIC
CLOUD (IRREGULAR GALAXY)
spiral from a bar-shaped bulge are called spirals);
and irregular, which have no obvious shape.
Sometimes, the shape of a galaxy is distorted by
a collision with another galaxy. Quasars (quasi- Tarantula Nebula
stellar objects) are thought to be galactic nuclei
butare so far away that their exact nature is still
uncertain. They are compact, highly luminous
objects in the outer reaches of the known
universe: while the farthest known ordinary Dust cloud obscuring
light from stars
galaxies are about 12 billion light-years away, the
farthest known quasar is about 13 billion light-
years away. Active galaxies, such as Seyfert Emission nebula
galaxies and radio galaxies, emit intense radiation.
In a Seyfert galaxy, this radiation comes from the
galactic nucleus; in a radio galaxy, it also comes
from huge lobes on either side of the galaxy. The Light from stars
radiation from active galaxies and quasars is
thought to be caused by material falling into
central black holes (see pp. 28-29).

OPTICAL IMAGE OF NGC 2997 (SPIRAL GALAXY)

Glowing nebula Dust in spiral


in spiral arm arm reflecting
blue light from
hot young stars

Spiral arm Hot, ionized


containing hydrogen gas
young stars emitting red light

Galactic nucleus Dust lane


containing
oldstars

12
GALAXIES

OPTICAL IMAGE OF CENTAURUS A FALSE-COLOR RADIO


(RADIO GALAXY) IMAGE OF CENTAURUS A
Dust lane crossing
elliptical galaxy Red indicates
high-intensity
radio waves
Galactic nucleus Radio
containing lobe Blue indicates
powerful source low-intensity
of radiation radio waves

Radiation from
galactic nucleus

Light from Outline of


old stars optical image
Radio of Centaurus A
lobe
Yellow indicates
medium-intensity
radio waves

FALSE-COLOR RADIO IMAGE OF 3C 273 (QUASAR)


Radiation from jet Quasar nucleus
of high-energy
particles moving
away from quasar
White indicates high-
Blue indicates intensity radio waves
low-intensity
radio waves

OPTICAL IMAGE OF NGC 1566 FALSE-COLOR OPTICAL IMAGE OF NGC 5754


(SEYFERT GALAXY) (TWO COLLIDING GALAXIES)
Blue indicates low-
intensity radiation
Red indicates
Nebula in medium-intensity
spiral arm radiation
Spiral arm
distorted by
gravitational
influence of
smaller galaxy
Compact nucleus
emitting intense Large spiral
radiation galaxy

Smaller galaxy
colliding with
Spiral arm large galaxy
Yellow indicates
high-intensity
radiation

13
THE UNIVERSE

The Milky Way


THE MILKY WAY IS THE NAME GIVEN TO THE FAINT BAND OF LIGHT that stretches
across the night sky. This light comes from stars and nebulae in our galaxy, known as
the Milky Way Galaxy or simply as the Galaxy. The Galaxy is believed to be a barred
spiral, with a dense central bar of stars encircled by four arms spiraling outward and
surrounded by a less dense halo. We cannot see the spiral shape because the solar system
is in one of the spiral arms, the Orion Arm (also called the Local Arm). From our
VIEW TOWARD position, the center of the Galaxy is completely obscured by dust clouds; as a result, optical
GALACTIC CENTER
maps give only a limited view of the Galaxy. However, a more complete picture can be
obtained by studying radio, infrared, and other radiation. The central part of the Galaxy is relatively small
and dense and contains mainly older red and yellow stars. The halo is a less dense region in which the oldest
stars are situated; some of these stars are as old as the Galaxy itself (possibly 13 billion years). The spiral
arms contain main sequence stars and hot, young, blue stars, as well as nebulae (clouds of dust and
gas inside which stars are born). The Galaxy is vast, about 100,000 light-years across (a light-year is about
5,870 billion miles/9,460 billion km); incomparison, the solar system seems small, at about 12 light-hours
across (about 8 billion miles/13 billion km). Theentire Galaxy is rotating in space, although
the inner stars travel faster than those farther out. The Sun, which is
about two-thirds out from the center, completes one lap of the Galaxy PANORAMIC OPTICAL MAP OF OUR
about every 220 million years. GALAXY AND NEARBY GALAXIES
SIDE VIEW OF OUR GALAXY Polaris (the North
Star), a blue-green
Disk of spiral arms Central bulge containing variable binary star
containing mainly mainly older stars
young stars Light from stars
and nebulae in the
Perseus Arm

Halo containing Nucleus


oldest stars Galactic
plane
100,000 light-years Milky Way
(theband of light
OVERHEAD VIEW OF OUR GALAXY that stretches across
the night sky)
Central bulge

Nucleus Emission
nebula
Perseus Arm
Sagittarius
Crux-Centaurus Arm
Arm
Pleiades
(the Seven Sisters),
an open star cluster
Dust in spiral
arm reflecting Andromeda Galaxy, a spiral
blue light from galaxy 2.2 million light-years
hot young stars away; the most distant object
Orion Arm visible to the naked eye
(Local Arm)
Location of
solar system
Patch of dust clouds

14
T H E M I L K Y WAY

PANORAMIC RADIO MAP OF OUR GALAXY PANORAMIC INFRARED MAP OF OUR GALAXY
North Galactic spur North Galactic Red indicates North Galactic Low-intensity infrared
(possibly radio emission Pole high-intensity Pole radiation from interstellar
from a supernova remnant) radio-wave emission gas and dust

Galactic Galactic
plane plane
Galactic
plane

Galactic
plane

High-intensity
Blue indicates Yellow and green infrared
low-intensity indicatemedium-intensity South Galactic Pole radiation
radio-wave emission South radio-wave emission fromregion
Galactic Pole High-intensity infrared ofstarbirth
radiation from interstellar
gas and dust
Vega, a white main Dark clouds of dust and gas
sequence star; the fifth North Galactic Pole obscuring light from part of the
brightest star in the sky Sagittarius Arm
Light from stars and nebulae in the
part of the Sagittarius Arm between
the Sun and Galactic center

Light from stars


and nebulae in the
Perseus Arm

Galactic
plane

Orions belt,
a row of
three bright
stars

Orion Nebula
Sirius, a white main
sequence star; the
brightest star in the sky
Canopus, a white supergiant;
Dust clouds thesecond brightest star in the sky
South Galactic Pole
obscuring
Galactic center Small Magellanic Cloud, an irregular Large Magellanic Cloud, an irregular galaxy 170,000 light-years
galaxy 190,000 light-years away away; one of the nearest galaxies to the Milky Way

15
THE UNIVERSE

Nebulae and star clusters


A NEBULA IS A CLOUD OF DUST AND GAS inside a galaxy. Nebulae become visible if the
gasglows, or if the cloud reflects starlight or obscures light from more distant objects.
Emission nebulae shine because their gas emits light when it is stimulated by radiation
fromhot young stars. Reflection nebulae shine because their dust reflects light from stars
in or around the nebula. Dark nebulae appear as silhouettes because they block out light
from shining nebulae or stars behind them. Two types of nebula are associated with dying
stars: planetary nebulae and supernova remnants. Both consist of expanding shells of gas
HODGE 11, A
GLOBULAR C LUSTER
that were once the outer layers of a star. A planetary nebula is a gas shell drifting away
from a dying stellar core. A supernova TRIFID NEBULA (EMISSION NEBULA)
remnant is a gas shell moving away from a stellar
core at great speed following a violent explosion
called a supernova (see pp. 26-27). Stars are often Reflection
found in groups known as clusters. Open clusters nebula
are loose groups of a few thousand young stars
that were born from the same cloud and are
drifting apart. Globular clusters are densely
Emission
packed, roughly spherical groups of hundreds nebula
of thousands of older stars.
PLEIADES (OPEN STAR CLUSTER)
WITH A REFLECTION NEBULA
Wisps of dust and Dust lane
hydrogen gas. The
cluster is passing
through a region of
interstellar
material Starbirth region
(area in which
Young star in an dust and gas
open cluster of more clump together
than 1,000 stars to form stars)
Reflection nebula

HORSEHEAD NEBULA (DARK NEBULA)

Glowing filament
of hot, ionized Star near southern
hydrogen gas end of Orions belt

Emission nebula
Alnitak (star in
Orions belt)
Horsehead Nebula

Dust lane
Reflection nebula

Dark nebula
obscuring light
Emission nebula from distant stars

16
N E B U L A E A N D S TA R C L U S T E R S

ORION NEBULA (DIFFUSE EMISSION NEBULA)


Glowing Gas cloud
cloud of dust emitting
and hydrogen lightdue to
gas forming ultraviolet
part of Orion radiation from
Nebula the four young
Trapezium stars

Dust cloud

Trapezium
(group of four
young stars)

Green light
from hot,
ionized
oxygen gas
Glowing
Red light filament of
from hot, hot, ionized
ionized hydrogen gas
hydrogen gas

VELA SUPERNOVA REMNANT

Supernova
remnant (gas
shell consisting
of outer layers
HELIX NEBULA (PLANETARY NEBULA) of star thrown
off in
Planetary nebula supernova
(gas shell expanding explosion)
outward from dying
stellar core)
Hydrogen gas
emitting red
Core remnant with light due to
surface temperature being heated
of about 180,000F by supernova
(100,000C) explosion
Red light from
hot, ionized
hydrogen gas

Blue-green light from Glowing


hot, ionized oxygen filament of
and nitrogen gases hot, ionized
hydrogen gas

17
THE UNIVERSE

Stars of northern skies LUP US


WHEN YOU LOOK AT THE NORTHERN SKY, you look away from the densely
populated Galactic center, so the northern sky generally appears less Antares
bright than the southern sky (see pp. 20-21). Among the best-known
sights in the northern sky are the constellations Ursa Major L
IB
RA

T
(the Great Bear) and Orion. Some ancient civilizations believed

PU
R
that the stars were fixed to a celestial sphere surrounding the Zubenelgenubi

A
U
Earth, and modern maps of the sky are based on a similar

C
A Zubeneschamali
idea. The North and South Poles of this imaginary T

S
RPEN
N
celestial sphere are directly above the North and South E
Poles of the Earth, at the points where the Earths axis C O

G
of rotation intersects the sphere. The celestial North Spica

SE
R
Pole is at the center of the map shown here, and

VI
Arcturus Alphecca
Polaris (the North Star) lies very close to it. The

ALI S
BORE A
N
celestial equator marks a projection of the BO

CO R O
TE

S
Earths equator on the sphere. The ecliptic

U
E S
C O RV A NIC
M RE

S
marks the path of the Sun across the sky E

O
H Y D

B
as the Earth orbits the Sun. The Moon and

CI
Cor

C A N ES
Caroli Alkaid
planets move against the background of

V E N AT I

UR
ER
Denebola
the stars because the stars are much more

S
distant; the nearest star outside the solar A
R

Alioth Kochab

A M
CR

LEO
system (Proxima Centauri) is more

U
A

R NOR
A N

L
than 50,000 times farther away than

M
NS

EO

SA
A J O R

I
Dubhe
the planet Jupiter.
XTA

M INOR
Algieba
T L I A

Regulus
SE

ORION E cl
Chi1 Orionis
Chi2 Orionis
ipt
V E

ic

Nu Orionis R
Alphard C A N CE L
Y N
Xi Orionis
IS

Equ
L A

Praesepe X A
Ce or
PYX

G E
Heka Castor

AU RIG
at

Capella
le s

Pollux
Mu Orionis
t ia

M
Bellatrix
CA
l

IN
M Precyon
NI
Betelgeuse O S
N I
El Nath
M i O MI Alhena
lk N
y O
C

Wa y
R
E

Orions belt Gamma Aldebaran


P U

CA

Betelgeuse
R

Velorum
Omicron
O

ION

Orionis
NI

S
P PI S

Strius
S

Alnitak Pi2 Orionis


OR

Wezen Mirzam
M

Pi3 Orionis Adhara A


JO Rigel
Pi4 Orionis R
Pi5 Orionis L E P U
C S
Saiph Pi6 Orionis O
LU CA
Mintaka ELUM
M B
A
Eta Orionis
Tau Orionis
Orion
Nebula Rigel VISIBLE STARS IN THE NORTHERN SKY
Alnilam

18
S TA R S O F N O R T H E R N S K I E S

THE BIG DIPPER, PART OF URSA MAJOR (THE GREAT BEAR)


Alcor
Mizar
IUS
RP Shaula Dubhe
O
SC O Alkaid

C
AU
R
Kaus S T O
N
Australis R A AL
IS
OP SE SC
Nunki
HI R
U S
UTUM
PE

A
C

G
H

IT
S

Alioth
US

TA
CA

RIUS Megrez
AQ

HE Ec
UD

RC Ras
Alhague lip Merak
UL Phekda
A

ti c
E
IL

A CAP
RI
S

VU

CO
LYRA Altair
LP

E PEGASUS AND ANDROMEDA


NUS

RN U S
Vega
E Q U UL E U S
C

U Theta
L Enif
A
HI

CY G Pegasi
D

Eltanin
LP
RA

N U Lambda Pegasi
E

D
A QUA RIU

S Deneb
CO

Deneb Enif Algedi


Al Kappa Pegasi
Nair
S

US
A U S T RI N U

Alderamin
S

Pi Pegasi Hamal
PIS C IS
E

A S U

Polaris
PH

RT A
GRUS

CE Iota Pegasi
LA
CE

Scheat
E IA Markab Mu Pegasi
OP
E G

Xi Pegasi
SI Schedar Fomalhaut
Matar
S
A

Alpheratz
C

Scheat
R
A

TO
S

D Algenib
Mirach E P
E

M
L

Almach
Mirfak
RO
C

AND
S CU

Markab
r

Algol Omicron
S

at o

S I A N GU L U M Andromedae
I

E U T R Hamal
qu

PE RS
P
lE

ES Nair Al
RI
Zaurak
ia

Deneb
Pleiades Kaitos
st

le
TA

Lambda
A

U
RU
Ce Andromedae Algenib
NI

S Mira
Theta
E

Menkar
C E T U S Andromedae
O

PH Andromeda Alpheratz
Galaxy
U S
A N Nu Andromedae
D
RI X
E R NA
F OAcamar Delta
Phi Andromedae Andromedae
51 Andromedae
Mirach
Mu Andromedae
Almach

19
THE UNIVERSE

Stars of southern skies L E


S
WHEN YOU LOOK AT THE SOUTHERN SKY, you look toward the Galactic H E R C U
center, which has a huge population of stars. As a result, the Milky
Way appears brighter in the southern sky than in the northern sky Vega
(see pp. 18-19). The southern sky is rich in nebulae and star
clusters. It contains the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds, A
R Ras Alhague Ras Algethi

Y
which are two of the nearest galaxies to our own. Stars make O P H

L
I U
fixed patterns in the sky called constellations. However, C H
the constellations are only apparent groupings of stars, Albireo U
S S
since the distances to the stars in a constellation may U A S E R P E N S
N T C A U
G T DA
vary enormously. The shapes of constellations may Y G
I
A Q U I LA Sabik
C
change over many thousands of years due to the A

S
Altair S
relative motions of stars. The movement of the S Kaus
U

I
Deneb U Borealis

RP
constellations across the sky is due to the Earths I
Nunki

R
H IN US Shanta

O
LP

A
motion in space. The daily rotation of the Earth E

SC
S A GITT
C

r
D

to
causes the constellations to move across the y

A
ua
l
Algedi A

ia

PR
A R

a
sky from east to west, and the orbit of the

Eq
W

est
EQ

IC O NUS
C el
Earth around the Sun causes different areas

U
y

U
L
lk
EU
of sky to be visible in different seasons. The

R
S
S

O
Mi

U
visibility of areas of sky also depends on PA
IN

RI
Enif
Peacock
the location of the observer. For instance, Deneb
D
U

S
U A
Algedi

U
stars near the celestial equator may be

S
A U S TR IS
IN
P E
Al Nair

PI S C
seen from either hemisphere at some

GR
A
RT

A Q
H

TUCA
E Y
time during the year, whereas stars C Small

U
LA Magellanic

D
Cloud
close to the celestial poles (the celestial
G A

RU
Fomalhaut

N
A

S
South Pole is at the center of the map

S CU LPTOR
Scheat Markab
shown here) can never be seen from Nair AI
S

Zaurak Achernar

RE
the opposite hemisphere.
U S

PH

TI C
E R I D
O
Deneb E
Kaitos NI

UL UM
HYDRUS (THE WATER SNAKE) AND X
MENSA (THE TABLE) Algenib

FO
Small Alpheratz
MagellanicCloud

RN

A N
A
Beta Hydri
C

X
A

E
N

U
T

Mira
D

S
Mirach
R

P I S C E S
O

Menkar
M

TRIA

Gamma
A

Hamal
E

Hydri
I

Ec
D

A S lip
NG

tic
T A
U

Almach
L

U U
M Alcyone
Gamma Mensae R
Pleiades U
S

Alpha Mensae Algol


P E R S E
U S
Alpha Eta Mensae
Hydri Mirfak
Beta Mensae
Delta Hydri
Large Magellanic
Epsilon Hydri Cloud VISIBLE STARS IN THE SOUTHERN SKY

20
S TA R S O F S O U T H E R N S K I E S

CENTAURUS (THE
Alpha Centauri Epsilon CENTAUR) AND
Centauri CRUX (THE
Hadar Zeta SOUTHERN CROSS)
Centauri
CO Mimosa
A
BO RO N
RE A L I S Eta Centauri
Acrux
Alphecca

Omega
B
S Epsilon Menkent
EN Centauri
O

RP UT Crucis
SE AP

Unukalhai Arcturus
C
T

Delta
E

S Crucis
A S Iota Centauri
Zubeneschamali M CE Cor Caroli
O I Gacrux
C N
Graffias E V CA Gamma Centauri
R E
LI

N N
E
A
B

E
Zubenelgenubi
CANIS MAJOR (THE GREAT DOG) Furud
B

S
R

T
Antares
A V

IC
I Adhara

I
R Sigma Canis Majoris

U R
Spica G
CE
N Porrima Omicron1 Canis Majoris

S A
O
TA

C
OR

Denebola Mirzam
U RUS

VU S

M A J O R
Alpha
TR I

Centauri
AN
GU

Hadar X Sirius
RU
C
LU
M

R
C
AU

A
L E O

Acrux T E R
ST

L E O MI NOR

H
RA

Muliphen
SEX

E
L

V
E
Y

TA
LA

Miaplacidus S Pi Canis Majoris


A

VO
LI

Wezen
R A

LANS Markeb
RIN A

Regulus
T

N Omicron2 Canis Majoris Aludra


MENS A
Large A
Magellanic
CA

Cloud Gamma Alphard SAGITTARIUS (THE ARCHER)


E c l i p t ic

Velorum
PICT OR
DO

Omicron Sagittarii
RA

Pi Sagittarii
DO

Canopus PU P P Xi2 Sagittarii


Beta IS
u a tia l

Pictoris
S Upsilon Sagittarii
tor

NI Psi Sagittarii
E q e l es

Adhara CA JOR
A
C

C M Rho1 Sagittarii
O L Phaet NCE R
UMBA CA
X

Procyon Nunki M22


N

Sirius
LE P

Mirzam (NGC6656)
IS globular
Y

E ROS CA N OR
NOC
US

MO Tau cluster
L

Rigel M I N Pollux
Sagittarii
Betelgeuse Castor
Lagoon
N I Nebula
O R IO N M I 62 Sagittarii
E Zeta
G
Aldebaran Sagittarii
El Nath
Kaus
Theta1 Sagittarii Borealis
A Menkalinan
A U RI G Kaus
Meridionalis
Iota Sagittarii
Capella Nash
Alrami
Eta
Arkab Prior Kaus Australis Sagittarii

21
THE UNIVERSE

Stars
STARS ARE BODIES of hot,
glowing gas that are born in
nebulae (see pp. 24-27). They STAR SIZES
vary enormously in size, mass, and
Red giant from 10 to
temperature: diameters range from 100 million miles (15 to
about 450 times smaller to over 1,000 times 150 million km) wide
OPEN STAR C LUSTER bigger than that of the Sun; masses range The Sun
AND DUST C LOUD from about a twentieth to over 50 solar masses; (mainsequence star;
and surface temperatures range from about 5,500F diameter 870,000
(3,000C) to over 90,000F (50,000C). The color of a star is determined miles/1.4 million km)
by its temperature: the hottest stars are blue and the coolest are red.
White dwarf
The Sun, with a surface temperature of 10,000F (5,500C), is (diameter of 2,000 to
between these extremes and appears yellow. The 30,000 miles/3,000 to
energy emitted by a shining star is usually produced ENERGY EMISSION FROM THE SUN 50,000 km)
by nuclear fusion in the stars core. The brightness Nuclear fusion Neutrinos travel to Earth
of a star is measured in magnitudesthe brighter in core produces directly from Suns core
gamma rays in about 8 minutes
the star, the lower its magnitude. There are two and neutrinos
types of magnitude: apparent magnitude, which
Lower-energy
is the brightness seen from Earth, and absolute radiation travels
magnitude, which is the brightness that would be to Earth in about
seen from a standard distance of 10 parsecs (32.6 8 minutes
light-years). The light emitted by a star may be split
to form a spectrum containing a series of dark lines
(absorption lines). The patterns of lines indicate the
presence of particular chemical elements, enabling Earth
astronomers to deduce the composition of the stars
atmosphere. The magnitude and spectral type (color) Lower-energy radiation
of stars may be plotted on a graph called a Sun (mainly ultraviolet, infrared,
and light rays) leaves surface
Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, which shows that
stars tend to fall into several well-defined groups. High-energy radiation
(gamma rays) loses energy while traveling
The principal groups are main sequence stars (those to surface over 2 million years
which are fusing hydrogen to form helium), giants,
supergiants, and white dwarfs.
NUCLEAR FUSION IN MAIN
STAR MAGNITUDES SEQUENCE STARS LIKE THE SUN
Positron Deuterium Proton
APPARENT MAGNITUDE ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDE
nucleus
Brighter stars
-9 Rigel: absolute Neutron
magnitude of -7.1
Sirius: apparent
magnitude of -1.46
Rigel: apparent 0 Sirius: absolute
magnitude of +0.12 magnitude of +1.4
Proton Helium-4
Objects of magnitude (hydrogen nucleus
nucleus) Neutrino
higher than about +9
+6.0 cannot be seen Helium-3
by the naked eye Gamma rays nucleus
Fainter stars

22
S TA R S

HERTZSPRUNG-RUSSELL DIAGRAM
Hotter stars TEMPERATURE (F) Cooler stars
65,000 18,000 9,000 6,500 4,500
More luminous stars -7
-6
-5 SUPERG
Deneb (blue supergiant) IANTS Betelgeuse (red supergiant)
-4
-3
-2
-1 TS
GIAN
0 Arcturus (red giant)
Sirius A (massive +1 MA
main sequence star) IN
+2 SE
QU
+3 EN
CE
+4 ST
AR
ABSOLUTE +5 S The Sun (yellow main
VISUAL sequence dwarf)
+6
MAGNITUDE
+7
+8
+9
+10
Sirius B (white dwarf) +11
+12
+13 WR Barnards Star (main
I T E D WA R F S
+14 sequence red dwarf)
+15
Less luminous stars +16

O5 B0 A0 F0 G0 K0 M0 M5
SPECTRAL TYPE

STELLAR SPECTRAL ABSORPTION LINES

Hydrogen Hydrogen Sodium Hydrogen


Calcium line gamma line beta line Helium line lines alpha line

STAR OF SPECTRAL
TYPE A (e.g., SIRIUS)

STAR OF SPECTRAL
TYPE G (e.g., THE SUN)

Hydrogen Magnesium Sodium Hydrogen


beta line lines lines alpha line

23
THE UNIVERSE

Small stars STRUCTURE OF A


MAIN SEQUENCE STAR
SMALL STARS HAVE A MASS of up to about one and a half Core containing hydrogen
times that of the Sun. They begin to form when a region of fusing to form helium
higher density in a nebula condenses into a huge globule of Radiative
gas and dust that contracts under its own gravity. Within zone
a globule, regions of condensing matter heat up and
Convective
begin to glow, forming protostars. If a protostar zone
contains enough matter, the central temperature
reaches about 27 million F (8 million C). At this
temperature, nuclear reactions in which hydrogen
fuses to form helium can start. This process releases
REGION OF energy, which prevents the star from contracting
STARFORMATION more and also causes it to shine; it is now a main
IN ORION
sequence star. A star of about one solar mass remains
on the main sequence for about 10 billion years, until much of the hydrogen in Surface temperature
the stars core has been converted into helium. The helium core then contracts, 10,000F (5,500C)
and nuclear reactions continue in a shell around the core. The core becomes hot Core: 27 million F
enough for helium to fuse to form carbon, while the outer (15 million C)
layers of the star expand and cool. The expanding
star is known as a red giant. When the
STRUCTURE OF A NEBULA
helium in the core runs out, the outer
layers of the star may be blown
away as an expanding gas shell
called a planetary nebula. The
remaining core (about 80 Young main
sequence star
percent of the original
star) is now in its final
stages. It becomes Dense region of dust and
gas (mainly hydrogen)
a white dwarf star condensing under gravity
that gradually cools to form globules
and dims. When it
finally stops shining Hot, ionized hydrogen
altogether, the dead gas emitting red light
star will become due to being stimulated
by radiation from hot
a black dwarf. young stars

Dark globule of dust and


gas(mainly hydrogen)
contracting to form protostars

LIFE OF A SMALL STAR OF ABOUT ONE SOLAR MASS

Cool cloud of About 1.4 million km


gas (mainly Natal cocoon
hydrogen) (shell of dust Star
and dust Glowing producing
ball of gas blown away by
radiation from energy by
Dense globule (mainly nuclear fusion
hydrogen) protostar)
condensing to in core
form protostars
NEBULA PROTOSTAR MAIN SEQUENCE STAR
Duration: 50 million years Duration: 10 billion years

24
S M A L L S TA R S

Outer envelope consisting


STRUCTURE OF A RED GIANT mainly of hydrogen
Shell where hydrogen is
fusing to form helium
Cooling, expanding Intermediate layer
outer layers glow red consisting mainly
of helium

Shell where
Surface temperature helium is fusing
6,300F (3,500C) to form carbon

Carbon core
temperature
180million F
(100million C)

Outer layers form Very dense core (one


40 million miles (70 million km) expanding teaspoonful weighs Cooling core
gasshell about five tons) glows red
Dense,
contracting
core

Cooling, About 8,000 Cold,


expanding miles (13,000 km) dead core
outer layers COOLING
RED GIANT PLANETARY NEBULA WHITE DWARF WHITE DWARF BLACK DWARF
Duration: 100 million years Duration: 35,000 years

25
THE UNIVERSE

Massive stars SUPERNOVA

MASSIVE STARS HAVE A MASS AT LEAST THREE TIMES that of the Sun, and some
stars are as massive as about 50 Suns. A massive star evolves in a similar way to a
small star until it reaches the main sequence stage (see pp. 24-25). During its life
as a main sequence star, it shines steadily until the hydrogen in its core has fused
to form helium. This process takes billions of years in a small star, but only millions
of years in a massive star. A massive star then becomes a red supergiant, which
initially consists of a helium core surrounded by outer layers of cooling, expanding TARANTULA NEBULA BEFORE
gas. Over the next few million years, a series of nuclear reactions form different SUPERNOVA

elements in shells around an iron core. The core eventually collapses in less than
asecond, causing a massive explosion called a STRUCTURE
supernova, in which a shock wave blows OF A RED SUPERGIANT
away the outer layers of the star. Outer envelope consisting
Supernovae shine brighter than an mainly of hydrogen
entire galaxy for a short time. Layer consisting
Sometimes, the core survives mainly of helium
the supernova explosion. If Layer consisting
the surviving core is mainly of carbon
between about one and a
Layer consisting
half and three solar mainly of oxygen
masses, it contracts to
become a tiny, dense Layer consisting
mainly of silicon
neutron star. If the
core is greater than
three solar masses, Shell of hydrogen
it contracts to fusing to form
helium
become a black hole
(see pp. 28-29). Shell of helium
fusing to form
carbon

Shell of carbon
Surface temperature fusing to form
5,500F (3,000C) oxygen
Cooling, expanding Shell of oxygen fusing
outer layers glow red to form silicon
Core of mainly iron at 5.4-9
billion F (3-5 billion C) Shell of silicon fusing
to form iron core

LIFE OF A MASSIVE STAR OF


ABOUT 10 SOLAR MASSES About 2 million Star producing
Glowing miles (3 million km) energy by nuclear
ball of gas fusion in
Dense globule (mainly hydrogen) core
condensing to
form protostars
Natal cocoon (shell
of dust blown away
Cool cloud of gas by radiation from
(mainly hydrogen) protostar)
and dust PROTOSTAR
NEBULA MAIN SEQUENCE STAR
Duration: a few hundred Duration: 10 million years
thousand years

26
M A S S I V E S TA R S

FEATURES OF A SUPERNOVA

Shock wave travels outward


Ejecta (outer layers of star from core at 20,000 miles/sec
thrown off during explosion) (30,000 km/sec)
travels at 6,000 miles/sec
(10,000 km/sec)

TARANTULA NEBULA SHOWING


SUPERNOVA IN 1987
Reverse shock wave
moves inward and
heats ejecta, causing
it to shine
Chemical elements
heavier than iron
are produced in
the explosion and
scattered into space

Central
temperature:
Contracting 18billion F
core consisting (10billion C)
mainly of neutrons
remains after explosion

Light energy Extremely dense core


ofa billion Suns 6 miles (4 km) (one teaspoonful
emitted during explosion weighs about a
Core mass of billiontons)
less than three
60 million miles solar masses
(100 million km) Outer layers of
star blown off NEUTRON STAR
in explosion Core of mass greater
Contracting than three solar masses
stellar core may continues contracting
Cooling, remain after to become black hole
expanding supernova
outer layers

Accretion
SUPERNOVA disk
RED SUPERGIANT Duration of
Duration: 4 million years visibility: 12 years BLACK HOLE

27
THE UNIVERSE

Neutron stars
and black holes
NEUTRON STARS AND BLACK HOLES form from the stellar cores that remain after
stars have exploded as supernovae (see pp. 26-27). If the remaining core is
between about one and a half and three solar masses, it contracts to form a
neutron star. If the remaining core is greater than about three solar masses,
it contracts to form a black hole. Neutron stars are typically only about
6 miles (10km) in diameter and consist almost entirely of subatomic
particles called neutrons. Such stars are so dense that a teaspoonful
would weigh about a billion tons. Neutron stars are observed as Nebula of gas
pulsars, so-called because they rotate rapidly and emit two beams and dust
surrounds pulsar
of radio waves, which sweep across the sky and are detected as
short pulses. Black holes are characterized by their extremely Rapidly
strong gravity, which is so powerful that not even light can escape; rotating pulsar
as a result, black holes are invisible. However, they can be
detected if they have a close companion star. The gravity of the Beam of
radiation X-RAY IMAGE OF PULSAR
black hole pulls gas from the other star, forming an accretion from pulsar AND CENTRAL REGION
disk that spirals around the black hole at high speed, heating up OF CRAB NEBULA
and emitting radiation. Eventually, the matter spirals in to cross (SUPERNOVA REMNANT)
the event horizon (the boundary of the black hole),
thereby disappearing from the visible universe. Rotational axis
of neutron star
PULSAR (ROTATING NEUTRON STAR)

Beam of radio waves Path of beam


possibly produced by of radio waves
rapid rotation of
magnetic field
Magnetic axis
North Pole
North magnetic
polar region
Solid, crystalline
external crust Magnetic
field line
Solid, neutron-rich
internal crust

Layer of
superfluid neutrons

Magnetic axis
Solid core
Beam of radio waves
possibly produced by
rapid rotation of
magnetic field
South Pole South magnetic
polar region

28
N E U T R O N S TA R S A N D B L A C K H O L E S

STELLAR BLACK HOLE


Blue supergiant star
Gas current (outer layers of nearby blue supergiant
pulled toward black hole by gravity)
Singularity (theoretical region in which the physics of
the material is unknown)
Hot spot (region of intense friction
where gas current joins accretion disk)
Gas in outer part of
Event horizon accretion disk emitting
(boundary of low-energy radiation
black hole)

Hot gas in inner part of


Accretion disk (matter accretion disk emitting
spiraling around black hole) high-energy X-rays
Black hole Gas at temperatures of millions F
FORMATION OF A BLACK HOLE spiraling at close to the speed of light

Stellar core remains


after supernova Light rays increasingly
explosion bent by gravity as core
collapses Core shrinks beyond Light rays cannot
its event horizon to escape because
become a black hole gravity is so strong

Density, pressure,
and temperature of
Core greater core increase as core Event
than three solar collapses horizon
masses collapses Singularity
Outer layers under its owngravity (theoretical region in which the
of massive star physics of the material is unknown)
thrown off in explosion
SUPERNOVA COLLAPSING STELLAR CORE BLACK HOLE

29
THE UNIVERSE

The solar system PLANETARY ORBIT


(EXAGGERATED)
Perihelion (orbital
THE SOLAR SYSTEM consists of a central star (the point closest to Sun)
Sun) and the bodies that orbit it. These bodies
include eight planets and their more than 160 Sun
known moons; dwarf planets; Kuiper Belt objects;
asteroids; comets; and meteoroids. The solar Elliptical
system also contains interplanetary gas and dust. orbit
The planets fall into two groups: four small rocky Planet
orbiting Sun Direction of
planets near the Sun (Mercury, Venus, Earth, and planetary
Mars); and four planets farther out, the giants (Jupiter, Saturn, rotation
Uranus, and Neptune). Between the rocky planets and giants is the
asteroid belt, which contains thousands of chunks of rock orbiting the
Aphelion (orbital
Sun. Beyond Neptune is the Kuiper Belt and, more distant, the Oort Cloud. point farthest
Most of the bodies in the planetary part of the solar system move around the Sun from Sun)
in elliptical orbits located in a thin disk around the Suns equator. All the planets
orbit the Sun in the same direction (counterclockwise when viewed from above)
and all but Venus and Uranus also spin about their axes in this direction. Moons Aphelion of Neptune:
2.8 billion miles
also spin as they, in turn, orbit their planets. The entire solar system orbits the
center of our galaxy, the Milky Way (see pp. 14-15).
Perihelion of
ORBITS OF INNER PLANETS Mercury Perihelion of Venus: 66.7 million miles
Perihelion of Earth: 91.4 million miles
Average orbital speed of Venus: 21.8 miles/sec
Average orbital speed of Mercury: 29.8 million miles/sec
Average orbital speed of Earth: 18.5 miles/sec
Average orbital speed of Mars: 15 miles/sec

Mars Perihelion of Mars:


128.4 million miles
Earth
Venus
Sun
Aphelion of Mercury: 43.3 million miles
Asteroid Aphelion of Venus: 67.7 million miles
Aphelion of Pluto:
belt Aphelion of Earth: 94.5 million miles 4,583 million miles
MERCURY
Year: 87.97 Earth days Aphelion of Mars: 154.8 million miles
Mass: 0.06 Earth masses
Diameter: 3.051 miles

VENUS EARTH MARS JUPITER


Year: 224.7 Earth days Year: 365.26 days Year: 1.88 Earth years Year: 11.87 Earth years
Mass: 0.81 Earth masses Mass: 1 Earth mass Mass: 0.11 Earth masses Mass: 317.83 Earth masses
Diameter: 7,521 miles Diameter: 7,926 miles Diameter: 4,217 miles Diameter: 88,850 miles

30
Perihelion of Uranus:
ORBITS OF 1,700 million miles
OUTER PLANETS Inner planetary orbits
AND PLUTO
Sun Perihelion of Saturn:
837 million miles

Saturn

Perihelion of Jupiter:
Aphelion of Saturn: 460 million miles
936 million miles

Jupiter Uranus
Aphelion of Jupiter:
507 million miles
Average orbital speed of
Jupiter: 8.1 miles/sec
Average orbital speed
Aphelion of Uranus: of Saturn: 6 miles/sec
1,867 million miles
Average orbital
speed of Uranus:
4.2 miles/sec

Pluto
Direction of
Neptune orbital motion
Average orbital speed
ofNeptune: 3.4 miles/sec
INCLINATION OF ORBITS
Average orbital speed TO THE ECLIPTIC
of Pluto: 2.9 miles/sec
Pluto: 17.2
Mercury: 7
Venus: 3.39
Saturn: 2.49
Mars: 1.85
Neptune: 1.77
Jupiter: 1.3
Uranus: 0.77
Ecliptic (Earths orbital plane) Earth: 0

SATURN URANUS NEPTUNE PLUTO


Year: 29.66 Earth years Year: 84.13 Earth years Year: 164.70 Earth years Year: 248.09 Earth years
Mass: 95.16 Earth masses Mass: 14.54 Earth masses Mass: 17.14 Earth masses Mass: 0.0022 Earth masses
Diameter: 74,901 miles Diameter: 31,765 miles Diameter: 30,777 miles Diameter: 1,429 miles

31
THE UNIVERSE

The Sun HOW A SOLAR ECLIPSE OCCURS

THE SUN IS THE STAR AT THE CENTER of the solar system.


It is about five billion years old and will continue to shine Sun
as it does now for about another five billion years. The
Sun is a yellow main sequence star (see pp. 22-23) about
870,000 miles (1.4 million km) in diameter. It consists
almost entirely of hydrogen and helium. In the Suns Moon passes
SOLAR core, hydrogen is converted to helium by nuclear between Sun
PHOTOSPHERE fusion, releasing energy in the process. The energy and Earth Umbra
(inner, total
travels from the core, through the radiative and convective zones, to shadow) of
the photosphere (visible surface), where it leaves the Sun in the form Region of Moon
Earth from
of heat and light. On the photosphere there are often dark, relatively which total
cool areas called sunspots, which usually appear in pairs or groups and eclipse is visible Penumbra
are caused by the cooling effect of the magnetic field. Other types of (outer,
Region of Earth partial
solar activity are flares, which are usually associated with sunspots, from which partial shadow)
and prominences. Flares are sudden discharges of high-energy eclipse is visible of Moon
radiation and atomic particles. Prominences are huge loops or
Umbra (inner, total Earth
filaments of gas extending into the solar atmosphere; some last for shadow) of Earth
hours, others for months. Beyond the photosphere is the
Penumbra (outer,
chromosphere (inner atmosphere) and the extremely rarified corona partial shadow)
(outer atmosphere), which extends millions of miles into space. Tiny of Earth
particles that escape from the corona give rise to the solar wind,
which streams through space at hundreds of miles per second. The
chromosphere and corona can be seen from Earth when the Sun TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE
is totally eclipsed by the Moon.
SURFACE FEATURES
Corona (outer
Gas loop (looped Prominence (jet of gas at atmosphere
prominence) edge of Suns disk up to ofextremely
hundreds of thousands of hot, diffuse gas)
miles high)
Spicule Moon covers
(vertical Suns disk
jet of gas)

Photosphere
(visible surface)
SUNSPOTS
Granulated surface
of Sun
Chromosphere
(inner atmosphere)
Penumbra
(lighter,outer region)
containing radial fibrils
Umbra (darker, inner
region) temperature
about 7,200F (2,700C)
Photosphere
temperature
9,900F (5,500C)
THE SUN

EXTERNAL FEATURES AND


INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF THE SUN Radiative zone 230,000
miles (380,000 km) thick
Convective zone 90,000
Chromosphere miles (140,000 km) thick Chromosphere
(inner atmosphere) temperature
up to 6,000 miles 18,000F (10,000C) Photosphere
(2,000 km) thick temperature 9,900F
Corona (5,500C)
(outeratmosphere)
Corona temperature 3.6
million F (2 million C)
Photosphere
(visible surface)
Core temperature 27
million F (15 million C)

Supergranule
Filament (convection cell)
(prominence visible
against photosphere)
Granulated
Prominence surface
(jetof gas at edge of
Suns disk up to hundreds of
thousands of miles high) Macrospicule: verticaljet
of gas 25,000 miles
(40,000 km) high
Spicule: vertical jet of gas
6,000 miles(10,000 km) high
Gas loop
Sunspot Solar flare (loopedprominence)
(cool region) (suddenrelease
ofenergy associated
with sunspots)

33
THE UNIVERSE

Mercury TILT AND ROTATION OF MERCURY


Axis of
rotation
Perpendicular
to orbital plane
MERCURY IS THE NEAREST PLANET to the Sun, orbiting at an Axial tilt of 2
average distance of about 36 million miles (58 million km). North
Pole
Because Mercury is the closest planet to the Sun, it moves
faster than any other planet, travelling at an average speed Orbital
of nearly 30 miles (48 km) per second and completing an plane
orbit injust under 88 days. Mercury is very small (only
MERCURY
40 percent bigger than the Moon) and rocky. Most of the
surface has been heavily cratered by the impact of meteorites,
although there are also smooth, sparsely cratered lava-covered plains. The Caloris
Basin is the largest crater, measuring about 800 miles (1,300 km) across. One rotation
It is thought to have been formed when a 38-mile- (60-km-) diameter takes 58 days South Pole
and 16 hours
asteroid hit the planet, and is surrounded by concentric rings of
mountains thrown up by the impact. The surface also has many clifflike DEGAS AND BRONT (RAY CRATERS)
ridges (called rupes) that are thought to have been formed when the
hot core of the young planet cooled and shrank about four billion years Bright
ago, buckling the planets surface in the process. The planet rotates ray of
ejecta
about its axis very slowly, taking nearly 59 Earth days tocomplete (ejected
one rotation. As a result, a solar day (sunrise to sunrise) on Mercury material)
is about 176 Earth daystwice as long as the 88-day Mercurian year.
Mercury has extreme surface temperatures, ranging from a Bront
maximum of 800F (430C) on the sunlit side to -270F (-170C)
on the dark side. At nightfall, the temperature drops very quickly Unmapped
region
because the planets atmosphere is almost nonexistent. It
consists only of minute amounts of helium and hydrogen
captured from the solar wind, plus traces of other gases.
Degas with
FORMATION OF A RAY CRATER central peak
Path of meteorite Path of rocky ejecta
Debris thrown colliding with planet (ejected material)
out by impact Ejecta forms
Wall of rock secondary craters
thrown up
around crater
Impact forms
saucer-shaped Loose debris
crater oncrater floor
Fractured rock
SECONDARY CRATERING
METEORITE IMPACT

Wall of rock forms Ray of ejecta


ring of mountains (ejected material)
Small secondary
crater
Loose ejected rock

Central mountain Falling debris


rings form if floor forms ridges on
of large crater side of wall
recoils from
meteorite impact

RAY CRATER

34
MERCURY

COMPOSITION OF ATMOSPHERE
Principal constituents EXTERNAL FEATURES AND INTERNAL
helium and hydrogen STRUCTURE OF MERCURY
Minor constituents
sodium and oxygen
Traces of neon, argon,
and potassium Monteverdi
Thin crust Rubens
Vysa

BO NIT
CRATERS AND PLAINS NEAR

PL
RE
MERCURYS NORTH POLE Mantle 375 miles

A
Unmapped region

AL A
(600 km) thick

IS
I
Borealis Planitia Praxiteles
(smooth plain with a
few young craters) Kuan
Han-
ching
Terrain with
many old craters

Chong
Heine Chol
Strindberg
Maximum sunlit surface
temperature 800F (430C)
Van Eyck
Polygnotus
Vivaldi
IN
AS
SB

Iron core 2,250 miles


IT U
RI

LA

(3,600km) in
AN O
LO

Caloris Montes
PL OBK

diameter, with 80%


CA

Balzac of Mercurys mass


Phidias
BUD
Tyagaraja PLA H
NITIA

Philoxenus Mantle of
silicate rock
Zeami
Goya Crust of
silicate rock
Sophocles
Tolstoj Renoir

Vlmiki
Minimum dark-side
Milton surface temperature
-270F (-170C)
Liang Kai
Chekhov
Beethoven Schubert
Bello Bramante
Discovery Rupes
Shelley
Coleridge
Hawthorne Fram Rupes
Michelangelo Wagner Bach

35
THE UNIVERSE

Venus TILT AND ROTATION OF VENUS


Axis of
rotation
Perpendicular
to orbital plane
VENUS IS A ROCKY PLANET and the second planet from Axial tilt of 2
the Sun. Venus spins slowly backwards as it orbits the Sun, North
causing its rotational period to be the longest in the solar Pole
system, at about 243 Earth days. It is slightly smaller Orbital
thanEarth and probably has a similar internal structure, plane
consisting of a semisolid metal core, surrounded by a
RADAR IMAGE OF
rocky mantle and crust. Venus is the brightest object in
VENUS the sky after the Sun and Moon because its clouds reflect
sunlight strongly. The main component of the atmosphere is carbon
dioxide,which traps heat in a greenhouse effect far stronger than that on One rotation
South Pole
Earth. As a result, Venus is the hottest planet, with a maximum surface takes 243 days
and 14 minutes
temperature of about 900F (480C). The thick cloud layers contain droplets
of sulfuric acid and are driven around the planet by winds at speeds of up to
220 miles (360 km) per hour. Although the planet takes 243 Earth days to
CLOUD FEATURES
rotate once, the high-speed winds cause the clouds to circle the planet in
only four Earth days. The high temperature, acidic clouds, and enormous Polar hood Dark, mid-latitude
atmospheric pressure (about 90 times greater at the surface than that on band
Earth) make the environment extremely hostile. However, space probes
have managed to land on Venus and photograph its dry, dusty surface.
The Venusian surface has also been mapped by probes with radar
equipment that can see through the cloud layers. Such radar maps
reveal a terrain with craters, mountains, volcanoes, and areas where
craters have been covered by plains of solidified volcanic lava. There
are two large highland regions called Aphrodite Terra and Ishtar Terra.
VENUSIAN CRATERS
Danilova
Cloud features swept
Ejecta (ejected around planet by
material) winds of up to 220
miles (360 km/h)
Central peak
Howe Dirty yellow hue
due to sulfuric acid Bright
in atmosphere polar band

FALSE-COLOR RADAR MAP Metis Regio Maxwell Montes Bell Regio Tethus Regio
OF THE SURFACE OF VENUS
Atalanta Planitia
Sedna Planitia Leda Planitia
I S H TA R T E R R A
Eisila Regio Tellus Regio
Guinevere Planitia Niobe Planitia
Phoebe Regio
Ovda Regio
Alpha Regio
APHRODITE TERRA
Thetis Regio
Themis Regio
Lavinia Planitia Aino Planitia
Helen Planitia Lada Terra

36
VENUS

EXTERNAL FEATURES AND Maxwell Dekla Tessera


INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF VENUS Cleopatra Montes
Patera Nefertiti Corona
T E R R A
R
T A NIO
Akna Montes H BE
I S PL
Colette AN
LAK
SHMI I
PLANUM TE

T
Sacajawea Tellus Tessera

L LA
R E LL

IA
P
E

U
G
D NIT

S
IO
Vesta Rupes

A
SEDNA BELL
REGIO
Pavlova

IA
Gula Mons PLANITI A

Sif Mons

O
E GI
OVDA R

Sappho Hestia
Patera E
I S
Rupes
I L A
R E G I O
G
UI
NE
PL VE
AN RE
IT
IA

Semisolid core of iron


and nickel 3,750miles
ALPHA
A
N AV K T I A REG
(6,000km) in diameter
I IO
PLAN

Hathor
Mons L AV I N I A Rocky mantle
PLA
NITIA

Eve Crust of silicate rock

ATMOSPHERE
STRUCTURE
Haze containing
Thermosphere droplets of
sulfuric acid TE
DI
AP HRO
A
TERR
Thick cloud layers
containing droplets
TI LA

of sulfuric acid
P
NA NIT

IA
TI

Lower haze of dust


O
IT
N

and sulfuric acid Mantle 1,900 miles


N
I
A
IA

Troposphere aerosol (extremely (3,000 km) thick


L

P
small droplets)

A
Clear atmosphere RR
TE
of mainly carbon Crust 30 miles LADA
dioxide (50 km) thick Maximum surface
temperature 900F
COMPOSITION (480C)
Carbon dioxide about 96%
Nitrogen about 3.5%
Carbon monoxide, argon, sulfur
dioxide, and water vapor about 0.5%

37
THE UNIVERSE

The Earth TILT AND ROTATION OF THE EARTH


Axis of
rotation
Axial tilt
of 23.4
THE EARTH IS THE THIRD of the eight planets that orbit
the Sun. It is the largest and densest rocky planet, and the
only one known to support life. About 70 percent ofthe North Orbital
Pole plane
Earths surface is covered by water, which is not found in
liquid form on the surface of any other planet. There are
four main layers: the inner core, the outer core,the mantle,
THE EARTH and the crust. At the heart of the planet the solid inner core
has a temperature of about 11,900F (6,600C). The heat
from this inner core causes material in the molten outer core and mantle to South Pole
circulate in convection currents. It is thought that these convection currents
generate the Earths magnetic field, which extends into space as the
One rotation takes
magnetosphere. The Earths atmosphere helps screen out some of the 23 hours and Perpendicular to
harmful radiation from the Sun, stops most meteoroids from reaching the planets 56minutes orbital plane
surface, and traps enough heat to prevent extremes ofcold. The Earth has one
natural satellite, the Moon, which is thought to have formed when a huge asteroid
impacted Earth in the distant past. Microorganisms began
THE FORMATION OF THE EARTH to photosynthesize,
creating a build
up of oxygen
The heat of the collisions
caused the planet to
glowred

The cloud formed


a disk of material
around the young
Suns equator.
The disk material
stuck together to
form planets
4.6 BILLION YEARS THE EARTH WAS 4.5 BILLION YEARS THE CONTINENTS BROKE
AGO, THE SOLAR FORMED FROM AGO THE SURFACE UP AND REFORMED,
SYSTEM FORMED COLLIDING COOLED TO FORM GRADUALLY MOVING
FROM A C LOUD OF ROCKS THE CRUST TO THEIR PRESENT
ROCK, ICE, AND GAS POSITIONS

Solar wind enters atmosphere and produces aurora Magnetosphere (region affected
by magnetic field)

Solar wind (stream of


electrically charged
particles)

THE EARTHS
MAGNETOSPHERE
Axis of geographic poles
Van Allen radiation belt Earth Axis of magnetic poles

38
THE EARTH

EXTERNAL FEATURES AND COMPOSITION OF THE EARTH


INTERNAL STRUCTURE
OFTHE EARTH
Atmosphere 300 Other elements less than 1 %
miles (500 km) deep
Greenland
Aluminum 0.4% Calcium 0.6%
Crust 425 miles Nickel 2.7%
(640 km) thick Sulfur 2.7%

Silicon 13% Magnesium 17%

Mantle about Oxygen 28%


1,740 miles (2,800
km) thick
IC
NT
T LA
A
H N Iron 35%
R
T
C
EA
O O
N
Outer core
1,430 miles
(2,300 km) thick

Surface temperature
between -126F and
136F (-88C and 58C)
Cyclonic
storm
Core temperature 11,900 F (6,600 C)
Molten core of Solid inner core
iron and nickel of iron and nickel EU
ROPE
1,500 miles (2,400
Gutenberg discontinuity km) indiameter
(boundary between outer Atlas Mountains
core and mantle)

Sahara (desert
Mantle of mostly solid I CA region)
silicate material A FR

Mohorovicic
discontinuity Congo Basin
(boundary (tropical rain
between mantle forest)
and crust)

SOUTH TH
SOU IC
PA C I F I
C RICA NT
AME LA
AN AT
OCE SOUTH
Crust of silicate rock OCE
A N

Land forms about


30% of surface
Amazon Basin (tropical
rain-forest region)
Cloud typically covers about
Andes (mountain range 70% of surface
near crustal plate
boundary)
Oceans cover about
70% of surface
Earthquake region along
crustal plate boundary

39
THE UNIVERSE

The Moon TILT AND ROTATION OF THE MOON


Axis of
rotation
Perpendicular to
orbital plane
THE MOON IS THE EARTHS only natural satellite.
It is relatively large for a moon, with a diameter Axial tilt
North of 6.7
ofabout 2,155 miles (3,470 km)just over a Pole
quarter that of the Earth. The Moon takes the same
time to rotate on its axis as it takes to orbit the Orbital
plane
Earth (27.3days), and so the same side (the near
THE MOON FROM side) always faces us. However, the amount of the
EARTH surface we can seethe phase of the Moon One
depends on how much of the near side is in sunlight. The Moon is dry rotation
and barren, with negligible atmosphere and water. It consists mainly takes 27 Earth
days and 8 hours South Pole
of solid rock, although its core may contain molten rock or iron. The
surface is dusty, with highlands covered in craters caused by meteorite CRATERS ON OCEANUS PROCELLARUM
impacts, and lowlands in which large craters have been filled by
solidified lava toform dark areas called maria or seas. Maria occur
mainly on thenear side, which has a thinner crust than the far side. Aristarchus
Many of thecraters are rimmed by mountain ranges that form the
Cobra Head
crater wallsand can be thousands of feet high. (head of
Schrters
De la Rue Valley)
NEAR SIDE OF THE MOON Aristoteles Herodotus
Aristillus Hercules
Plato Atlas
MARE FRIGORI Montes Apenninus
S
Archimedes
Montes Jura Cleomedes
Sinus Iridum Macrobius
Bright rays of MARE
IM
Julius Caesar
ejected material BR MARE S MARE
TAT I ISIUM
IU
M ENI CR
S R
E
Copernicus
MARE
Aristarchus MA
ORUM
VA P MARE
R

FEC E
N Q U I L L I TAT UN
R A IS D
T IT
AT
OCEANUS IS
Langrenus
UM
PROCELLAR
Kepler
MARE Vendelinus
NE CTARIS
Encke
Cyrillus
Flamsteed Petavius
Fra Mauro MA
N
UB RE
Fracastorius
IUM
Grimaldi Furnerius
Letronne Catharina
H MARE
UM Rupes Altai
ORUM
Gassendi
Albategnius
Mersenius
Ptolemaeus
Arzachel
Pitatus Walter
Stfler
Schickard Deslandres
Alphonsus Bailly Tycho Clavius Maginus

40
THE MOON

PHASES OF THE MOON Last quarter Waning


gibbous Line of sight

Waning crescent

Full Moon
Earth
Sunlight
New Moon Waxing gibbous

Orbital path of Moon Waxing


crescent First quarter Dust on surface 6 in (15 cm) thick

Surface cratered
due to impact of
FAR SIDE OF THE MOON Rocky crust covered with loose regolith (soil) large meteorites

Mantle 600 miles (1,000 km)


thick Mach
Region where moonquakes originate

Semisolid outer core

DAlembert Avogadro
Campbell
Compton
Wiener
Fabry

Seyfert

Joliot
Hertzsprung
Fleming MARE
Korolev
OVIENS Crust of near side
M OSC E
Mendeleev 100 miles (60 km) thick

Keeler Small inner core


with a central
temperature of
MARE 2,700F (800C)
THI
SMI I
Pasteur Crust of far side
60 miles (100 km) thick
Hilbert Galois
MARE
INGENII MARE Doppler
Tsiolkovsky I E N TA L E
OR
Montes Rook
Milne
Montes Cordillera
Gagarin
Jules Verne Mendel
Roche Apollo
Van de Graaff
Planck
Schrodinger Zeeman
Von Krmn Leibnitz Antoniadi

41
THE UNIVERSE

Mars TILT AND ROTATION OF MARS

Axis of
Axial tilt
of 24
Perpendicular
to orbital plane
MARS, KNOWN AS THE RED PLANET, is the fourth planet rotation
from the Sun and the outermost rocky planet. In the North Pole
19th century, astronomers first observed what were
thought to be signs of life on Mars. These signs Orbital
included apparent canal-like lines on the surface, and plane
dark patches that were thought to be vegetation. Itis
MARS now known that the canals are an optical illusion,
and the dark patches are areas where the red dust that
covers most of the planet has been blown away. The fine dust particles are
often whipped up by winds into dust storms that occasionallyobscure One rotation South Pole
takes 24 hours
almost all the surface. Residual fine dust in the atmosphere gives the and 37 minutes
Martian sky a pinkish hue. The northern hemisphere
of Mars has many large plains formed of solidified SURFACE FEATURES OF MARS
volcanic lava, whereas the southern hemisphere has
many craters and large impact basins. There are also Bright
water-ice fog
several huge, extinct volcanoes, including
Olympus Mons, which, at 370 miles (600 km)
across and 15 miles (25 km) high, is the largest Fog in canyon 12 miles
(20 km) wide at end of
known volcano in the solar system. The surface Valles Marineris
also has many canyons and branching channels.
The canyons were formed by movements of the
surface crust, but the channels are thought tohave Syria Planum
been formed by flowing water that has now dried
up. The Martian atmosphere is much thinner than
Earths, with only a few clouds and morning mists. NOCTIS LABYRINTHUS (CANYON SYSTEM)
Mars has two tiny, irregularly shaped moons called
Phobos and Deimos. Their small size indicates that Summit caldera
they may be asteroids that have been captured by consisting of
the gravity of Mars. overlapping
collapsed
volcanic craters
THE SURFACE
OF MARS
Gentle slope
produced by
lava flow

Cloud formation
OLYMPUS MONS (EXTINCT SHIELD VOLCANO)
MOONS OF MARS

Dark area where


dust has been
blown away by
wind South Surface covered PHOBOS DEIMOS
polar ice with red-colored Average diameter: 14 miles Average diameter: 8 miles
cap iron oxide dust Average distance from Average distance from
planet: 5,800 miles planet: 14,600 miles

42
MARS

North polar ice cap of


frozen carbon dioxide EXTERNAL FEATURES AND
and water ice INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF MARS
Tempe Fossae
Mareotis Fossae Cirrus-type condensation
AS clouds of water ice
Uranius Tholus ST
IT IS
L AC I D
VA R E A ALI Dust storm
Tantalus Fossae PLAN A
BO ITI
A Branching channels, possibly
Alba Fossae
formed by water flow
Alba Patera
Milankovic Valles Marineris (canyon
CHR system 2,500 miles/
IS
4,000km long; average
NI IA
A E
PL
AD
TI

LUNAE
ANYTIA depth is 3.5 miles/6 km)
ARC

PLANUM Coprates Chasma


PLA

Ceraunius Tholus
Tharsis Tholus Average surface
temperature

ER
-40F (-40C)

IF
IT
AR

S
Solid, rocky crust Holden

U
R G N
containing water-ice MA SI
permafrost (permanently
frozen subsoil) Ritchey
Metallic, possibly ARGYRE
molten, core 1,600 miles PLANITIA
(2,500 km) in diameter Darwin

Mantle of Cloud formation


silicate rock
Lampland
Thaumasia
Fossae
Pavonis Mons Slipher
Olympus Ascraeus Mons Lowell ATMOSPHERE
Mons STRUCTURE
South polar ice cap
of frozen carbon
dioxide and Thermosphere
waterice

Mantle 1,200 miles


(2,000 km) thick
AM AN
PL

Stratosphere Thin clouds of frozen


AZ I

O carbon dioxide
N
TI IS
A Crust 2530 miles (40 50 km) thick
Isolated clouds
and fog of icy
RIA
Thin atmosphere water vapor
SU of mainly carbon
ANUM
PL dioxide Troposphere
Red, iron-rich dust
Noctis Labryrinthus
COMPOSITION
Cyclonic Carbon dioxide about 95%
storm
system Nitrogen about 2.7%
Arsia Mons
Argon about 1.6%
Oxygen, carbon monoxide,
and water vapor about 0.7%

43
THE UNIVERSE

Jupiter TILT AND ROTATION OF JUPITER

Axis of rotation Axial tilt of 3.1


JUPITER IS THE FIFTH PLANET from the Sun and
the innermost of the four giant planets. It is the North Pole Perpendicular
to orbital plane
largest and the most massive planet, with a
diameter about 11 times that of the Earth and a
mass about2.5 times the combined mass of the
seven other planets. Jupiter is thought to have a
JUPITER
small rocky core surrounded by an inner mantle
of metallic hydrogen (liquid hydrogen that acts
likeametal). Outside the inner mantle is an outer mantle of liquid Orbital plane
hydrogen and helium that merges into the gaseous atmosphere.
One rotation takes South Pole
Jupiters rapid rate of rotation causes the clouds in its atmosphere 9hours and 55 minutes
toform belts and zones that encircle the planet parallel to the
equator. Belts are dark, low-lying, relatively warm cloud layers, GREAT RED SPOT AND WHITE OVAL
andzones are bright, high-altitude, cooler cloud layers.
Within the belts and zones, turbulence causes the
formation of cloud features such as white ovals Great Red Spot
(anticyclonic
andred spots, both of which are huge storm systems. storm system)
The most prominent cloud feature is a storm called
the Great Red Spot, which consists of a spiraling Red color
column of clouds three times wider than the Earth probably due
that rises about five miles (8 km) above the upper to phosphorus
cloud layer. Jupiter has a thin, faint, main ring, inside White oval
which is a tenuous halo ring of tiny particles. Beyond (temporary
the main rings outer edge is a broad and faint anticyclonic
two-part gossamer ring. There are 63 known Jovian storm system)
moons. The four largest moons (called the
Galileans) are Ganymede, Callisto, Io, and
Europa. Ganymede and Callisto are cratered and GALILEAN MOONS OF JUPITER
icy. Europa is smooth and icy and is thought to
have a subsurface water ocean. Io is covered
in bright red, orange, and yellow splotches.
This coloring is caused by sulfurous
material from active volcanoes that shoot
plumes of lava hundreds of miles above
the surface.
EUROPA CALLISTO
INNER RINGS OF JUPITER Diameter: 1,950 miles Diameter: 2,983 miles
Main ring Average distance from Average distance from
planet: 416,900 miles planet: 1,168,200 miles

Halo ring

GANYMEDE IO
Diameter: 3,270 miles Diameter: 2,263 miles
Average distance from Average distance from
planet: 664,900 miles planet: 262,100 miles
JUPITER

ATMOSPHERE EXTERNAL FEATURES AND INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF JUPITER


STRUCTURE

Zone (high-pressure
region of rising gases)
Atmosphere of mainly
hydrogen and helium
Red-colored
Stratosphere storm
White clouds of
ammonia crystals Outer mantle
merging into
atmosphere
Dark orange
cloudsofammonium
Troposphere hydrosulfide crystals

Bluish clouds of water


ice and water droplets

Inner mantle 18,500


COMPOSITION miles (30,000 km) thick
Hydrogen about 90%
Helium about 10%
Plume
Traces of ammonia, (trailing
methane, and water cloud)
vapor High-altitude
North polar white cloud
aurora
North Temperate Zone Outer mantle of liquid
hydrogen and helium
Inner mantle of
North Temperate Belt metallic hydrogen
Rocky core 17,500 miles
North Tropical (28,000 km) in diameter
Zone Core temperature
54,000F (30,000C)
North Equatorial
Belt

Equatorial Zone

South Belt (low-pressure


Equatorial Belt region of sinking
gases)
South
TropicalZone
South
Temperate Belt
South White oval
Temperate Zone (temporary
anticyclonic
Cloudtop storm system)
Flash of lightning Great Red Spot temperature
(anticyclonic -180F (-120C)
storm system)

45
THE UNIVERSE

Saturn TILT AND ROTATION OF SATURN


Axial tilt of 26.7 One rotation
takes 10 hours
SATURN IS THE SIXTH PLANET from the Sun. It is a and 40 minutes
gas giant almost as big as Jupiter, with an equatorial
North
diameter of about 75,000 miles (120,500 km). Saturn Pole
is thought to consist of a small core of rock and ice Orbital
plane
surrounded by an inner mantle of metallic hydrogen
(liquid hydrogen that acts like a metal). Outside the
FALSE-COLOR inner mantle is an outer mantle of liquid hydrogen
IMAGE OF SATURN that merges into a gaseous atmosphere. Saturns
South Pole
clouds form belts and zones similar to those on
Jupiter, but obscured by overlying haze. Storms and eddies, seen as Perpendicular Axis of
to orbital plane rotation
red or white ovals, occur in the clouds. Saturn has an extremely thin
but wide system of rings that is about half a mile (1 km) thick but
extends outward to about 260,000 miles (420,000 km) fromthe
FALSE-COLOR IMAGE OF SATURNS
planets surface. The main rings comprise thousands of narrow CLOUD FEATURES
ringlets, each made of icy rock lumps that range in size from tiny
particles to chunks several yards across. The D, E, and G rings are Ribbon-shaped
striation caused
very faint, the F ring is brighter, and the A, B,and C rings are by winds of 335
bright enough to be seen from Earth with binoculars. In 2009, mph (540 km/h)
a huge dust ring was discovered 4 million miles (6 million km)
beyond the main system. Saturn has more than 60 known moons,
Oval (rotating
some of which orbit inside the rings and are thought to exert a storm system)
gravitational influence on the shapes of the rings. Unusually, seven
of the moons are co-orbitalthey share an orbit with another
moon. Astronomers believe that such co-orbital moons may have
originated from a single satellite that broke up.
INNER RINGS OF SATURN MOONS OF SATURN
D ring
C ring (crepe ring)
B ring
Cassini Division
A ring
Encke
Division ENCELADUS TETHYS
Diameter: 509 miles Diameter: 652 miles
F ring Average distance from Average distance from
planet: 148,000 miles planet: 183,000 miles

DIONE MIMAS
Diameter: 695 miles Diameter: 247 miles
Average distance from Average distance from
planet: 254,000 miles planet: 115,600 miles
S AT U R N

ATMOSPHERE
COMPOSITION STRUCTURE
EXTERNAL FEATURES AND Hydrogen about 96.3%
INTERNAL STRUCTURE
OFSATURN Helium about 3.3%
Haze of
Traces of ammonia, methane, Stratosphere ammonia crystals
and water vapor
Clouds form belts (dark,
low-altitude layers) and White clouds of
zones (bright, high- ammonia crystals
altitude layers) Atmosphere of mainly
hydrogen and helium
Dark orange clouds
Troposphere of ammonium
hydrosulfide
crystals
Outer mantle merging
into atmosphere Blue clouds of water
ice and water vapor

F ring
A ring (broad ring
comprising many ringlets)
Inner mantle 9,000
miles (15,000 km) thick B ring (broad ring
comprising many ringlets)
C ring (crepe ring; broad ring
comprising many ringlets)

D ring

Outer mantle of
liquid hydrogen
Inner mantle of
liquidmetallic hydrogen

Rock and ice core


18,500 miles (30,000
km) indiameter

Core temperature Cassini Division


27,000F (15,000C) (apparent gap
containing at least
100 ringlets)

Encke Division (gap


Equator swept by in which the moon
winds of 1,100 mph Pan orbits)
(1,800 km/h)

Cloud-top temperature
about -290F (-180C)
Radial spoke
(probablydust particles Annes Spot
above plane of rings) (anticyclonicstorm system)

47
THE UNIVERSE

Uranus TILT AND ROTATION OF URANUS


Axial tilt
of 97.9
Perpendicular to
orbital plane
URANUS IS THE SEVENTH PLANET from the Sun
and the third largest, with a diameter of about
32,000 miles (51,000 km). It is thought to Orbital
consist of a dense mixture of different types of plane South Pole
ice and gas around a solid core. Its atmosphere
contains traces of methane, giving the planet a
FALSE-C OLOR blue-green hue, and the temperature at the cloud
Axis of
IMAGE OF URANUS tops is about -350F (-210C). Uranus is the most rotation
featureless planet to have been closely observed:
only a few icy clouds of methane have been seen so far. Uranus is
North One rotation
unique among the planets in that its axis of rotation lies close to its Pole takes 17 hours
orbital plane. As a result of its strongly tilted rotational axis, Uranus rolls and 14 minutes
on its side along its orbital path around the Sun, whereas other planets spin
more or less upright. Uranus is encircled by main rings that consist of rocks
interspersed with dust lanes and two distant outer rings made of dust. The
rings contain some of the darkest matter inthe solar system and are extremely MAJOR MOONS
narrow, making them difficult to detect: most of them are less than 6 miles (10 km)
wide, whereas most of Saturns rings are thousands of miles in width. There are
27 known Uranian moons, all of which are icy and most of which are farther out
than the rings. The 13 inner moons are small and dark, with diameters of less
than 100 miles (160 km), and the five major moons are between about 290 and
1,000 miles (470 and 1,600 km) in diameter. Themajor moons have a wide variety
of surface features. Miranda has the mostvaried surface, with cratered areas
broken up by huge ridges and cliffs12 miles (20km) high. Beyond these are nine MIRANDA
much more distant moons with diameters less than 90 miles (150 km). Diameter: 295 miles
Average distance from
planet: 80,700 miles
RINGS OF URANUS

Epsilon ring

Lambda ring

Delta ring
RINGS AND DUST LANES ARIEL TITANIA
Gamma ring Diameter: 720 miles Diameter: 981 miles
Average distance from Average distance from
planet: 118,800 miles planet: 270,900 miles
Eta ring

Beta ring

Alpha ring

Rings 4 and 5

Ring 6 UMBRIEL OBERON


Diameter: 726 miles Diameter: 946 miles
Zeta ring Average distance from Average distance from
planet: 165,500 miles planet: 362,000 miles
URANUS

COMPOSITION OF
EXTERNAL FEATURES AND ATMOSPHERE
INTERNAL STRUCTURE Hydrogen 83%
OFURANUS
Helium 15%
Methane2%
Atmosphere
of hydrogen,
helium, and Sharply defined
methane gases Epsilon ring

Dense mantle of
icy and gaseous
water, ammonia,
and methane
Blue-green hue due to
presence of methane
in atmosphere
Core temperature
12,600F (7,000C)

South Pole
Solid rocky core
10,500 miles(17,000
km) in diameter

Mantle 6,000 miles


(10,000 km) thick
Atmosphere
merging into
mantle

Cloudtop
temperature
-350F (-210C)

Rings of dark
rocks interspersed
Icy clouds of with dust lanes
frozen methane
blown by winds of
185 mph (300 km/h)

49
THE UNIVERSE

Neptune and Pluto TILT AND ROTATION OF NEPTUNE

Axis of
Axial tilt
of 28.8
Perpendicular to
orbital plane
NEPTUNE IS the farthest planet from the Sun, rotation
at an average distance of about 2.8 billion miles
North
(4.5 billion km). Neptune is the smallest of the Pole
giant planets and is thought to consist of a small
rocky core surrounded by a mixture of liquids and
gases. Several transient cloud features have been
FALSE-C OLOR observed in its atmosphere. The largest of these Orbital
IMAGE OF NEPTUNE were the Great Dark Spot, which was as wide as plane
the Earth, the Small Dark Spot, and the Scooter.
The Great and Small Dark Spots were huge storms that were swept South Pole
around the planet by winds of about 1,200 miles (2,000 km) per hour. One rotation
The Scooter was a large area of cirrus cloud. Neptune has six tenuous takes 16 hours
and 7 minutes
rings and 13 known moons. Triton is the largest Neptunian moon and
the coldest object in the solar system, with a temperature of -390F CLOUD FEATURES OF NEPTUNE
(-240C). Unlike most moons in the solar system, Triton orbits its Great Dark Spot
mother planet in the opposite direction of the planets rotation. (anticyclonic
wind storm)
The region extending out from Neptunes orbit is populated by
Kuiper Belt objects and dwarf planets. They make a doughnut-
shaped belt called the Kuiper Belt. The Kuiper Belt objects are a
mix of rock and ice, irregular in shape, and less than 600 miles Scooter (cirrus
(1,000 km) across. The larger dwarf planets, which include Pluto, cloud)
are almost round bodies. Pluto was the first object discovered
beyond Neptune and was considered a planet until the dwarf
planet category was introduced in 2006. It is made of rock and ice
Small Dark Spot
and is 1,365 miles (2,274 km) across. It has three known moons. (cyclonic wind
The largest, Charon, is about half Plutos size and the two storm)
probably had a common origin.
HIGH-ALTITUDE CLOUDS
RINGS OF NEPTUNE Methane cirrus clouds
Adams ring and unnamed 25 miles (40 km) above
ring on its inner edge main cloud deck

Arago ring Cloud shadow

Lassell ring Main cloud deck


blown by winds atspeeds
of about 12,000 miles
Le Verrier ring (2,000 km/h)
MOONS OF NEPTUNE
Galle ring

TRITON PROTEUS
Diameter: 1,681 miles Diameter: 259 miles
Average distance from Average distance from
planet: 220,500 miles planet: 73,100 miles
NEPTUNE AND PLUTO

Cloudtop EXTERNAL FEATURES AND INTERNAL COMPOSITION


temperature Atmosphere STRUCTURE OF NEPTUNE OF ATMOSPHERE
-360F (-220C) merging into Hydrogen 85%
mantle
Helium 13%
Mantle 6,000 to
9,000 miles (10,000 Methane 2%
to 15,000 km) thick
Adams ring
Haze of hydrocarbons
above clouds
Le Verrier ring
Atmosphere of
hydrogen,
helium, and
methane gases

Mantle of icy
water, methane,
and ammonia
Lassell
Rocky silicate core ring
8,700 miles (14,000
km) in diameter Galle ring

Darker clouds of
hydrogen sulfide
below main cloud
deck

Main cloud deck


blownbywinds up to
1,200 mph (2,000 km/h)
Great Dark Spot Methane cirrus clouds
25 miles (40 km) Surface of icy
above main cloud deck water and methane
Small Dark Spot
Scooter Icy mantle

TILT AND ROTATION OF PLUTO EXTERNAL FEATURES AND


INTERNAL STRUCTURE
OFPLUTO
Axial tilt
of 57.5 Surface of water ice
and methane ice Core of rock and,
One rotation possibly, ice
takes 6 days
North Pole and 9 hours
Surface temperature
Tenuous about -360F (-220C)
atmosphere forms
Orbital plane when Pluto is at its
closest to the Sun COMPOSITION
OF TEMPORARY
Perpendicular Axis of ATMOSPHERE
to orbital plane South Pole rotation Methane probably mixed with nitrogen
and carbon monoxide 100%

51
THE UNIVERSE

Asteroids, comets, OPTICAL IMAGE OF


HALLEYS COMET

and meteoroids
ASTEROIDS, COMETS, AND METEOROIDS are all
debris remaining from the nebula from which the solar
system formed 4.6 billion years ago. Asteroids are
rocky bodiesup to about 600 miles (1,000 km) in
diameter, although most are much smaller. Most of them
orbit the Sun in the asteroid belt, which lies between the
orbits of Mars and Jupiter. Cometary nuclei exist in
a huge cloud (called the Oort Cloud) that surrounds
ASTEROID 951 GASPRA the planetary part of the solar system. They are made
of frozen water and dust and are a few miles in FALSE-COLOR IMAGE OF
diameter. Occasionally, a comet is deflected from the Oort Cloud on to a long, HALLEYS COMET
elliptical path that brings it much closer to the Sun. As the comet
approaches the Sun, the cometary nucleus starts to vaporize in the
heat, producing both a brightly shining coma (a huge sphere of High-intensity
light emission
gas and dust around the nucleus), and a gas tail, and a dust tail.
Meteoroids are small chunks of stone or stone and iron, which Nucleus
are fragments of asteroids or comets. Meteoroids range in size from
tiny dust particles to objects tens of meters across. If a meteoroid
enters the Earths atmosphere, it is heated by friction and
Medium-intensity
appears as a glowing streak of light called a meteor (also known light emission
as a shooting star). Meteor showers occur when the Earth passes
through the trail of dust particles left by a comet. Most meteoroids Low-intensity
burn up in the atmosphere. The remnants of the few that light emission
are large enough to reach the Earths surface are termed meteorites.

FALSE-COLOR IMAGE OF A METEORITES DEVELOPMENT OF COMET TAILS


LEONID METEOR SHOWER
Dust tail deflected by Gas tail pushed away
STONY METEORITE photons in sunlight from Sun by charged
and curved due to particles in solar wind
Fusion crust comets motion
formed when
passing
through Tails lengthen
atmosphere as comet nears
Sun
Olivine
andpyroxene Sun
mineral interior Direction of comets
orbital motion
Coma surrounding
nucleus

STONY-IRON
METEORITE Tails behind
nucleus Tails in front of
Iron nucleus
Nucleus vaporized
by Suns heat, Dust Coma and tails
Stone (olivine) forming a coma Gas tail fadeas comet moves
with two tails tail away from Sun

52
FEATURES OF A COMET
Gas molecules excited by
Sun and emitting light
Comet tails up to 60 Thin, straight
million miles (100 gas tail
million km) long

Thin, straight
Head gas tail blown by
(coma and solar wind
nucleus)

Broad, curved
dust tail

Coma
surrounding Nucleus a
nucleus few miles
across

STRUCTURE OF
A COMET
Glowing coma
600,000 miles (1
million km) across
around nucleus

Dust layer
withactive
areas emitting
jets of gas
and dust

Jet of gas and


dust produced by
vaporization
on sunlit side
of nucleus

Ices, mainly water ice, but


also frozen carbon dioxide, Broad curved Dust particles
methane, and ammonia dust tail reflecting sunlight

53
PREHISTORIC
EARTH
THE CHANGING EARTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
THE EARTHS CRUST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
FAULTS AND FOLDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
MOUNTAIN BUILDING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
PRECAMBRIAN TO DEVONIAN PERIOD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
CARBONIFEROUS TO PERMIAN PERIOD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
TRIASSIC PERIOD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
JURASSIC PERIOD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
CRETACEOUS PERIOD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
TERTIARY PERIOD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
QUATERNARY PERIOD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
EARLY SIGNS OF LIFE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
THE DINOSAURS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
THEROPODS 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
THEROPODS 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
SAUROPODOMORPHS 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
SAUROPODOMORPHS 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
THYREOPHORANS 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
THYREOPHORANS 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
ORNITHOPODS 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
ORNITHOPODS 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
MARGINOCEPHALIANS 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
MARGINOCEPHALIANS 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
MAMMALS 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
MAMMALS 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
THE FIRST HUMANS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
PREHISTORIC EARTH

The changing Earth


THE EARTH FORMED FROM A CLOUD OF DUST and gas drifting Small mammals
through space about 4.6 billion years ago. Dense minerals sank to appeared (e.g.,
Crusafontia)
the center while lighter ones formed a thin rocky crust. However, Dinosaurs
the first known life-formsbacteria and blue-green algaedid became
not appear until about 3.4 billion years ago, and it was only about extinct
700 million years ago that more complex plants and animals
began to develop. Since then, thousands of animal and Global
plant species have evolved; some, such as the dinosaurs, mountain
US
survived for many millions of years, while others died building
A CEO
out quickly. The Earth itself is continually changing.
occurred ET
CR
Although continents neared their present locations
about 50 million years ago, they are still drifting Multicellular soft-
slowly over the planets surface, and mountain bodied animals
appeared (e.g.,
ranges such as the Himalayaswhich began to worms and
form 40 million years agoare continually jellyfish)
being built up and worn away. Climate is also
subject to change: the Earth has undergone Shelled
a series of ice ages interspersed with invertebrates
warmer periods (the most recent appeared (e.g.,
trilobites)
glacial period was at its height
about 20,000 years ago). Marine plants
flourished

CAMBRIAN PRECAMBR
CIAN
Land plants D OV I IAN T
IM
appeared OR E
(e.g.,Cooksonia)

Unicellular
organisms appeared DEVONIAN
SILURIAN
(e.g., blue-green
algae)

Amphibians
More complex appeared (e.g.,
Earth types of algae Ichthyostega)
formed Vertebrates appeared
Coral reefs appeared (e.g.,
appeared Hemicyclaspis)

GEOLOGICAL TIMESCALE
MILLIONS OF
YEARS AGO (MYA)

4,600 570 510 439 409 363 323 290

MISSISSIPPIAN PENNSYLVANIAN
(NORTH AMERICA) (NORTH AMERICA)

CAMBRIAN ORDOVICIAN SILURIAN DEVONIAN CARBONIFEROUS

PRECAMBRIAN TIME PALEOZOIC

56
THE CHANGING EARTH

EVOLUTION OF THE EARTH


Birds appeared
(e.g.,Archaeopteryx)
Dinosaurs
flourished

Marine reptiles
appeared (e.g.,
Mixosaurus)

JURASSIC
TR
IAS
SIC
Flowering plants Oil and gas
appeared (e.g., deposits formed
Magnolia)

Himalayas
began to form Coal-forming
forests flourished
Large mammals
appeared (e.g.,
Arsinoitherium)

N
M IA
P ER Early
desertification
occurred

Conifers
appeared

TE
RT Last glacial
IAR
FEROUS
Y period occurred
CA RBONI

Colorado River
began to cut out
the Grand Canyon

Uplift of the QU Modern humans


AT
Sierra Nevada ER (Homo sapiens)
began NA
RY appeared

65 56.5 35.5 23.5 5.2 1.64 0.01 0 MYA


PLEISTOCENE
OLIGOCENE
PALEOCENE

HOLOCENE
PLIOCENE
MIOCENE
EOCENE

290 250 200 145


EPOCH

PERMIAN TRIASSIC JURASSIC CRETACEOUS TERTIARY QUATERNARY PERIOD

MESOZOIC CENOZOIC ERA

57
PREHISTORIC EARTH

The Earths crust ELEMENTS IN THE EARTHS CRUST

THE EARTHS CRUST IS THE SOLID outer shell of the Earth. It includes Other elements 2%
continental crust (about 25 miles/40 km thick) and oceanic crust (about
four miles/6 km thick). The crust and the topmost layer of the mantle Potassium 2.6% Magnesium 2%
form the lithosphere. The lithosphere consists of semirigid plates Calcium 3.6%
Sodium 2.8%
that move relative to each other on the underlying asthenosphere (a
Iron 5%
partly molten layer of the mantle). This process is known as plate Aluminum 8%
tectonics and helps explain continental drift. Where two plates move Silicon 28%
apart, there are rifts in the crust. In mid-ocean, this movement results
in seafloor spreading and the formation of ocean ridges; on continents,
crustal spreading can form rift valleys. When plates move toward each other,
one may be subducted beneath (forced under) the other. In mid-ocean, this causes Oxygen 46%
ocean trenches, seismic activity, and arcs of volcanic islands. Where oceanic crust
issubducted beneath continental crust or where continents collide, land may be
uplifted and mountains formed (see pp. 6265). Plates may also slide past each
otheralong the San Andreas fault, for example. Crustal movement on continents
may result in earthquakes, while movement under the seabed can lead to tidal waves.

FEATURES OF PLATE MOVEMENTS Ocean trench formed where oceanic Subduction zone
crust is forced under continental crust
Ridge where magma
is rising to form new
oceanic crust

Region of
seafloor
spreading

Magma rises to
form a hot spot Volcano develops Volcanic island Oceanic Magma rises
Rift formed where over hot spot and that originally crust melts to form a
two plates are Magma (molten rock) builds up to form formed over volcano
moving apart erupts at rift an island hot spot

58
THE EARTHS CRUST

MAJOR PLATES OF THE EARTHS CRUST Hellenic plate Eurasian plate

North American
plate

Pacific plate
Plates sliding
past each
other

Philippine plate
Cocos plate

Caribbean plate

Plates converging
Nazca plate

South American plate African plate Indo-Australian plate

Plates moving apart MOVEMENT OF LAND ALONG OCEANIC RIDGES


Land moves apart
at a constant rate,
perpendicular
toridge

Boundary along
which two plates
slide past each
other

Mountain range
upliftedwhere subducting STRAIGHT OCEANIC RIDGE
oceanic crust compresses
and deforms edge of Land moves apart
continental crust at a constant rate,
perpendicular
tocurve

CURVED OCEANIC RIDGE

Staggered parallel
ridge sections take
shape of curve
Transform
Lithosphere fault
(crust and
topmost layer
of mantle)

Asthenosphere
(upper part STRESSES RESOLVE INTO SECTIONS
ofmantle)
59
PREHISTORIC EARTH

Faults and folds STRUCTURE OF A FOLD

Axial plane
THE CONTINUOUS MOVEMENT of the Earths crustal plates (see pp. 5859) Crest
can squeeze, stretch, or break rock strata, deforming them and Limb Angle of
producing faults and folds. A fault is a fracture in a rock along which plunge
there is movement of one side relative to the other. The movement
can be vertical, horizontal, or oblique (vertical and horizontal). Faults
develop when rocks are subjected to compression or tension. They
tend to occur in hard, rigid rocks, which are more likely to break
than bend. The smallest faults occur in single mineral crystals and are
microscopically small, whereas the largestthe Great Rift Valley in Hingeline
Africa, which formed between 5 million and 100,000 years agois more
than 6,000 miles (9,000 km) long. A fold is a bend in a rock layer caused STRUCTURE OF A FAULT
by compression. Folds occur in elastic rocks, which tend to bend rather Fault plane Dip of fault plane
than break. The two main types of fold are anticlines (upfolds) and (angle from
synclines (downfolds). Folds vary in size from a few millimeters long to horizontal)
folded mountain ranges hundreds of miles long, such as the Himalayas
(see pp. 6263) and the Alps, which are repeatedly folding. In addition
to faults and folds, other features associated with rock deformations Upthrow
include boudins, mullions, and en chelon fractures.

FOLDED ROCK Crest of


anticline
Steeply dipping Plunge Throw (vertical
limbs displacement Downthrow
offault)
Hade of fault plane
(angle from vertical)
STRUCTURE OF A SLOPE

Strike
Angle
of dip

Strike and Direction


dipare at of dip
SECTION THROUGH FOLDED ROCK right angles
STRATA THAT HAVE BEEN ERODED to each other

Dipping bed Anticlinal Monoclinal


fold fold

Mineral-filled
fault

Upper Carboniferous Millstone Grit Lower Carboniferous Limestone

60
FA U LT S A N D F O L D S

EXAMPLES OF FOLDS
Overturned Overthrust
Anticlinorium Monocline Syncline fold fold Chevron
fold

Synclinorium Anticline Isocline


Recumbent Fan Box Cuspate
fold fold fold fold

EXAMPLES OF FAULTS
Sinistral strike-slip Dextral strike-slip
(lateral) fault (lateral) fault Horst Tear fault

Normal Thrust fault Oblique-slip Cylindrical


dip-slip fault Reverse fault Graben fault
dip-slip fault

SMALL-SCALE ROCK DEFORMATIONS


Incompetent Masses of rock shear En chelon
Competent past each other fracture
bed (rocks bed
that break) Tension Tension Tension Tension Tension Tension

Tension
Tension Incompetent bed Competent Competent Competent Joint opened
(rocks that bend) bed breaks bed bed splits by stress
into sections into prisms
BOUDIN MULLION EN ECHELON FRACTURE

Horizontal bed
Dipping bed Gently folded bed Mineral-filled fault
Mineral-filled
fault Dipping bed

Upper Carboniferous Millstone Grit Upper Carboniferous Coal Measures

61
PREHISTORIC EARTH

Mountain building FORMATION OF


THE HIMALAYAS

THE PROCESSES INVOLVED in mountain buildingtermed orogenesisoccur


as a result of the movement of the Earths crustal plates (see pp. 5859). Asia
There are three main types of mountains: volcanic mountains, fold
mountains, and block mountains. Most volcanic mountains have been
formed along plate boundaries where plates have come together or
moved apart and lava and other debris have been ejected onto the Himalayas
formed by
Earths surface. The lava and debris may have built up to form a buckling of
dome around the vent of a volcano. Fold mountains are formed sediment and
where plates push together and part of the
oceanic crust
cause the rock to buckle upward. between two
Where oceanic crust meets less dense colliding
continental crust, the oceanic crust continents
is forced under the continental crust. The
continental crust is buckled by the impact.
This is how folded mountain ranges, such as the
Appalachian Mountains in North America, were
formed. Fold mountains are also formed where
BHAGIRATHI PARBAT,
two areas of continental crust meet. The
India collides
HIMALAYAS Himalayas, for example, began to form when India moves withAsia about 40
India collided with Asia, buckling the sediments north million years ago
and parts of the oceanic crust between them. Block mountains are formed when a block
of land is uplifted between two faults as a result of compression or tension in the Earths
crust (see pp. 6061). Often, the movement along faults has taken place gradually over
millions of years. However, two plates may cause an earthquake by suddenly sliding past
each other along a faultline.
EXAMPLES OF MOUNTAINS
Layers of rock buckled Layers of rock buckled
Extinct by compression to by compression to
Active volcano formsyncline formanticline
volcano
Layers of lava
and ash build up
Vent to form volcanic Compression
mountain

Compression
VOLCANIC MOUNTAIN FOLD MOUNTAIN

Block uplifted to form Block uplifted to form


mountain range mountain range
Fault
Fault
Fault
Tension
Block
forced
down

Tension Block forced Block forced


down down
BLOCK-FAULT MOUNTAIN UPLIFTED BLOCK-FAULT MOUNTAIN

62
M O U N TA I N B U I L D I N G

STAGES IN THE FORMATION OF THE HIMALAYAS


Ocean area Sediment and part of
becomes smaller oceanic crust folded by
Sediment as plates converge Sediment continental collision
Asia
India India Asia
moves Volcano
toward
Asia Continental
crust

Continental Oceanic crust forced Magma rises to Continental Oceanic crust forced farther Continental
crust under continental crust form volcanoes crust under continental crust crust
60 MILLION YEARS AGO 40 MILLION YEARS AGO

Sediment and part of Ripple effect of collision


Ganges Sediment and part of oceanic crust farther forms mountains and
plain oceanic crust folded folded and uplifted to plateau of Tibet
and uplifted Ganges form Himalayas
plain
India Asia
Asia
India

Continental Continental Continental Continental


crust crust crust crust
20 MILLION YEARS AGO TODAY

SAN ANDREAS FAULT EARTHQUAKES Shock waves Core (blocks


Epicenter (point on Earths radiate outward S waves and
surface directly above focus) from focus Focus deflects P
waves)
Crust
Isoseismal lines
join places with S and P L wave
equal intensity shock
of shock waves Mantle

P wave P wave
shadow shadow
zone zone
Focus (point at which P wave
Faultline along which two earthquake originates)
plates may slide past each PATH OF SHOCK WAVES
other, causing an earthquake ANATOMY OF AN EARTHQUAKE THROUGH THE EARTH

63
PREHISTORIC EARTH

Precambrian to MIDDLE ORDOVICIAN POSITIONS


OF PRESENT-DAY LANDMASSES

Devonian periods South


North
America Greenland China
Australia
America
WHEN THE EARTH FORMED about 4.6 billion years ago, its
atmosphere consisted of volcanic gases with little oxygen,
making it hostile to most forms of life. One large supercontinent,
Gondwana, was situated over the southern polar region, while
other smaller continents were spread over the rest of the world.
Constant movement of the Earths crustal plates carried
continents across the earths surface. The first primitive life-forms
emerged around 3.4 billion years ago in shallow, warm seas.
The build up of oxygen began to form a shield of ozone South
around the Earth, protecting living organisms from the Africa India
Suns harmful rays and helping to establish an atmosphere Africa
in which life could sustain itself. The first vertebrates appeared about Scandinavia North East
Africa
Europe
470 million years ago, during the Ordovician period (510439 million years ago),
the first land plants appeared around 400 million years ago during the Devonian Siberia Central Asia
period (409363 million years ago), and the first land animals about 30 million years later.
EXAMPLES OF PRECAMBRIAN TO DEVONIAN PLANT GROUPS

A PRESENT-DAY CLUBMOSS A PRESENT-DAY FOSSIL OF AN EXTINCT LAND PLANT FOSSIL OF AN EXTINCT SWAMP PLANT
(Lycopodium sp.) LANDPLANT (Cooksonia hemisphaerica) (Zosterophyllum llanoveranum)
(Asparagus setaceous)

EXAMPLES OF PRECAMBRIAN TO DEVONIAN TRILOBITES

ACADAGNOSTUS PHACOPS OLENELLUS ELRATHIA


Group: Agnostidae Group: Phacopidae Group: Olenellidae Group: Ptychopariidae
Length: in (8 mm) Length: 1 in (4.5 cm) Length: 2 in (6 cm) Length: in (2 cm)

64
PRECAMBRIAN TO DEVONIAN PERIODS

THE EARTH DURING THE MIDDLE ORDOVICIAN PERIOD EXAMPLES OF EARLY


MARINE INVERTEBRATES

Siberia

Laurentia

China

FOSSIL NAUTILOID
(Estonioceras
perforatum)

Kazakstania

FOSSIL BRACHIOPOD
(Dicoelosia bilobata)

Gondwana
Baltica

TRACE FOSSIL FOSSIL GRAPTOLITE


(Mawsonites spriggi) (Monograptus
EXAMPLES OF DEVONIAN FISH convolutus)

RHAMPHODOPSIS PTERASPIS COCCOSTEUS BOTHRIOLEPIS


Group: Ptyctodontidae Group: Pteraspidae Group: Coccosteidae Group: Bothriolepididae
Length: 6 in (15 cm) Length: 10 in (25 cm) Length: 14 in (35 cm) Length: 16 in (40 cm)

CHEIRACANTHUS PTERICHTHYODES CHEIROLEPIS CEPHALASPIS


Group: Acanthodidae Group: Asterolepididae Group: Cheirolepidae Group: Cephalaspidae
Length: 12 in (30 cm) Length: 6 in (15 cm) Length: 6 in (17 cm) Length: 8 in (22 cm)

65
PREHISTORIC EARTH

Carboniferous to LATE CARBONIFEROUS POSITIONS


OF PRESENT-DAY LANDMASSES

Permian periods North


America
Greenland
Siberia
China
THE CARBONIFEROUS PERIOD (363290 million years ago) takes its name
from the thick, carbon-rich layersnow coalthat were produced
during this period as swampy tropical forests were repeatedly
drowned by shallow seas. The humid climate across northern
and equatorial continents throughout Carboniferous times
produced the first dense plant cover on Earth. During the early
part of this period, the first reptiles appeared. Their development
of a waterproof egg with a protective internal structure
ended animal lifes dependence on an aquatic environment.
Toward the end of Carboniferous times, the earths continents South
Laurasia and Gondwana collided, resulting in the huge land- America Australia
mass of Pangaea. Glaciers smothered much of the southern Antarctica Africa Antarctica
hemisphere during the Permian period (290245 million years ago),
covering Antarctica, parts of Australia, and much of South America, Africa, and India. India
Ice locked up much of the worlds water and large areas of the northern hemisphere experienced
adrop in sea level. Away from the poles, deserts and a hot dry climate predominated. As a result of
these conditions, the Permian period ended with the greatest mass extinction of life on Earth ever.
EXAMPLES OF CARBONIFEROUS AND PERMIAN PLANT GROUPS

A PRESENT-DAY FIR FOSSIL OF AN EXTINCT FERN FOSSIL OF AN FOSSIL OF AN


(Abies concolor) (Zeilleria frenzlii) EXTINCT HORSETAIL EXTINCTCLUBMOSS
(Equisetites sp.) (Lepidodendron sp.)

EXAMPLES OF CARBONIFEROUS AND PERMIAN TREES

PECOPTERIS PARIPTERIS MARIOPTERIS MEDULLOSA


Group: Marattiaceae Group: Medullosaceae Group: Lyginopteridales Group: Medullosaceae
Height: 13 ft (4 m) Height: 16 ft 6 in (5 m) Height: 16 ft 6 in (5 m) Height: 16 ft 6 in (5 m)

66
CARBONIFEROUS TO PERMIAN PERIODS

EXAMPLES OF CARBONIFEROUS
THE EARTH DURING THE LATE CARBONIFEROUS PERIOD AND PERMIAN ANIMALS

Siberia

Laurussia

China

SKULL OF AN EXTINCT SYNAPSID


(Dimetrodon loomisi)

Ural
Mountains

Caledonian
Mountains

FOSSIL TEETH OF
ANEXTINCT SHARK
(Helicoprion bessonowi)

Appalachian
Mountains

Gondwana

MODEL OF AN EXTINCT EARLY


REPTILELIKE ANIMAL
(Westlothiana lizziae)

LEPIDODENDRON CORDAITES GLOSSOPTERIS ALETHOPTERIS


Group: Lepidodendraceae Group: Cordaitacea Group: Glossopteridaceae Group: Medullosaceae
Height: 100 ft (30 m) Height: 33 ft (10 m) Height: 26 ft (8 m) Height: 16 ft 6 in (5 m)

67
PREHISTORIC EARTH

Triassic period TRIASSIC POSITIONS OF


PRESENT-DAY LANDMASSES
North
THE TRIASSIC PERIOD (250200 million years ago) marked the beginning America Europe Asia
of what is known as the Age of the Dinosaurs (the Mesozoic era). During
this period, the present-day continents were massed together, forming
one huge continent known as Pangaea. This landmass experienced
extremes of climate, with lush green areas around the coast
or by lakes and rivers, and arid deserts in the interior. The
only forms of plant life were nonflowering plants, such
asconifers, ferns, cycads, and ginkgos; flowering plants had
not yet evolved. The principal forms of animal life included
diverse, often gigantic, amphibians, rhynchosaurs
(beaked lizards), and primitive crocodilians. Dinosaurs
first appeared about 230 million years ago, at the beginning
of the Late Triassic period. Among the earliest dinosaurs South
were the carnivorous (flesh-eating) herrerasaurids, such as America
Herrerasaurus and Staurikosaurus. Early herbivorous (plant-eating) Africa
dinosaurs first appeared in Late Triassic times and included Plateosaurus Australia
Antarctica
and Technosaurus. By the end of the Triassic period, dinosaurs dominated
Pangaea, possibly contributing to the extinction of many other reptiles. India

EXAMPLES OF TRIASSIC
PLANT GROUPS

A PRESENT-DAY A PRESENT-DAY GINKGO A PRESENT-DAY CONIFER FOSSIL OF AN FOSSIL LEAF OF AN


CYCAD (Ginkgo biloba) (Araucaria araucana) EXTINCT FERN EXTINCT CYCAD
(Cycas revoluta) (Pachypteris sp.) (Cycas sp.)

EXAMPLES OF TRIASSIC DINOSAURS

MELANOROSAURUS MUSSAURUS HERRERASAURUS PISANOSAURUS


Group: Melanorosauridae Group: Sauropodomorpha Group: Herrerasauridae Group: Ornithischia
Length: 40 ft (12.2 m) Length: 6 ft 6 in10 ft (23 m) Length: 10 ft (3 m) Length: 3 ft (90 cm)

68
TRIASSIC PERIOD

THE EARTH DURING THE TRIASSIC PERIOD EXAMPLES OF TRIASSIC ANIMALS


Scandinavian
Mountains
Caledonian Sinus Borealis
Mountains Ural Mountains
Appalachian
Mountains Pangaea

AN EXTINCT AMPHIBIAN A NAUTILOID MOLLUSK


(Nautilus sp.)
Desert

Vegetation

Continental
shelf

Tethys AN EXTINCT CHONDROSTEAN FISH


Sea (Cleithrolepis granulatus)

Deep
ocean

AN EXTINCT SEA-GOING REPTILE


(Pachypleurosaurus sp.)

Pacific Ocean
Pangaea

Andes Pangaea
Desert Vegetation AN EXTINCT RHYNCHOSAURIAN REPTILE
(Scaphonyx fischeri)

PLATEOSAURUS TECHNOSAURUS COELOPHYSIS STAURIKOSAURUS


Group: Plateosauridae Group: Ornithischia Group: Coelophysidae Group: Herrerasauridae
Length: 26 ft (7.9 m) Length: 3 ft 3 in (1 m) Length: 10 ft (3 m) Length: 6 ft 6 in (2 m)

69
PREHISTORIC EARTH

Jurassic period JURASSIC POSITIONS OF


PRESENT-DAY LANDMASSES
Europe
THE JURASSIC PERIOD, the middle part of the Mesozoic North Arabia
era, lasted from 199 to 145 million years ago. During Jurassic America Asia
times, the landmass of Pangaea broke up into the continents
of Gondwana and Laurasia, and sea levels rose, flooding areas
of lower land. The Jurassic climate was warm and moist.
Plants such as ginkgos, horsetails, and conifers thrived,
and giant redwood trees appeared, as did the first flowering
plants. The abundance of plant food coincided with the
proliferation of herbivorous (plant-eating) dinosaurs, such
as the large sauropods (e.g., Diplodocus) and stegosaurs
(e.g., Stegosaurus). Carnivorous (flesheating) dinosaurs,
such as Compsognathus and Allosaurus, also flourished
by hunting the many animals that existedamong them Australia
other dinosaurs. Further Jurassic animals included shrewlike South
mammals, and pterosaurs (flying reptiles), as well asplesiosaurs America Africa India
and ichthyosaurs (both marine reptiles). Antarctica

EXAMPLES OF JURASSIC PLANT GROUPS

A PRESENT-DAY FERN A PRESENT-DAY HORSETAIL A PRESENT-DAY CONIFER FOSSIL LEAF OF AN FOSSIL LEAF OF AN
(Dicksonia antarctica) (Equisetum arvense) (Taxus baccata) EXTINCT CONIFER EXTINCT REDWOOD
(Taxus sp.) (Sequoiadendron
EXAMPLES OF JURASSIC DINOSAURS affinis)

DIPLODOCUS CAMPTOSAURUS DRYOSAURUS


Group: Diplodocidae Group: Iguanodontia Group: Dryosauridae
Length:88 ft (26.8 m) Length:1623 ft (4.97 m) Length: 1013 ft (34 m)

70
JURASSIC PERIOD

THE EARTH DURING THE JURASSIC PERIOD EXAMPLES OF JURASSIC ANIMALS


Laurasia Laurasia
North Atlantic Ural Mountains
Ocean Turgai
North Strait
American
Cordillera
Vegetation
Laurasia
Desert

AN EXTINCT PTEROSAUR AN EXTINCT


(Rhamphorhynchus sp.) BELEMNITE MOLLUSK
(Belemnoteuthis sp.)

Tethys Sea

AN EXTINCT
Deep RHYNCHOSAURIAN REPTILE
ocean (Homeosaurus pulchellus)

Continental AN EXTINCT PLESIOSAUR


shelf (Peloneustes philarcus)

Desert
Vegetation
Andes
Gondwana Gondwana
AN EXTINCT ICHTHYOSAUR
Pacific Ocean (Stenopterygius megacephalus)

ALLOSAURUS SCELIDOSAURUS STEGOSAURUS


Group: Allosauroidea Group: Thyreophora Group: Stegosauridae
Length: 36 ft (11 m) Length: 13 ft (4m) Length: 30 ft (9.1 m)

71
PREHISTORIC EARTH

Cretaceous period CRETACEOUS POSITIONS OF


PRESENT-DAY LANDMASSES
North
THE MESOZOIC ERA ENDED WITH the Cretaceous period, which lasted America Europe Arabia
from 146 to 65 million years ago. During this period, Gondwana and Asia
Laurasia were breaking up into smaller landmasses that more closely
resembled the modern continents. The climate remained mild and
moist but the seasons became more marked. Flowering plants,
including deciduous trees, replaced many cycads, seed ferns,
and conifers. Animal species became more varied, with the
evolution of new mammals, insects, fish, crustaceans, and
turtles. Dinosaurs evolved into a wide variety of species
during Cretaceous times; more than half of all known
dinosaursincluding Iguanodon, Deinonychus, Tyrannosaurus,
and Hypsilophodonlived during this period. At the end
of the Cretaceous period, however, most dinosaurs became
extinct. The reason for this mass extinction is unknown but South America Australia
it is thought to have been caused by climatic changes due Africa India
to either a catastrophic meteor impact with theEarth or Antarctica
extensive volcanic eruptions.

EXAMPLES OF CRETACEOUS PLANT GROUPS

A PRESENT-DAY C ONIFER A PRESENT-DAY FOSSIL OF AN FOSSIL OF AN FOSSIL LEAVES


(Pinus muricata) DECIDUOUS TREE EXTINCT FERN EXTINCT GINKGO OFANEXTINCT
(Magnolia sp.) (Sphenopteris latiloba) (Ginkgo pluripartita) DECIDUOUS TREE
(Cercidyphyllum sp.)

EXAMPLES OF
CRETACEOUS DINOSAURS

SALTASAURUS TOROSAURUS HYPSILOPHODON


Group: Saltasauridae Group: Ceratopsidae Group: Ornithopoda
Length: 40 ft (12.2 m) Length:25 ft (7.6 m) Length:4 ft 6 in7 ft 6 in (1.42.3 m)

72
C R E TA C E O U S P E R I O D

THE EARTH DURING THE CRETACEOUS PERIOD EXAMPLES OF


CRETACEOUS ANIMALS
Africa Greenland Europe Continental Sea
West Africa
Ural
North America Mountains
Rocky
Mountains Desert

AN EXTINCT INSECT AN EXTINCT


(Libellulium MARINETURTLE
longialatum) (Plesiochelys latiscutata)
Tethys
Sea

Asia AN EXTINCT CRUSTACEAN


(Homarus sp.)

India

Indian
Ocean

AN EXTINCT CROCODILIAN
Australia
Pacific
Ocean

North
Atlantic
Ocean Vegetation
Andes South Antarctica
America South Atlantic AN EXTINCT HOLOSTEAN FISH
Ocean (Lepidotes maximus)

TYRANNOSAURUS DEINONYCHUS IGUANODON


Group: Tyrannosauridae Group: Dromaeosauridae Group: Iguanodontia
Length: 40 ft (12.2 m) Length: 811 ft (2.43.4 m) Length: 30 ft (9.1 m)

73
PREHISTORIC EARTH

Tertiary period TERTIARY POSITIONS OF


PRESENT-DAY LANDMASSES

FOLLOWING THE DEMISE OF THE DINOSAURS at the end of the Cretaceous North Europe Asia
period, the Tertiary period (651.6 million years ago), which formed the first America
part of the Cenozoic era (65 million years agopresent), was characterized
by a huge expansion of mammal life. Placental mammals nourish and
maintain the young in the mothers uterus; only a few groups of
placental mammals existed during Cretaceous times, compared
with a few dozen during the Tertiary period. One
of these included the first hominid (see pp.108109),
Ardipithecus, which appeared in Africa. By the beginning of
the Tertiary period, the continents had almost reached their
present position. The Tethys Sea, which had separated the
northern continents from Africa and India, began to close up,
forming the Mediterranean Sea and allowing the migration of
terrestrial animals between Africa and western Europe. Indias South Australia
collision with Asia led to the formation of the Himalayas. America Africa
During the middle part of the Tertiary period, the forest-dwelling Antarctica
and browsing mammals were replaced by mammals such as the horses,
better suited to grazing the opensavannahs that began to dominate.
Repeated cool periods throughout the Tertiary period established the
Antarctic as an icy island continent.

EXAMPLES OF TERTIARY PLANT GROUPS

A PRESENT-DAY OAK A PRESENT-DAY BIRCH FOSSIL LEAF OF AN FOSSILIZED STEM OF


(Quercus palustris) (Betula grossa) EXTINCT BIRCH AN EXTINCT PALM
(Betulites sp.) (Palmoxylon sp.)

EXAMPLES OF TERTIARY
ANIMAL GROUPS

HYAENODON TITANOHYRAX PHORUSRHACOS SAMOTHERIUM


Group: Hyaenodontidae Group: Pliohyracidae Group: Phorusrhacidae Group: Giraffidae
Length: 6 ft 6 in (2 m) Length: 6 ft 6 in (2 m) Length: 5 ft (1.5 m) Length:10 ft (3 m)

74
TERTIARY PERIOD

THE EARTH DURING THE TERTIARY PERIOD EXAMPLES OF TERTIARY ANIMALS

North America Appalachian Mountains


Rocky Pyrenees Europe Alps
Mountains Asia Continental
Sierra sea
Nevada

AN EXTINCT MAMMAL
(Arsinoitherium)
Zagros
Mountains

Himalayas

Tethys Sea

Australia
AN EXTINCT MAMMAL
(Merycoidodon culbertsonii)

India
Andes
South
America
Atlantic Indian
Ocean Ocean
Atlas
Mountains
Africa
Antarctica Vegetation AN EXTINCT PRIMATE AN EXTINCT
(Aegyptopithecus sp.) GASTROPODMOLLUSK
(Ecphora quadricostata)

MAMMUT TETRALOPHODON
Group: Mammutidae Group: Gomphotheriidae
Length: 8 ft (2.5 m) Length: 8 ft (2.5 m)

75
PREHISTORIC EARTH

Quaternary period QUATERNARY POSITIONS OF


PRESENT-DAY LANDMASSES

THE QUATERNARY PERIOD (1.6 million years agopresent) forms the North Europe Asia
second part of the Cenozoic era (65 million years agopresent): it has America
been characterized by alternating cold (glacial) and warm (interglacial)
periods. During cold periods, ice sheets and glaciers have formed
repeatedly on northern and southern continents. The cold
environments in North America and Eurasia, and to a lesser
extent in southern South America and parts of Australia, have
caused the migration of many life-forms toward the Equator.
Only the specialized ice age mammals such as Mammuthus
and Coelodonta, with their thick wool and fat insulation,
were suited to life in very cold climates. Humans developed
throughout the Pleistocene period (1.6 million10,000 years
ago) in Africa and migrated northward into Europe and Asia.
Modern humans, Homo sapiens, lived on the cold European South
continent 30,000 years ago and hunted other mammals. The America Africa Australia
end of the last ice age and the climatic changes that occurred India
about 10,000 years ago brought extinction to many Pleistocene Antarctica
mammals, but enabled humans to flourish.

EXAMPLES OF QUATERNARY PLANT GROUPS

A PRESENT-DAY BIRCH A PRESENT-DAY SWEEETGUM FOSSIL LEAF OF A SWEETGUM FOSSIL LEAF OF A BIRCH
(Betula lenta) (Liquidambar styraciflua) (Liquidambar europeanum) (Betula sp.)

EXAMPLES OF QUATERNARY ANIMAL GROUPS

PROC OPTODON DIPROTODON TOXODON MAMMUTHUS


Group: Macropodidae Group: Diprotodontidae Group: Toxodontidae Group: Elephantidae
Length: 10 ft (3 m) Length: 10 ft (3 m) Length: 10 ft (3 m) Length: 10 ft (3 m)

76
Q U AT E R N A RY P E R I O D

THE EARTH DURING THE QUATERNARY PERIOD EXAMPLES OF QUATERNARY ANIMALS

Pyrenees Alps
Appalachian Ice sheet
Mountains
Rocky Asia
Mountains
Vegetation
North
America Carpathian
Mountains

A MAMMAL SKELETON
Taurus (Hippopotamus
Mountains amphibius)

Himalayas

India

Australia

SKULL OF AN EXTINCT
CAVE BEAR
(Ursus spelaeus)
Desert

Andes Indian
Ocean
South
America
Atlantic
Ocean Ice cap
Atlas Africa Antarctica
Mountains
SKULL OF AN A MAMMOTH TOOTH
EXTINCT TORTOISE (Mammuthus
(Meiolania platyceps) primigenius)

DEINOTHERIUM COELODONTA AUSTRALOPITHECUS


Group: Deinotheriidae Group: Rhinocerotidae Group: Hominidae
Length: 13 ft (4 m) Length: 13 ft (4 m) Length:4 ft (1.2 m)

77
PREHISTORIC EARTH

Early signs of life STROMATOLITIC LIMESTONE


FOR ALMOST A THOUSAND MILLION YEARS after its formation, there
was no known life on Earth. The first simple, sea-dwelling organic
structures appeared about 3.5 billion years ago; they may have
formed when certain chemical molecules joined together.
Prokaryotes, single-celled microorganisms such as blue-green
algae, were able to photosynthesize (see pp. 138139), and thus
produce oxygen. A thousand million years later, sufficient
oxygen had built up in the Earths atmosphere to allow
multicellular organisms to proliferate in the Precambrian
seas (before 570 million years ago). Soft-bodied jellyfish,
corals, and seaworms flourished about 700 million years
ago. Trilobites, the first animals with hard body frames, Alternate
developed during the Cambrian period (570510 million layers of
mud and
years ago). However, it was not until the beginning of the sand
Devonian period (409363 million years ago) that early Layers bound
land plants, such as Asteroxylon, formed a water- Layered by algae
retaining cuticle, which ended their dependence on an structure
aquatic environment. About 360 million years ago, the
first amphibians (see pp. 8081) crawled onto the land, Limestone
although they probably still returned to the water to lay
their soft eggs. By the time the first reptiles and synapsids
appeared late in the Carboniferous, animals with
backbones had become fully independent of water.

Glabella

Eye
Long,
beaklike
snout

Thoracic
Growth pleurae
line

Dorsal Fixed lateral


plate plate

Bony dorsal
shield
Dorsal
spine
base Tail shield Tail area

FOSSILIZED JAWLESS FISH FOSSILIZED TRILOBITE

78
E A R LY S I G N S O F L I F E

Ambulacral groove
Row of Row of
ossicles ossicles
Small
ossicles
of upper
surface Broad disk

Central
disk
Short
arm
Iron
pyrites
FOSSILIZED STARFISH UPPER SURFACE OF LOWER SURFACE OF
FOSSILIZED STARFISH FOSSILIZED STARFISH

Jointed Chelicera Growing tip


leg (jointed
pincer)

Jointed leg
withoar-
shaped
paddle

Disk-shaped
sporangium
(spore-case)
Segmented
abdomen

UNDERSIDE OF FOSSILIZED EURYPTERID

Telson (tail
spine)
Leaflike scale

Abdominal
Shell contains eight segments
somites (thoracic
segments) Stem

Hingeless,
bivalved
shell
FOSSIL OF AN EXTINCT SHRIMP RECONSTRUCTION OF ASTEROXYLON

79
PREHISTORIC EARTH

Amphibians and reptiles Pocket


THE EARLIEST KNOWN AMPHIBIANS, such as Acanthostega Orbit enclosing
and Ichthyostega, lived about 363 million years ago Sculpted or pitted nostril
atthe end of the Devonian period (409363 million years bone surface
ago). Their limbs may have evolved from the muscular
fins of lungfishlike creatures. These fish can use their Spiracle
to draw
fins to push themselves along the bottom of lakes and in water
some can breathe at the waters surface. While
amphibians (see pp. 182183) can exist on land, they are
dependent on a wet environment because their skin does Mandible Small tooth
not retain moisture and most species must return to the FOSSIL SKULL OF ACANTHOSTEGA
water to lay their eggs. Evolving from amphibians, reptiles
(see pp. 184187) first appeared during the Carboniferous Muscular back Shoulder girdle
period (363290 million years ago): Westlothiana, a Scaly skin
possible early reptile, lived on land 338 million years ago.
The development of the amniotic egg, with an embryo
enclosed in its own wet environment (the amnion) and
protected by a waterproof shell, freed reptiles from the Finned tail
amphibians dependence on a wet habitat. A scaly skin Hip girdle
protected the reptile from desiccation on land and MODEL OF ICHTHYOSTEGA
enabledit to exploit ways of life closed to its amphibian
ancestors. Reptiles include the dinosaurs, which came Dorsal vertebra
to dominate life on land during the Mesozoic era Scapula
(24565 million years ago). Cleithrum
Cervical vertebra

Cranium

Orbit

Maxilla

Naris
Rib
Glenoid cavity

Humerus

Elbow joint
Mandible Clavicle
Radius
Sharp tooth Ulna
Phalanges
Metacarpals
SKELETON OF ERYOPS

80
AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES

FOSSIL SKELETON OF WESTLOTHIANA FOSSIL SKELETON OF A PAREIASAUR


Rib
Pelvis Vertebra
Scapula
Dorsal Humerus
vertebra
Radius
Ulna
Flattened
skull bones Rib

Leg
Rear foot Femur

Caudal Tail
vertebra Waterproof, Eye
scaly skin

Mouth

Five-toed Semi-sprawling
foot stance
MODEL OF WESTLOTHIANA

Neural spine
Tri-lobed tail
Sacral vertebra

Ilium
Fleshy,
lobed
pelvic fin

Fleshy,
lobed
FOSSILIZED LUNGFISH pectoral
fin

Caudal vertebra
Femur Fibula
Ischium Tibia
Pubis
Acetabulum
Metatarsals Chevron

Phalanges

81
PREHISTORIC EARTH

The dinosaurs STRUCTURE OF


SAURISCHIAN PELVIS
Hook of preacetabular
THE DINOSAURS WERE A LARGE GROUP of reptiles that Ilium process
were the dominant land vertebrates (animals with Postacetabular Ilio-pubic joint
backbones) for most of the Mesozoic era (24565 process
Acetabulum
millionyears ago). They appeared some 230 million
years ago and were distinguished from other scaly, Pubis
Ilio-ischial joint
egg-laying reptiles by an important feature: dinosaurs Pubic foot
had an erect limb stance. This enabled them to keep their Ischium
bodies well above the ground, unlike the sprawling and
semisprawling stance of other reptiles. The head of the
dinosaurs femur (thighbone) fit into a socket in its
pelvis (hip-bone), producing efficient and mobile GALLIMIMUS
locomotion. Dinosaurs are categorized into two groups A saurischian dinosaur
according to the structure of their pelvis: saurischian
(lizard-hipped) and ornithischian (bird-hipped) dinosaurs.
In the case of most saurischians, the pubis (part of the pelvis)
POSITION OF PELVIS IN A
jutted forward, while in ornithischians it slanted SAURISCHIAN DINOSAUR
back, parallel to the ischium (another part of STRUCTURE OF Ilium
the pelvis). Dinosaurs ranged in size ORNTHISCHIAN PELVIS Preacetabular process
from smaller than a domestic cat Postacetabular
process Ilio-pubic joint
to the biggest land animals ever
known. The Dinosauria Ilio-ischial joint Prepubis
werethe most successful land Acetabulum
vertebrates ever, and survived Pubis
for 165 million years, until Ischium
most became extinct
65 million years ago.
HYPSILOPHODON
An ornithischian dinosaur

POSITION OF PELVIS IN AN
COMPARISON OF ORNITHISCHIAN DINOSAUR
ANIMAL STANCES

SPRAWLING STANCE
BAROSAURUS The thighs and upper arms
A saurischian dinosaur project straight out from the
body so that the knees and COMMON IGUANA
elbows are bent at right angles. (Iguana iguana)
A present-day reptile

ERECT STANCE SEMISPRAWLING STANCE


The thighs and upper arms The thighs and upper arms
project straight down from project downwards and DWARF CROCODILE
the body so that the knees outwards so that the knees (Osteolaemus tetraspis)
and elbows are straight. and elbows are slightly bent. A present-day reptile

82
THE DINOSAURS

HERRERASAURIDAE
EXAMPLES OF DINOSAUR CLAWS DINOSAUR CLADOGRAM

Hook shape THEROPODA CERATOSAURIA

Sharp
tip TETANURAE
SAURISCHIA

Claw used for


catching fish
Base
SAUROPODA

BARYONYX SAUROPODOMORPHA
THUMB-C LAW PROSAUROPODA

DINOSAURIA
Top part SCELIDOSAURUS
of claw
(sharp
point Claw for
missing) digging and THYREOPHORA STEGOSAURIA
defense

ANKYLOSAURIA
Base
MASSOSPONDYLUS
ORNITHISCHIA
PACHYCEPHALOSAURIA
THUMB-C LAW
MARGINOCEPHALIA
CERATOPSIA
Top part CERAPODA
of claw
ORNITHOPODA
Claw used for
digging and
defense Orbit
Broad
surface Infratemporal
fenestra
Caninelike
Base tooth

APATOSAURUS
THUMB-C LAW Quadratojugal
Mandible bone
Bony crest Orbit
Top part SKULL AND MANDIBLE OF
of claw HETERODONTOSAURUS
Flattened Antorbital fenestra
surface Naris Postorbital
process
Premaxilla
Maxilla Infratemporal
Claw used to fenestra
catch prey
Semi-conical
tooth
Base Retroarticular
process
ORNITHOMIMUS SKULL AND MANDIBLE
FINGER-C LAW OF BARYONYX Mandible

83
PREHISTORIC EARTH

Theropods 1 Ilio-tibial muscle


Ilio-femoral muscle
AN ENORMOUSLY SUCCESSFUL SUBGROUP of the Saurischia, INTERNAL ANATOMY OF
thebipedal (two-footed) theropods (beast feet) emerged ALBERTOSAURUS LEG
230million years ago in Late Triassic times; the oldest known
example comes from South America. Theropods spanned the
Femoro-tibial
age of most dinosaurs (23065 million years ago) and beyond, muscle
andincluded most of the known predatory dinosaurs. The Internal tibial
typicaltheropod had smallish arms with sharp, clawed fingers; flexor muscle
powerful jaws lined with sharp teeth; an S-shaped neck; long,
muscular hind limbs; and clawed, usually four-toed feet. Many Femur
theropods may have been warm-blooded; most were exclusively Ilio-fibular
muscle
carnivorous. Theropods ranged from animals no larger than
a chicken to huge creatures, such as Tyrannosaurus and Gastrocnemius
Baryonyx.The group also included ostrichlike omnivores muscle Ambiens
and herbivores with toothless beaks, such as Struthiomimus muscle
Digital flexor
and Gallimimus. Birds are dinosaurs and evolved from muscle Femoro-
tibial
within a group of tetanuran theropods called maniraptorans. Fibula muscle
Archaeopteryx, small and feathered, was thefirst known Anterior
bird and lived alongside other dinosaurs. Tarsal tibial
muscle
Cranium Supraoccipital crest Metatarsal Common digital
extensor muscle
Orbit
Naris Cervical vertebrae
Toe
Dorsal vertebrae Claw

Ilium

Cervical
rib
Scapula
Mandible Shoulder joint
Serrated Ulna
tooth
Phalanges
Naris Eye Femur Ischium
Metacarpals
Wrist joint Hip
Coracoid Rib joint
Thigh Elbow joint
Humerus
Scaly skin
Tail Pubis Knee
joint
Forelimb
Tibia
Fibula
Hand
Knee Hind limb SKELETON OF
Ankle Metatarsals Ankle TYRANNOSAURUS
joint
Toe Foot Phalanges
Claw Hallux
(first toe)
EXTERNAL FEATURES OF TYRANNOSAURUS

84
THEROPODS 1

FOSSIL SKELETON OF ARCHAEOPTERYX SKELETON OF BARYONYX HAND


Wing-feather Metacarpal
impression Large
Scapula thumb-
Phalanx claw Radius
Claw
Radius Wrist joint
Ulna Metacarpal
Humerus Flexor
Cervical tubercle
Ulna
vertebra Trochlea
Olecranon
Phalanx
Dorsal
vertebra Metacarpophalangeal
Rib joint
Cranium
Gastralia Interphalangeal
Orbit joint
Femur
Caudal Ilium Finger-
vertebra Pubis claw
Reversed Ischium
hallux
(first toe) Tibia
Metatarsal
Tail-feather
impression Phalanx EXAMPLES OF
LARGE THEROPODS

Caudal vertebrae

EUSTREPTOSPONDYLUS
Group: Megalosauridae
Chevron Length: 23 ft (7 m )

Transverse
process Small, triangular
Neural spine horn

Eye BARYONYX
Group: Spinosauridae
Curved Length: 30 ft (9.1 m)
Elastic
serrated tissue
tooth

Tongue

Large,
expansile
jaw
YANGCHUANOSAURUS
HEAD OF ALLOSAURUS Group: Sinraptoridae
Length:33 ft (10 m)

85
PREHISTORIC EARTH

Theropods 2
Eye
EXAMPLES OF
ORNITHOMIMOSAURS

Toothless
beak

DROMICEIOMIMUS GARUDIMIMUS
Length: 11 ft 6 in (3.5 m) Length: 11 ft 6 in (3.5 m)
Scapula Dorsal Ilium Hip joint
Gizzard vertebra Ovary
Lung Rib Kidney
Trachea
Femur

Cervical
musculature

Shoulder joint
Coracoid

Heart

Posterior brachial
muscle
Anterior brachial
muscle Liver
Eye
Humerus
Intestine
Claw Posterior
Anterior antebrachial Pubis
antebrachial muscle
muscle Femoral
Metacarpal musculature
Snout Ulna
Tibia

Short Anterior
forelimb cruralmuscle
Tail
Grasping INTERNAL ANATOMY OF
claw EXTERNAL FEATURES OF AN EARLY FEMALE GALLIMIMUS
THEROPOD (HERRERASAURUS)
Long
shin
Ankle
Hallux
(first toe) Foot

86
THEROPODS 2

EXAMPLES OF SMALL
THEROPODS

CHIROSTENOTES AVIMIMUS
Length: 6 ft 6 in (2 m) Length: 5 ft (1.5 m)

STRUTHIOMIMUS
Length: 11 ft 6 in (3.5 m)

COELURUS PROCOMPSOGNATHUS
Length: 6 ft (1.8 m) Length: 4 ft (1.2 m)
Neural
spine
Caudal
vertebra

Tail
Scaly skin
Lateral caudal
musculature
Dorsal
vertebra Scapula
Humerus Radius
Chevron Cervical Ulna
vertebra
Cloaca
Cranium

Posterior Ilium
crural
muscle
Caudal
Fibula vertebra

Tarsal
Rib
Ischium
Gastralia
Tendon Ankle joint
Pubis
Metatarsal Hip joint
Metatarsal
Phalanx

Phalanx Fibula

FOSSIL SKELETON Knee Tibia


OF STRUTHIOMIMUS joint Femur

87
PREHISTORIC EARTH

Sauropodomorphs 1 SKULL AND MANDIBLE OF

Antorbital
PLATEOSAURUS

THE SAUROPODOMORPHA (lizard-feet forms) Naris fenestra Orbit


were herbivorous, usually quadrupedal (four-footed)
dinosaurs. A suborder of the Saurischia, they were
characterized by small heads, bulky bodies, and
long necks and tails. Sauropodomorphs have often
been split into two groups: prosauropods and
THEC ODONTOSAURUS
sauropods. Prosauropods lived from Late Triassic
to Early Jurassic times (225180 million years ago) and included beasts
such as the small Anchisaurus and one of the first very large dinosaurs,
Plateosaurus. By Middle Jurassic times (about 165 million years ago), Mandible Infratemporal
sauropods had replaced prosauropods and spread worldwide. They fenestra
included the heaviest and longest land animals ever, such as Diplodocus Serrated, leaf- Paroccipital
and Brachiosaurus. Sauropods persisted to the end of the Cretaceous shaped tooth process
period (65 million years ago). Many of these dinosaurs moved in herds, Mandibular
protected from predatory theropods by their huge bulkand powerful fenestra
tails, which they could use to lash out at attackers. Sauropodomorphs
were the most common large herbivores until Late Jurassic Sacral vertebrae
times(about 145 million years ago), and appear to have Dorsal vertebrae
survived in both southern and northern
continents until the end of the
Cretaceous period.

SKELETON OF
PLATEOSAURUS
Ilium

Cervical
vertebrae
Hip joint
Ischium
Humerus Scapula Pubis Femur
Shoulder Rib
Thumb-claw joint Tail
Knee joint
Elbow joint
Tibia
Radius
Ulna Fibula
Wrist joint
Ankle joint
Metacarpal
Metatarsals

Cranium Phalanx
Orbit
Mandible

Phalanges
Naris

88
SAUROPODOMORPHS 1
EXAMPLES OF
THUMB-CLAW OF PROSAUROPODS
MASSOSPONDYLUS Caudal
vertebrae
Top part of
claw (sharp
point missing)
Curved MASSOSPONDYLUS
body of Group: Massospondylidae
claw Length: 16 ft (5 m)

Neural spine LUFENGOSAURUS


Base of claw
Group: Massospondylidae
Length: 20 ft (6.1 m)

Chevron

RIOJASAURUS
Group: Riojasauridae
Length: 36 ft (11 m)
Transverse
process Naris
Eye

MELANOROSAURUS
Toe Group: Melanorosauridae
Thigh Claw Length: 23 ft (7 m)
EXTERNAL FEATURES Leaf-
OF ANCHISAURUS shaped
tooth
Slender snout Long,
Long body flexible
Forelimb neck
Hind limb
TOP VIEW OF ANCHISAURUS Hip
Scaly skin
Shoulder
Thigh
Forelimb
Tail
Elbow
Knee Hand
Large, curved
Ankle thumb-claw
Hind limb
Hallux
(first toe)
Finger
Toe
Foot
Claw SIDE VIEW OF ANCHISAURUS

89
PREHISTORIC EARTH

Sauropodomorphs 2
Orbit Antorbital FOREFOOT OF FOREFOOT BONES
fenestra ELEPHANT OF ELEPHANT
Maxillary Maxilla
Cranium fenestra
Ulna
Peg-shaped Radius
Sclerotic tooth
ring
Carpals Metacarpals

Wrist Phalanges
Infratemporal
fenestra

Mandible Nail
SKULL AND MANDIBLE COMPARISON OF FOREFOOT BONES
OF DIPLODOCUS THE FOREFEET OF DIPLODOCUS
OF AN ELEPHANT
AND DIPLODOCUS
Ulna
Dorsal Sacral vertebra Ilium Radius
Coracoid vertebra
Scapula Carpals

Metacarpals

Caudal
vertebra Neural
spine
Phalanges Small
intestine
Dorsal vertebra
Ovary
Hip joint Ischium
Kidney
Rib
Femur
Large intestine
Humerus Rib
Knee joint Hip joint
Elbow joint
Cecum
Ulna Tibia Ankle joint Pubis
Radius Fibula Femur
Wrist joint Phalanges Oviduct
Metacarpals
Cloaca

MIDDLE SECTION OF DIPLODOCUS SKELETON

Thigh
musculature
Posterior crural
Caudal musculature
musculature Fibula
Anterior
Ankle joint crural
Metatarsal muscle

90
SAUROPODOMORPHS 2

Outer ear
Naris
Fossil eggshell
fragment Eye
FOSSIL EGG OF
SALTASAURID
Mouth

Orbit Antorbital fenestra

Naris

Maxilla
Fossil Fossil eggshell
egg fragment Cranium Spoon-
shaped
Infratemporal tooth
fenestra
Mandible
SKULL AND MANDIBLE
OF CAMARASAURUS
INTERNAL ANATOMY OF
FEMALE BRACHIOSAURUS
Cervical vertebra
Scapula

Trachea
Esophagus
CETIOSAURUS
Intercostal muscle Group: Cetisauridae
Length: 59 ft (18 m)
Scapular muscle

Shoulder joint
Lung
Humerus
SHUNOSAURUS SALTASAURUS
Gizzard Group: Eusauropoda Group: Saltasauridae
Length: 33 ft (10 m) Length: 40 ft (12.2 m)
Anterior brachial
muscle
Posterior brachial
musculature
Elbow joint
Radius
Ulna
Posterior antebrachial
musculature
Wrist joint DIPLODOCUS
Group: Diplodocidae
Metacarpal Length:90 ft (27.4 m)

91
PREHISTORIC EARTH

Thyreophorans 1
THYREOPHORANS (SHIELD BEARERS) were a group of
quadrupedal armored dinosaurs. They were one clade among
several within the Ornithischia (bird-hipped dinosaurs),
they were characterized by rows of bony studs, plates, or spikes along the back,
which protected some from predators and may have helped others regulate TUOJIANGOSAURUS
body temperature. Up to 30 ft (9 m) long, with a small head and small cheek Group: Stegosauridae
Length: 23 ft (7 m)
teeth, thyreophorans had shorter forelimbs than hind limbs and probably
browsed on low-level vegetation. The earliest thyreophorans
were small and lived inEarly Jurassic times Dorsal plate
(about 200 million years ago) in Europe,
North America, and China. Stegosaurs,
such as Stegosaurus and Kentrosaurus,
replaced these older forms. The earliest
stegosaur remains come mainly from
China. Several genera of stegosaurs
survived into the Early Cretaceous
period (145100 million years ago).
Ankylosaurs, with a combination of
beak and teeth in close proximity,
and cheek teeth adapted for
cropping vegetation, appeared
at the same time as stegosaurs.
They originated in the
Late Jurassic period
(155 million years ago)
and in North America
survived until 65 million
years ago. Hip

Thigh
Cervical plate
Eye
Naris

Knee
Beak Cheek Neck Shoulder
Outer ear Long
Short forelimb hind limb

Elbow
Nail Ankle
Wrist
Hind foot
EXTERNAL FEATURES OF
STEGOSAURUS Nail Forefoot

92
THYREOPHORANS 1
EXAMPLES OF STEGOSAURS

HUAYANGOSAURUS KENTROSAURUS WUERHOSAURUS


Group: Huayangosauridae Group: Stegosauridae Group: Stegosauridae
Length: 13 ft (4 m) Length: 16 ft (4.9 m) Length: 20 ft (6.1 m)
EXAMPLES OF STEGOSAUR SKELETONS
Prepubic process
Ilium Dorsal plate
Caudal Dorsal vertebra
vertebra
Scaly skin Cervical
vertebra
Tail Caudal plate
Cervical
plate
Caudal plate
Neural spine
Pubis
Caudal spike Ischium Humerus
Femur Cranium
Tibia
Chevron Fibula
Ulna

Caudal spike
STEGOSAURUS

Dorsal plate Dorsal vertebra


Ilium
Caudal Cervical
DORSAL PLATE OF STEGOSAURUS plate
spike
Front Pointed top Caudal Cranium
edge vertebra
Back edge
Femur Cervical
Humerus vertebra
Ulna
KENTROSAURUS

Hole for Dorsal plate


blood vessel Dorsal vertebra
Ilium Scapula
Cervical
plate
Base Large surface area for
radiating and absorbing heat Caudal plate Cervical
vertebra
SIDE VIEW OF SECTION THROUGH
DORSAL PLATE DORSAL PLATE Neural spine Femur
Humerus
Caudal spike
Ulna
Caudal Cranium
Chevron vertebra
TUOJIANGOSAURUS

93
PREHISTORIC EARTH

Thyreophorans 2
Maxilla Orbit
EXAMPLES OF Posterolateral
ANKYLOSAUR horn
SKULLS Posterolateral
horn
Naris Maxilla Cranium
Nasal
Cranium bone Orbit
Beak
Tooth Naris

Mandible Jugal
plate
SKULL AND MANDIBLE OF EUOPLOCEPHALUS

Orbit Beak
Nasal
Beak bone Cranium
Naris Tooth
Mandible
Infratemporal SKULL AND MANDIBLE OF ANKYLOSAURUS
fenestra
Dorsal vertebra Small intestine Ilio-tibial
Rib Gizzard muscle
Mandible Scapula Lung Reproductive
Ilium canal
Ischium
Shoulder
SKULL AND MANDIBLE spike
OF PANOPLOSAURUS

Coracoid
Cervical
musculature
Head
horn

Humerus

Radius
Toothless Wrist joint Ilio-
Heart
beak tibial Femur
Liver muscle
Knee joint
Metacarpal Fibula
Large Gastrocnemius
Elbow intestine muscle
Ulna joint Digital
Ventral extensor
antebrachial Ankle
muscle joint
muscle
INTERNAL ANATOMY OF FEMALE EUOPLOCEPHALUS Metatarsal

94
THYREOPHORANS 2

EXTERNAL FEATURES OF EDMONTONIA EXAMPLES OF ANKYLOSAURS

Flank Dorsal
Hind spike scute
limb Dermal
armour
Scaly
skin

PINACOSAURUS
Group: Ankylosauridae
Length: 5 m (16 ft 6 in)
Nuchal ring

Shoulder
spike MINMI
Group: Ankylosauria
Length: 2.4 m (8 ft)

Broad, flat
snout

Ankle Elbow
Naris
Forelimb POLACANTHUS
Group: Polacanthidae
Caudal vertebra Length: 4 m (13 ft)
Neural spine Forefoot Blunt nail
Ureter
Terminal
plate

Ossified caudal
FOSSIL OF vertebra
ANKYLOSAURUS
TAIL CLUB

Lateral plate
Chevron
Cloaca

Lateral caudal
musculature
Tail club

95
PREHISTORIC EARTH

Ornithopods 1 Naris
Orbit Cranium SKELETON OF
IGUANODON

ORNITHOPODS (BIRD FEET) were a group of


ornithischian (bird-hipped) dinosaurs. These Mandible Cervical
vertebra
bipedal and quadrupedal herbivores had a Cervical rib
horny beak, plant-cutting or grinding cheek
teeth, and a pelvic and tail region stiffened by Scapula Dorsal
vertebra
bony tendons. They evolved teeth and jaws Humerus
adapted to pulping vegetation and flourished
IGUANODON
from the Middle Jurassic to the Late Sternal bone
TOOTH Sacral
Cretaceous period (16565 million years ago) Radius vertebra
in North America, Europe, Africa, China, Australia, and
Antarctica. Some ornithopods were no larger than a dog, Ulna Caudal
Prepubic vertebra
while others were immense creatures up to 49 ft (15 m) long. process
Iguanodonts, an ornithopod group, had a broad, toothless beak Femur Neural
at the end of a long snout, large jaws with long rows of ridged, spine
Pubis
closely packed teeth for grinding vegetation, a bulky body, and
a heavy tail. Iguanodon and some other iguanodonts had large Tibia
thumb-spikes that were strong enough to stab attackers. Another Ilium
group, the hadrosaurs, such as Gryposaurus and Hadrosaurus, Chevron
Fibula Ischium
lived in LateCretaceous times (9765 million years ago) and
with their broad beaks are sometimes known as duckbills. Metatarsal
They were characterized by their deep skulls and closely packed
rows of teeth, while some, such as Corythosaurus and Thigh
Lambeosaurus, had tall, hollow, bony head crests.

Heavy, stiff tail


EXTERNAL FEATURES OF
MANTELLISAURUS

SKULL AND MANDIBLE OF


YOUNG MANTELLISAURUS
Cheek Orbit Cranium
Maxilla tooth
Premaxilla Knee
Paroccipital
process
Hind limb
Jugal bone
Coronoid Ankle
process
Toe

Foot
Predentary Dentary Mandible
bone bone Hooflike nail

96
ORNITHOPODS 1

EXAMPLES OF IGUANODONTS

OURANOSAURUS CAMPTOSAURUS
Group: Iguanodontia Group: Camptosauridae
Length: 23 ft (7 m) Length:1623 ft (4.97 m)

MUTTABURRASAURUS PROBACTROSAURUS
Group: Iguanodontia Group: Hadrosauroidea
Length: 23 ft (7 m) Length: 20 ft (6.1 m)

INTERNAL ANATOMY OF
HIND LEG OF IGUANODON
Ilio-femoral
Eye Naris muscle
Ilium
Shoulder
Ilio-tibial
Neck muscle
Ambiens
muscle Short
caudo-
Tongue femoral
Beak muscle

External pubo-ischio- Tibial flexor


femoral muscle muscle
Femur
Scaly skin Ilio-fibular
muscle
Common digital Gastrocnemius
extensor muscle muscle
Forelimb Anterior tibial
muscle
Tibia
Elbow
Thumb-spike Fibula
Wrist
Tarsal
Hand
Toe Metatarsal
Finger
Hooflike nail
Hooflike nail

97
PREHISTORIC EARTH

Ornithopods 2

BRACHYLOPHOSAURUS LAMBEOSAURUS
Length: 23 ft (7m) Caudal vertebrae Length: 49 ft (14.9 m) Sacral
vertebrae

Neural spine Rounded top Chevron


end of egg
Emerging Hatchling
hatchling
Eggshell
Plant material fragment
to protect and Ilium
warm eggs
Unhatched
egg
Bony crest
Raised nest
Naris scooped out Hip joint
of soil Ischium Prepubic process
Eye MODEL OF MAIASAURA NEST Femur
Cheek pouch
Neck Knee joint
Thigh
FOSSIL SKELETON OF
PARASAUROLOPHUS
Tongue
Toothless
beak
Scaly skin
Shoulder
Forelimb
Elbow
Long, thick
Tubercle tail Ankle joint
Wrist
Knee Hind limb
Metatarsal
Nail Ankle
Toe
EXTERNAL FEATURES Nail
OF CORYTHOSAURUS Foot

98
ORNITHOPODS 2

EXAMPLES OF HADROSAURS

HYPACROSAURUS HADROSAURUS GRYPOSAURUS


Length: 30 ft (9.1 m) Length: 2633 ft (7.910 m) Length: 2633 ft (7.910 m)

Bony crest
Dorsal Orbit
vertebrae Air passage Infratemporal
fenestra Air passage
Cranium
Infratemporal fenestra
Orbit Naris

Cervical
vertebrae
Mandible Tooth
SKULL AND MANDIBLE
OF JUVENILE
LAMBEOSAURUS

Mandible Naris

Scapula Bony
Sclerotic ring crest
Shoulder joint Cranium
Tibia

Rib
Orbit
Humerus
Fibula Elbow joint Naris

Radius
Wrist joint
Ulna

Phalanges Infratemporal Mandible


fenestra Premaxilla
Metacarpal SKULL AND MANDIBLE OF
Phalanges ADULT LAMBEOSAURUS

99
PREHISTORIC EARTH

Marginocephalians 1 Thick, high-


domed cranium
Supraorbital ridge
MARGINOCEPHALIA Orbit
(margined heads) were Naris
a group of bipedal and quadrupedal
Mandible
ornithischian dinosaurs with a narrow Neural spine
shelf or deep, bony frill at the back of
HEAD-BUTTING PRENOCEPHALES
the skull. Marginocephalians were
probably descended from the same ancestor as the ornithopods and
lived in what are now North America, Africa, Asia, and Europe during
the Cretaceous period (14565 million years ago). They were divided Cervical
into two groups: Pachycephalosauria (thick-headed lizards), such Humerusrib
as Pachycephalosaurus and Stegoceras, and Ceratopsia (horned
faces), such as Triceratops and Psittacosaurus. Thethick skulls of Ulna
Pachycephalosauria may have protected their brains during possible Radius Pubis
head-butting contests fought to win territory and mates; their hips Wrist joint
and spines may also have been strengthened to withstand the shock. Metacarpal
The bony frill ofCeratopsia would have added to their frightening Phalanx
appearance when charging; the neck was strengthened for impact Ilium
and to support the hugehead, with its snipping beak and powerful Ischium
slicing toothed jaws. Acharging ceratopsian would have been a Metatarsals
formidable opponent for even the largest predators. Ceratopsians Phalanges
were among the most abundant herbivorous dinosaurs of the
Late Cretaceous period (9765 million years ago).
EXAMPLES OF SKULLS OF PACHYCEPHALOSAURS
Thickened dome Thickened dome
of cranium of cranium
Thickened dome Orbit
Orbit of cranium Bony spike
Maxilla
Bony
ridge
Bony
Maxilla nodule
Tooth Mandible Maxilla Bony
SKULL AND MANDIBLE
Orbit nodule
OF STEGOCERAS SKULL OF PRENOCEPHALE SKULL OF PACHYCEPHALOSAURUS

EXTERNAL FEATURES OF Bony nodule Thickened dome


PACHYCEPHALOSAURUS Scaly skin of cranium
Domed head
Eye Bony nodule
Bony spike
Neck
Snout
Tail Knee Forelimb
Hind limb Finger
Buccal cavity
Ankle Hand Brain cavity
Claw SECTION THROUGH SKULL OF
Foot PACHYCEPHALOSAURUS
Toe

100
MARGINOCEPHALIANS 1

EXAMPLES OF
PACHYCEPHALOSAURS

HOMALOCEPHALE WANNANOSAURUS PRENOCEPHALE


Group: Pachycephalosauria Group: Pachycephalosauria Group: Pachycephalosauria
Length: 10 ft (3 m) Length: 2 ft (60 cm) Length: 8 ft (2.4 m)

SKELETONS OF STEGOCERAS Caudal vertebrae


Sacral
Orbit Dorsal vertebrae vertebrae
Cervical
vertebrae
Chevron
Naris Neural spine

Ilium
Hip joint
Cervical rib
Mandible Prepubis
Radius Femur
Ischium
Rib Scapula
Wrist Knee joint
Ulna joint Elbow Fibula
joint Tibia
Ankle joint

Metatarsals
Domed head
Bony shelf
Claw Phalanges
EXTERNAL FEATURES OF
Outer ear STEGOCERAS
Eye

Scaly skin
Naris
Neck

Shoulder Tail

Forelimb Thigh

Hand Hind limb


Elbow Knee
Finger Ankle
Claw Toe Foot
Claw

101
PREHISTORIC EARTH

Brow horn

Marginocephalians 2 Parietosquamosal

Epoccipital bone
frill Nose horn

Thick, scaly
Parietal fenestra Epoccipital bone skin
Parietosquamosal
frill
Thigh

Tail
Nose horn
core
Supraorbital Hind Eye
ridge Ankle limb
Naris
Orbit Elbow
Naris
Cranium Nail Toothless
Forelimb Wrist beak
EXTERNAL FEATURES
Mandible OF TRICERATOPS
Pubis Dorsal vertebrae
SKULL AND MANDIBLE Parietosquamosal
OF STYRACOSAURUS frill Ilium
Hip joint
Cranium
Postorbital Parietal
bone fenestra
Nasal bone
Orbit
Lacrimal
bone
Naris Infratemporal
fenestra
Beak
Jugal bone
Rostral
bone
Predentary Surangular
bone bone
Dentary Angular bone
bone Tooth
Mandible Rib
Ischium
SKULL AND MANDIBLE
OF PROTOCERATOPS Scapula
Femur

Knee joint Humerus

Fibula
Tibia Elbow Sternal
Neural spine joint bone
Ankle joint
Caudal vertebra
Ulna Coracoid
Chevron Metatarsals
Shoulder
joint
Phalanges
Radius

SKELETON OF TRICERATOPS

102
MARGINOCEPHALIANS 2

EXTERNAL FEATURES Eye EXAMPLES OF CERATOPSIA


OF PSITTACOSAURUS

Cheek horn
Scaly skin Beak
Claw PROTOCERATOPS
Thigh Group: Protoceratopsidae
Finger Length: 9 ft (2.7 m)
Elbow Forelimb
Knee
Claw

Toe
Ankle
Hind limb
STYRACOSAURUS
Group: Centrosaurinae
Parietosquamosal Tail Length:18 ft (5.5 m)
frill

Brow horn
Cranium core
Orbit
TRICERATOPS
Group: Chasmosaurinae
Length:30 ft (9.1 m)

Nose horn
core
Cervical
rib
Naris

Infratemporal
fenestra
PACHYRHINOSAURUS
Group: Centrosaurinae
Jugal bone Length:18 ft (5.5 m)
Tooth

Metacarpals Mandible

Phalanges Rostral bone


Predentary
bone LEPTOCERATOPS
Group: Leptoceratopsidae
Length: 7 ft (2.1 m)

103
PREHISTORIC EARTH

Mammals 1 MODEL OF A
MEGAZOSTRODON
SINCE THE EXTINCTION of most of the dinosaurs 65 million years
ago,mammals (along with birds) have been the dominant vertebrates
on land. This class includes terrestrial, aerial, and aquatic forms.
Having developedfrom the therapsids, the first true mammals
small, nocturnal, shrewlike creatures, such as Megazostrodon-
TETRALOPHODON appeared over 200 million years ago during the Triassic period
CHEEK TEETH (250200 million years ago). Mammals had several
features that differed from those of their ancestors: an efficient
four-chambered heart allowed these warm-blooded animals Long tail aids Insulating
balance hair
to sustain high levels of activity; a covering of hair helped them
maintain a constant body temperature; an improved limb
structure gave them more efficient locomotion; and the birth of live
young and the immediate supply of food from the mothers milk aided their
rapid growth. Since the end of the Mesozoic era (65 million years ago), the Neural
number of major mammal groups and the abundance of species in each spine
have varied dramatically. For example, the Perissodactyla (the group Scapula
that includes Coelodonta and modern horses) was a commongroup
during the Early Tertiary period (about 54 million years ago). Cervical
Today, the mammalian groups with the most species include the vertebra
Rodentia (rats and mice), the Chiroptera (bats), the Primates
(monkeys and apes), the Carnivora (bears, cats, and dogs),
and the Artiodactyla (cattle, deer, and pigs), while the
Proboscidea group, which formerly included many genera,
such as Phiomia, Moeritherium, Tetralophodon, and
Mammuthus, now has only three species of elephant.
In Australia and South America, millions of years
of continental isolation led to increased diversity
of themarsupials, a group of mammals
distinct fromthe placentals (see p. 74)
that existed elsewhere.

Humerus

Nasal horn
Naris
Orbit
Radius
Mandible
Premaxilla bone
Ulna

Chisel-edged
molar Metacarpal
Phalanx

104
MAMMALS 1

Cranium
UPPER JAWBONE HOOFBONE (THIRD Naris
(MAXILLA) OF A HORSE PHALANX) OF A HORSE
Premaxilla
bone
Molar
tooth

SKULL AND MANDIBLE


OF A MOERITHERIUM
Articular
surface

Tendon insertion
Molars Premolars
Upper jaw tusk
Dorsal vertebra Molar
tooth

Shovel- SKULL AND MANDIBLE


shaped OF A PHIOMIA
tusk
Ilium
Trunk Thick hide

Ball and
socket
joint
Short tusk used
for rooting up
Pubis plants
MODEL OF A PHIOMIA
Cranium Elongated
Rib Femur Mandible Teeth digit
Caudal
vertebra

Fibula
Tibia

Metatarsal
Phalanx

SKELETON OF AN ARSINOITHERIUM
Humerus
Hind limb
bone
FOSSIL SKELETON OF A BAT

105
PREHISTORIC EARTH

Mammals 2
LOWER JAW OF A BEAR Articulation
with skull

Large SKELETON OF A TOXODON


canine Diastema Scapula

Neural
Low cusp spine

Molar
Premolar Cervical
vertebra
Zygomatic Cranium
arch
Orbit
Maxilla
Nasal bone

Incisor Occipital region


Mandible Molar
Humerus
Incisor
Radius Large
breastbone
SKULL OF AN OPOSSUM Ulna
Cranium
Orbit
Metacarpals

Naris

Occipital
region Phalanx
Canine Infraorbital Molar
foramen

106
MAMMALS 2
FOSSIL SKULL OF LOWER JAW OF AN
AN HYAENODON AUSTRALOPITHECUS
Orbit
Sagittal crest
Naris Expanded
Cranium
occlusal
surface

Canine
Neck
insertion
Infraorbital
foramen
Mandible Molar Premolar

Molar
SKULL OF A SMILODON
Orbit Muscle scar
Naris
Ilium Sagittal crest
Infraorbital
foramen

Occipital
condyle

Zygomatic
Canine Dentary Slicing arch
bone tooth

Femur

Rib Thick,
insulating
coat
Knee
joint

Fibula
Tibia

Ivory tusk
Metatarsals
Woolly
underhair
Hairy trunk
Phalanx

RECONSTRUCTION OF A MAMMOTH

107
PREHISTORIC EARTH

The first humans JAWBONE OF AUSTRALOPITHECUS


(SOUTHERN APE)
MODERN HUMANS BELONG TO THE MAMMALIAN order of
primates (see pp. 202203), which originated about 55 million Larger jawbone
years ago; primates included the only extant hominid species. The than modern
human
earliest hominid was Ardipithecus (ground ape) and Australopithecus
(southern ape), both small-brained intermediates between apes and
humans that were capable of standing and walking upright. Homo habilis,
the earliest member of the genus Homo, appeared at least 2 million
years ago. This larger-brained handy man began making tools for hunting.
Homo ergaster first appeared in Africa about 1.8 million years ago and spread
into Asia about 800,000 years later. Smaller-toothed than Homo habilis,
H. ergasterfollowed by Homo erectusdeveloped fire as a tool, which enabled
it to cook food. Neanderthals, a near relative of modern humans, originated about Large back
200,000 years ago, and Homo sapiens (modern humans) appeared in Africa about tooth
100,000 years later. The two coexisted for thousands ofyears, but by 30,000 years ago,
Homo sapiens had become dominant and the Neanderthals had died out. Classification
of Homo sapiens in relation to its ancestors is enormously problematic: modern
humans must be classified not only by bone structure, but also by specific
behaviorthe ability to plan future action; to follow traditions; and to use
symbolic communication, including complex language and the abilitytouse
and recognize symbols. Cranium
Jutting brow
ridge Orbit

Orbit
Naris
Naris

Jutting
jawbone
SKULL OF AUSTRALOPITHECUS SKULL OF HOMO HABILIS
(SOUTHERN APE) (FIRST MEMBER OF HOMO GENUS)
Well-rounded
cranium
Larger braincase than
Australopithecus Small brow
ridge

Orbit

Orbit Naris

Naris

Small tooth
External
External auditory meatus auditory meatus
SKULL OF HOMO ERECTUS (UPRIGHT MAN) SKULL OF HOMO SAPIENS (MODERN HUMAN)

108
THE FIRST HUMANS

FLINT TOOL MADE ABOUT EXAMPLES OF TOOLS USED


250,000 YEARS AGO BY HOMO SAPIENS
Point
Sharp edge
used to cut Axe used to
meat clear land

Leather binding

Flint may FIRE-MAKING TOOLS


have been Wooden
carved by mouthpiece
Homo held drill
FLINT HANDAXE erectus FLINT FLAKE
securely

WOODEN MOUTHPIECE
Wooden drill turned
in drill hole to create Bone
spark

Hammer Head used


head used to to mine
detach chips flint
of flint Leather bow
kept drill
upright

BOW DRILL

Handle Handle Handle Drill hole


DRY STRAW

ANTLER WOODEN HEARTH


RED DEER ANTLER FARMING
HAMMER HAMMER AX

EXAMPLES OF PREHISTORIC FOODS SPEAR AND ARROW HEADS

HARPOON POINT
Antler
Twine binding
MINT

FISHING TACKLE
WHEAT GRAINS Wooden point
hardened by fire

Flint glued into WOODEN ARROW


groove cut in shaft

FLINT ARROW
SALMON

109
PLANTS
PLANT VARIETIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
FUNGI AND LICHENS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
ALGAE AND SEAWEEDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
LIVERWORTS AND MOSSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
HORSETAILS, CLUBMOSSES, AND FERNS. . . . . . . 120
GYMNOSPERMS 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
GYMNOSPERMS 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
MONOCOTYLEDONS AND DICOTYLEDONS . . . . . 126
HERBACEOUS FLOWERING PLANTS. . . . . . . . . . 128
WOODY FLOWERING PLANTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
ROOTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
STEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
LEAVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
PHOTOSYNTHESIS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
FLOWERS 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
FLOWERS 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
POLLINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
FERTILIZATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
SUCCULENT FRUITS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
DRY FRUITS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
GERMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
VEGETATIVE REPRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
DRYLAND PLANTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
WETLAND PLANTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
CARNIVOROUS PLANTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
EPIPHYTIC AND PARASITIC PLANTS . . . . . . . . . 162
PLANTS

FLOWERING PLANT

Plant varieties Bromeliad


(Acanthostachysstrobilacea)
Leaf
THERE ARE MORE THAN 300,000 SPECIES of plant.
They show a wide diversity of forms and life-styles, ranging, for example,
from delicate liverworts, adapted for life in a damp habitat, to cacti, capable of surviving
in the desert, and from herbaceous plants, such as corn, which completes its life-cycle in one year,
to the giant redwood tree, which can live for thousands of years. This diversity reflects the adaptations
of plants to survive in a wide range of habitats. This is seen most clearly in the flowering plants (phylum
Angiospermophyta), which are themost numerous, with over 250,000 species, and the most widespread,
being found from the tropics to the poles. Despite their diversity, plants share certain characteristics: typically,
plants are green, and make their food by photosynthesis; and most plants live in or on a substrate, such as
soil, and do not actively move. Algae (kingdom Protista) and fungi (kingdom Fungi) have
GREEN ALGA some plantlike characteristics and are often studied alongside plants, although they
Micrograph of desmid are not true plants.
(Micrasterias sp.)
FERN
Tree fern
(Dicksonia antarctica)

Pyrenoid
(small protein
body)

Chloroplast

Sinus Cell wall Rachis


(divisionbetween (mainaxis
two halves of cell) ofpinnate leaf)
BRYOPHYTE
Moss Petiole
(Bryum sp.) Seta (leafstalk)
(stalk)
Immature capsule
Ramentum
(brown scale)
Sporophyte
(spore- Base of dead Trunk
producing Capsule frond (leaf)
plant) (siteof spore
production)
Adventitious
root
Leaf Gametophyte
(gamete-producing
plant) Epiphytic
fern growing
at base

112
P L A N T YA R I E T I E S

FLOWERING PLANT
Succulent
(Kedrostis africana)
Petiole
Spine Flower FLOWERING PLANT (leaf stalk)
Micrograph of cross-section Leaf
Bract through leaf of marram grass
(leaflike structure) (Ammophila arenaria)
Sclerenchyma
Inflorescence (strengthening
Cuticle tissue)
(waterproof
covering) Stem
Stem Xylem
Vascular
Stiff trichome Phloem tissue
(hair)
Interlocked
trichomes (hairs) Caudex
Epidermis (swollen
(outer layer stem
of cells) base)

Hinge cells Mesophyll


(causecurling of leaf to (photosynthetic
reduce water loss) tissue)

Root
Pinna FLOWERING PLANT
(leaflet) Couch grass FLOWERING PLANT
(Agropyron repens) Pitcher plant
(Sarracenia purpurea)
Sepal
Fruit
Caryopsis surrounded
(type of byfloral parts
Rachis dry fruit)
(main axis of
grassinflorescence)
Umbrella
of style Pitcher (leaf
Frond (leaf) modified to trap
Pedicel insects)
(flower
stalk)
Hood
Node
Downward-pointing
hair (encourages
insect prey into
pitcher)
Midrib of
pinna (leaflet)
Wing

Lamina
(blade)
Round, hollow Sheathing
stem leaf base
Immature
Adventitious pitcher
root

113
PLANTS

EXAMPLES OF FUNGI

Fungi and lichens Pileus (cap) Bark


Emerging
FUNGI WERE ONCE THOUGHT OF AS PLANTS but are now classified as sporophore continuous with ofdead
a separate kingdom. This kingdom includes not only the familiar (spore-bearing stipe (stalk) beech tree
mushrooms, puffballs, stinkhorns, and molds, but also yeasts, structure)
smuts, rusts, and lichens. Most fungi are multicellular, consisting
of a mass of threadlike hyphae that together form a mycelium.
However, the simpler fungi (e.g., yeasts) are microscopic,
single-celled organisms. Typically, fungi reproduce by means of
spores. Most fungi feed on dead or decaying matter, or on living
organisms. A few fungi obtain their food from plants or algae,
with which they have a symbiotic (mutually advantageous)
relationship. Lichens are a symbiotic partnership between
algae and fungi. Of the six types of lichens, the three most
common are crustose (flat and crusty), foliose (leafy), and
fruticose (shrublike). Some lichens (e.g., Cladonia floerkeana)
are a combination of types. Lichens
EXAMPLES reproduceby means of spores or Inrolled
OF LICHENS margin
soredia (powdery vegetative of pileus
fragments). (cap) Gill Sporophore Stipe Hyphae
(site of spore (spore-bearing (stalk) (fungal
production) structure) filaments)
Secondary fruticose OYSTER FUNGUS
thallus (Pleurotus pulmonarius)
Toothed
Branched, hollow stem Gleba branchlet
Apothecium (spore-producing
(spore-producing body) tissue found in Branch
FRUTICOSE thistype of fungus)
Cladonia portentosa Sporophore
Sporophore Porous stipe (spore-bearing
Soredia (powdery vegetative (spore-bearing (stalk) structure)
fragments) produced at structure)
endof lobe
Tree bark Volva
(remains of
Foliose universal
thallus veil) Stipe (stalk)
STINKHORN RAMARIA FORMOSA
FOLIOSE (Phallus impudicus)
Hypogymnia physodes Soredium (powdery vegetative
SECTION THROUGH FOLIOSE LICHEN fragment involved in propagation)
Soredia (powdery vegetative SHOWING REPRODUCTION Algal cell released from lichen
fragments) released onto BYSOREDIA
surface of squamulose Fungal hypha
Apothecium
thallus (spore-producing Upper
body) cortex

Basal scale Algal


of primary layer
squamulose
thallus Medulla of
fungal hyphae
(mycelium)
Moss Podetium
(granular stalk) Lower Soralium
SQUAMULOSE (SCALY) of secondary cortex Rhizine (pore in
ANDFRUTIC OSE THALLUS fruticose thallus (bundle of upper surface Upper surface
Cladonia floerkeana absorptive hyphae) of thallus) of thallus

114
FUNGI AND LICHENS

LIFE-CYCLE OF A MUSHROOM
Exoperidium Peridium (wall surrounding
spore-producing tissue) Velar scale Pileus (cap)
Endoperidium (remains of
Gleba Scale on universal veil)
(spore-producing exoperidium
tissue found in (outer part of
thistype of fungus) peridium) Gill
(site of spore Annulus
production) (ring)
Stipe
Underground (stalk)
mycelium
MATURE SPOROPHORE
Sporophore (SPORE-BEARING STRUCTURE)
(spore-bearing
structure)
Basidium
(spore-
producing
structure) Discharged spore
SECTION OF GILL
Primary
mycelium Spore
develops
Stipe from spore
(stalk)
Underground mycelium Substratum of woodland Primary Septum Hypha
Fan-shaped (mass of hyphae) soil and leaf litter mycelia fuse (cross wall)
pileus (cap) COMMON PUFFBALL to produce
(Scleroderma citrinum) secondary
mycelium
Nucleus
SPORES GERMINATE AND
Sporophore PRODUCE MYCELIUM
(spore-bearing Immature
structure) sporophore
Pileus Mycelium
(cap)
MYCELIUM FORMS SPOROPHORE
Stipe Gill (site of
(stalk) sporeproduction) Stipe Universal veil Pileus
HOHENBUEHELIA PETALOIDES (stalk) (membrane (cap)
Sporophore enclosingdeveloping
(spore-bearing sporophore) Gill
structure)
Underground Stipe
mycelium (stalk)

SPOROPHORE GROWS
ABOVE GROUND
Substratum Expanding Partial veil
of woodland pileus (cap) (joins pileus
soil and leaf to stipe)
litter Annulus (ring)
being formed as Stipe
partial veil breaks (stalk)
Volva
Underground (remains
mycelium of
universal
veil)
FRINGED CRUMBLE CAP Hyphae UNIVERSAL VEIL
(Psathyrella candolleana) (fungalfilaments) BREAKS

115
PLANTS

BROWN SEAWEED

Algae and seaweeds Channelled wrack


(Pelvetia canaliculata)
Receptacle
(fertile tip
ALGAE ARE NOT TRUE PLANTS. They form a diverse group offrond)
of plantlike organisms that belong to the kingdom Protista.
Like plants, algae possess the green pigment chlorophyll Thallus
(plant
and make their own food by photosynthesis (see pp. 138-139). body)
Many algae also possess other pigments by which they can be
classified; for example, the brown pigment fucoxanthin is Apical
found in the brown algae. Some of the 10 phyla of algae are notch
exclusively unicellular (single-celled); others also contain Margin of
lamina (blade) Hapteron (holdfast)
aggregates of cells in filaments or colonies. Three phyla rolled inward to
theChlorophyta (green algae), Rhodophyta (red algae), form channel BROWN SEAWEED
Spiral wrack
andPhaeophyta (brown algae)contain larger, multicellular, (Fucusspiralis)
thalloid (flat), marine organisms commonly known as seaweeds. Apical notch
Most algae can reproduce sexually. For Conceptacle
EXAMPLES OF ALGAE (chamber)
example, in the brown seaweed
Reproductive
chamber Fucus vesiculosus, gametes Receptacle
(sexcells) are produced in (fertile tip Thallus
Cap offrond) (plant
conceptacles (chambers) in body)
Sterile whorl
thereceptacles (fertile tips
offronds); after their release Lamina
Cell wall (blade)
Stalk
into the sea, antherozoids
(malegametes) and oospheres Smooth margin
Rhizoid (female gametes) fuse; the Midrib Hapteron (holdfast)
resulting zygote settles on a rock
GREEN ALGA and develops into a new seaweed. Apical notch
Acetabularia sp.
Flagellum Coenobium
Eyespot Contractile (colony of cells)
vacuole Spine
Receptacle
Daughter Cytoplasm (fertile tip
Cytoplasm coenobium offrond)
Nucleus
Cell Girdle Vacuole
wall Chloroplast Gelatinous
sheath Plastid Conceptacle
Pyrenoid Nucleus (photosynthetic (chamber)
Starch (small protein organelle) containing
grain body) Biflagellate cell reproductive
GREEN ALGA GREEN ALGA DIATOM Lamina Midrib structures)
Chlamydomonas sp. Volvox sp. Thalassiosira sp. (blade)
RECEPTACLE
BROWN SEAWEED
Oarweed Spiral wrack
(Laminariadigitata) Thallus (plant body) (Fucus spiralis)

Lamina (blade)
palmately
divided
A L G A E A N D S E AW E E D S

Crinkled margin GREEN SEAWEED RED SEAWEED LIFE-CYCLE OF BROWN SEAWEED


Enteromorpha linza Corallina officinalis Bladder wrack
Branch (Fucus vesiculosus)
Male Female
Branched, receptacle receptacle
hard thallus
(plant body)

Lamina
Air bladder (blade)
Thallus Stipe
(plant Unbranched, Hapteron Main Hapteron (stalk)
body) spirally twisted (holdfast) stem (holdfast)
frond
MALE AND FEMALE SEAWEEDS
Female
Small hapteron Male receptacle
(holdfast) attaching receptacle
seaweed to mussel
Conceptacle
RED SEAWEED Ostiole
Dilsea carnosa (opening to
conceptacle)
MALE AND FEMALE RECEPTAC LES
Paraphysis
(sterile hair)
Ostiole
(opening to
conceptacle)
Antheridium
Thallus (male sex
(plant organ)
body) Oogonium
(femalesex organ)
SECTIONS THROUGH MALE AND FEMALE
CONCEPTAC LES
Oogonium
Antherozoid
(male gamete)
Lamina
(blade) Antheridium
(male sex organ)
Oosphere
(female
gamete)
PRODUCTION OF GAMETES
Hapteron
(holdfast) Antherozoid (male Oosphere
GREEN ALGA gamete) swims (female
Spirogyra sp. toward oosphere gamete) is
fertilized by
Cytoplasm End wall Flagellum antherozoid
Cell (cylindrical) of cell to produce
azygote
Cell wall
Flexible stipe FERTILIZATION
(stalk)
Filament
(strand of
linked cells)
Spirally Young thallus
Two filaments wound (plant body)
linked for chloroplast
conjugation
(sexual Conjugation Hapteron
Hapteron reproduction) tube (holdfast)
(holdfast)
ZYGOTE DEVELOPS INTO
End wall of conjugation
A YOUNG SEAWEED
tube still in place

117
PLANTS

A LEAFY LIVERWORT

Liverworts and mosses Scapania undulata


Stem

LIVERWORTS AND MOSSES ARE SMALL, LOW-GROWING PLANTS that belong to the phylum
Bryophyta. Bryophytes do not have true stems, leaves, or roots (they are anchored to
the ground by rhizoids), nor do they have the vascular tissues (xylem and phloem)
that transport water and nutrients in higher plants. With no outer, waterproof Leaf
cuticle,bryophytes are susceptible to drying out, and most grow in moist habitats.
Thebryophyte life-cycle has two stages. In stage one, the green plant (gametophyte)
produces male and female gametes (sex cells), which fuse to form a zygote. In stage
two, the zygote develops into a sporophyte that remains attached to the gametophyte.
The sporophyte produces spores, which are released and germinate into new green
plants. Liverworts (class Hepaticae) grow horizontally and may be thalloid (flat and Rhizoid
ribbonlike) or leafy. Mosses (class Musci) typically have an upright stem with
spirally arranged leaves.
Disk Disk Ray
Lobe (radialgroove)
A THALLOID LIVERWORT Archegoniophore Lobe Lobe
Marchantia polymorpha (stalked structure Stalk
carrying archegonia) Stalk Disk
Gemma cup Thallus
ARCHEGONIOPHORE
(plant body) Stalk FROM BELOW
Gemma (detachable
tissue that produces
new plants)
Thallus Apical
(plant body) notch Rhizoid
Toothed margin SIDE VIEW OF
DETAIL OF GEMMA CUP of cup ARCHEGONIOPHORE

Pore
Thallus FEMALE
Gemma cup (plant body) GAMETOPHYTE
Ray
Midrib (radialgroove)
Archegoniophore
(stalked structure MICROGRAPH OF LOBE
carrying archegonia)
MICROGRAPH OF THALLUS
Conocephalum conicum

Position
of air
chamber
Pore for
exchange
of gases

Upper
surface Rhizoid

118
LIVERWORTS AND MOSSES

A COMMON MOSS MICROGRAPH OF MOSS SPORE LIFE-CYCLE OF MOSS


Polytrichum commune Branch of Funaria hygrometrica Funaria sp.
conducting
tissue to leaf Female rosette
Stem Cortex (leaves
Male rosette around
(leaves around archegonia)
antheridia)
Lateral
Main stem branch
ofstem
Rhizoid
Epidermis Archegonium
(outer layer GAMETOPHYTE
(female sex
of cells) organ)
Central strand Antherozoids
Leaf of conducting (male gametes)
tissue Epidermis released from
of capsule antheridium
Midrib
Antheridium
MICROGRAPH OF CROSS-SECTION (male sex organ)
THROUGH STEM AND LEAF
Remains of SECTION THROUGH SECTION THROUGH
Capsule Spore-containing spore-forming MATURE MALE APEX MATURE FEMALE APEX
Apophysis space tissue
(swollenarea between Flagellum
seta and capsule) Columella
(central tissue Archegonium
Columella of capsule) Antherozoid (female sex
(central tissue (male gamete) organ)
ofcapsule) CROSS-SECTION swims to
THROUGH CAPSULE oosphere Oosphere (female
gamete) fertilized
Operculum by antherozoid
Beak (lid) FERTILIZATION

Male apex
Calyptra (leaves
(hood surrounding
covering antheridia) Capsule Sporophyte
capsule) grows from
Leaf Seta fertilized
(stalk) oosphere
Seta
(stalk) Young Leaf Gametophyte
aerial
stem
SPOROPHYTE
Capsule Apophysis
Stem
Seta
Operculum (stalk)
(lid) Air space
Peristome Spores
tooth opens dispersed
RIPE CAPSULE
Stem
Young
gametophyte
Bud
Protonema
(branched
green filament) Spore
EXTERNAL VIEW Rhizoid
OF MOSS DEVELOPING
GAMETOPHYTE

119
PLANTS

CLUBMOSS

Horsetails, clubmosses, Lycopodium sp.

and ferns
HORSETAILS, CLUBMOSSES, AND FERNS are primitive land Stem with
plants, which, like higher plants, have stems, roots, and leaves, spirally
arranged
and vascular systems that transport water, minerals, and food. leaves
However, unlike higher plants, they do not produce seeds when
Branch
reproducing. Their life-cycles involve two stages. In stage one,
the sporophyte (green plant) produces spores in sporangia.
In stage two, the spores germinate, developing into small,
short-lived gametophyte plants that produce male and female
gametes (sex cells); the gametes fuse to form a zygote from
FROND which a new sporophyte plant develops. Horsetails (phylum
Male fern Sphenophyta) have erect, green stems with branches
(Dryopteris arranged in whorls; some stems are fertile and have a single
filix-mas)
spore-producing strobilus (group of sporangia) at the tip.
Clubmosses (phylum Lycopodophyta) typically have small leaves arranged
spirally around the stem, with spore-producing strobili at the tip of some
stems. Ferns (phylum Filicinophyta) typically Strobilus
CLUBMOSS (group of sporangia)
have large, pinnate fronds (leaves); Selaginella sp.
sporangia, grouped together in sori, Cortex (layer
Epidermis between epidermis
develop on the underside (outer layer and vascular tissue) Shoot
offertile fronds. of cells) apex
Branch
Rhizophore
HORSETAIL Vascular Phloem (leafless
Common horsetail tissue branch)
(Equisetum arvense) Apex of Xylem
sterile shoot
Sporangiophore
(structure Lacuna
carrying (air space)
sporangia)
Creeping stem with
MICROGRAPH OF CROSS-SECTION spirally arranged
THROUGH C LUBMOSS STEM leaves
Strobilus
(group of
sporangia) Endodermis Vascular tissue
Lateral (inner layer Sclerenchyma
branch of cortex) (strengthening tissue)
Chlorenchyma
Photosynthetic Epidermis (photosynthetic
sterile stem (outer layer tissue)
Non-photosynthetic of cells)
fertile stem Node Parenchyma
(packing
Young Internode Cortex tissue)
shoot (layerbetween
Collar of small Tuber epidermis and Hollow pith
brown leaves Node vascular tissue) cavity
Vallecular canal Carinal canal
(longitudinal channel) (longitudinal
channel)
Rhizome MICROGRAPH OF CROSS-SECTION
Adventitious root THROUGH HORSETAIL STEM

120
H O R S E TA I L S , C L U B M O S S E S , A N D F E R N S

SPORE PRODUCTION IN FERN Sporangium LIFE-CYCLE OF FERN


Bracken (spore-producing Annulus
(Pteridium Apex of structure) (ringofcells
aquilinum) pinnule aroundsporangium) Pinna (leaflet)
Spore
Sporangium Pinnule (leaflet
(spore-producing of pinna)
Pinnule structure) Frond
(leaflet (leaf)
of Spore inside Rolled
pinna) dehisced immature
(split open) frond
sporangium

Abaxial Pinnule SPOROPHYTE Rhizome


(lower) (leaflet
surface of Placenta
of pinna)
pinnule
Indusium
Sorus (flap
Midrib of (group of protecting
pinnule sporangia) Midrib of pinnule sorus) Sorus
(group of
MICROGRAPH OF SPORANGIA ON Sporangium
MICROGRAPH OF LOWER SURFACE sporangia)
LOWER SURFACE OF FERTILE (spore-producing structure)
OF FERTILE PINNULE
PINNULE SECTION THROUGH MATURE PINNULE
Midrib Apex of frond (leaf)
FERN of pinna Sporangium
Male fern (leaflet) splits and
(Dryopteris filix-mas) Annulus releases spores
ruptures
Pinna at weak
(leaflet) point
Spore
RELEASE OF SPORES
FROM SPORANGIUM
Spore Filament
develops
Rhizoid into
Pinnule prothallus
(leaflet of GERMINATION OF SPORE
pinna) Archegonium
Frond Antheridium
(male sex organ) (female sex
(leaf) organ)
Prothallus
(free-living
Young frond gametophyte) Rhizoid
(leaf) GAMETOPHYTE PRODUCES GAMETES
Young frond
Rachis (leaf) rolled
(mainaxis of and covered
pinnate leaf) by ramenta Antheridium
(male sex
organ) Oosphere
Base of Ramentum (female
Sclerenchyma olddead (brown scale) gamete)
Vascular (strengthening tissue) frond (leaf)
bundle Rhizome Antherozoid
Phloem (male gamete) Archegonium
Vascular swims to (female sex organ)
Xylem tissue oosphere FERTILIZATION

Primary leaf
of growing Remains of
sporophyte gametophyte
Epidermis
(outer layer
Parenchyma of cells)
(packing tissue)
MICROGRAPH OF CROSS-SECTION Adventitious root FERTILIZED OOSPHERE GROWS
THROUGH FERN RACHIS INTO NEW SPOROPHYTE PLANT

121
PLANTS

LIFE-CYCLE OF SCOTS PINE

Gymnosperms 1 Needle
(Pinus sylvestris)

THE GYMNOSPERMS ARE FOUR RELATED PHYLA of seed-producing (foliage


plants; their seeds, however, lack the protective, outer covering leaf)
that surrounds the seeds of flowering plants. Typically, Cone Ovuliferous scale
gymnosperms are woody, perennial shrubs or trees, with stems, (ovule- then seed-
leaves, and roots, and a well-developed vascular (transportat) system. bearing structure)
The reproductive structures in most gymnosperms are cones: male MALE CONES YOUNG FEMALE CONE
cones produce microspores in which male gametes (sex cells) develop; Pollen grain in micropyle Ovuliferous
female cones produce megaspores in which female gametes develop. (entrance to ovule) scale
Microspores are blown by the wind to female cones, male and female Pollen
gametes fuse during fertilization, and a seed develops. The four grain Ovule
gymnosperm phyla are the conifers (phylum Coniferophyta), mostly (contains
Nucleus female
tall trees; cycads (phylum Cycadophyta), small palmlike Air sac gamete)
trees; the ginkgo or maidenhair tree POLLINATION
SCALE AND SEEDS
(phylum Ginkgophyta), a tall tree with Pine Integument
bilobed leaves; and gnetophytes (Pinus sp.) (outer part
Archegonium
(phylum Gnetophyta), a diverse Ovuliferous scale
(ovule- then seed-
of ovule)
(containing
group of plants, mainly shrubs, bearing structure) Pollen tube female
Wing gamete)
but also including the scar (carries male
horizontally growing gamete from FERTILIZATION
Wing of seed pollen grain
welwitschia. derived from to ovum)
ovuliferous scale
Seed Seed
Microsporangium Seed
(structure in which Seed
pollen grains are Seed scar Ovuliferous Wing
formed) Point of attachment scale
to axis of cone (ovule- then
OVULIFEROUS SCALE FROM seed-bearing
THIRD-YEAR FEMALE CONE structure) MATURE FEMALE CONE AND
WINGED SEED
Microsporophyll
(modified leaf
carrying Ovule
microsporangia) (contains Plumule Cotyledon
female (embryonic (seed leaf)
gametes) shoot)
Root
Bract
scale
GERMINATION OF
Scale leaf PINE SEEDLING
Axis
ofcone Ovuliferous scale
(ovule- then seed- Axis
bearing structure) of cone
WELWITSCHIA
MICROGRAPH OF LONGITUDINAL MICROGRAPH OF LONGITUDINAL (Welwitschia mirabilis)
SECTION THROUGH YOUNG SECTION THROUGH SECOND-YEAR
MALE C ONE FEMALE CONE

Frayed end of leaf

122
GYMNOSPERMS1

SMOOTH CYPRESS YEW


(Cupressus glabra) (Taxus baccata)
Immature Ovuliferous
female scale
cone Ovule
(containsfemale
gamete)
Ovuliferous scale CROSS-SECTION THROUGH
(ovule- then seed- IMMATURE CONE
bearing structure)
Ovuliferous scale
(ovule- then seed-
Seed bearing structure)
Single ovule
Scalelike (contains female
leaf gamete)

CROSS-SECTION Scale
THROUGH MATURE Seed
Mature CONE
Female cone
female Immature Aril
cone male cone Scale (fleshy
Opening between outgrowth
woody scales Developing from seed)
Woody through which seed
scale seeds are Scale Stem
released
DISCARDED CONE FEMALE CONES AT
Stem VARIOUS STAGES OF Needle
DEVELOPMENT (foliage
CYCAD leaf)
Sago palm
(Cycas revoluta)
Pinna MAIDENHAIR TREE
(leaflet) (Ginkgo biloba) Girdle scar

Pinnate leaf Stem

Scale
leaf Petiole
(leaf stalk)

Old leaf base Bilobed leaf


Stem covered
Continuously by scale leaves
growing leaf
Adaxial (upper)
Site of cone surface of leaf
growth
Frayed end of leaf
Abaxial (lower)
surface of leaf
Immature
cone
Stalk
scar Woody stem

123
PLANTS

Gymnosperms 2
Second-year female cone
BRANCH OF BISHOP PINE
(Pinus muricata) Ovuliferous scale
Needle (ovule- then seed-bearing
(foliage leaf) structure)
Ovuliferous scale
(ovule- then seed-
bearing structure)

Bud Cone
scale
Apical bud
Cone stalk
Stem
Dwarf shoot
Scale leaf scar
FEMALE CONE
(FIRST YEAR)

Stem

Male cone Needle (foliage leaf)


Dwarf shoot
Margin
Upper surface ofneedle
of needle (foliage leaf)
(foliage leaf)
Needle
(foliage leaf)
Apical bud

Scar of Dwarf shoot


dwarf shoot Stem
TERMINAL ZONE OF BRANCH
Stoma
Vascular tissue Mesophyll (pore)
Phloem Xylem (photosynthetic tissue)
Epidermis
Female (outer
cone Stoma layer of
(pore) cells)
Woody ovuliferous Cuticle
scale (ovule- then Endodermis (waterproof
seed-bearing structure) (inner layer Resin canal covering)
of cortex) MICROGRAPH OF NEEDLE
FEMALE C ONE MICROGRAPH OF CROSS-SECTION (FOLIAGE LEAF) OF PINE
(THIRD YEAR) THROUGH NEEDLE (FOLIAGE LEAF) (Pinus sp.)

124
CROSS-SECTION THROUGH
Apical bud scale MATURE STEM OF BISHOP PINE
(Pinus muricata)
Apical bud
Annual ring
Shoot
apex
Immature needle
(foliage leaf)
Needle
(foliage
leaf) bud

Bud scale Heartwood


(supportive,
Scale leaf inactive
secondary
xylem)
MICROGRAPH OF LONGITUDINAL SECTION
THROUGH SHOOT APEX OF PINE Branch trace
(Pinus sp.) (vascular bundle
supplying branch)
Pith Hypodermis
Medullary ray (cell layer below
(extension of pith) epidermis)
Cortex Base of dwarf shoot
(layerbetween Pith
epidermis and
vascular tissue) Dwarf shoot trace
(vascular bundle
supplying dwarf Sapwood
Secondary shoot) (activesecondary
xylem Epidermis xylem)
(outer layer
Vascular Phloem of cells) Phloem
tissue Bark Periderm
Primary Resin canal (outer layer
xylem of bark)
MICROGRAPH OF CROSS-SECTION Cortex
THROUGH YOUNG STEM OF PINE (layerbetween
(Pinus sp.) phellem and
Cortex vascular tissue)
(layerbetween Resin canal
phellem and Secondary Primary
vascular tissue) xylem xylem

Endodermis Phellem
(inner layer (protective
of cortex) outer layer)
Secondary
Phloem xylem

Phellem Primary
(protective xylem Resin canal
outer layer) Phloem

MICROGRAPH OF CROSS-SECTION MICROGRAPH OF CROSS-SECTION


THROUGH YOUNG ROOT OF PINE THROUGH MATURE ROOT OF PINE
(Pinus sp.) (Pinus sp.)

125
PLANTS

COMPARISONS BETWEEN

Monocotyledons MONOCOTYLEDONS AND


DICOTYLEDONS
Vein

and dicotyledons (parallel


venation) Leaflet

FLOWERING PLANTS (PHYLUM ANGIOSPERMOPHYTA) are divided into two classes:


monocotyledons (class Monocotyledoneae) and dicotyledons (class
Dicotyledoneae). Typically, monocotyledons have seeds with
one cotyledon (seed leaf); their foliage leaves are narrow with Petiole
parallel veins; the flower components occur in multiples of (leaf stalk)
three; sepals and petals are indistinguishable and are known
astepals; vascular (transport) tissues are scattered in random
CROSS-SECTION bundles throughout the stem; and, since they lack stem Emerging
THROUGH leaf
MONOC OTYLEDONOUS cambium (actively dividing cells that produce wood),
LEAF BASES most monocotyledons are herbaceous (see pp. 128-129).
Dicotyledons have seeds with two cotyledons; leaves are broad with a central
midrib and branched veins; flower parts occur in multiples of four or five;
sepals are generally small and green; petals are large and colorful; vascular Leaf base
bundles are arranged in a ring around the edge of the stem; and, because many
dicotyledons possess wood-producing stem cambium, there are woody forms
(seepp. 130-131) as well as herbaceous ones. Adventitious
root
Xylem
Vascular tissue
Water-absorbing A MONOCOTYLEDON
parenchyma Mesophyll Phloem Palisade mesophyll
(photosynthetic (tightly packed Paradise palm
(packing (Howea forsteriana)
tissue) tissue) photosynthetic tissue)
Vein Spongy Collenchyma
mesophyll (supporting
(loosely packed tissue)
Sunken Vein
stoma photosynthetic
tissue) Vascular Xylem Epidermis
(pore) tissue
Epidermis (outer layer
Phloem of cells)
Cuticle (outerlayer of cells)
(waterproof Sclerenchyma Parenchyma
covering) (strengthening tissue) Midrib (packing tissue)
MICROGRAPH OF CROSS-SECTION THROUGH MICROGRAPH OF CROSS-SECTION THROUGH
A MONOCOTYLEDONOUS LEAF ADICOTYLEDONOUS LEAF
Yucca (Yucca sp.) Crab apple (Malus sp.)
Lateral, inner tepal
Outer tepal (monocotyledonous
(monocotyledonous petal) Filament Stigma
sepal) Stamen
Anther

Pollen on
anther
Column
(stamens
and style)

Funnel guide for Petal


birdpollinators beak
Guide hair
Labellum (lip)
A MONOCOTYLEDONOUS FLOWER forming landing stage A DICOTYLEDONOUS FLOWER
Orchid for pollinator Hibiscus
(Phalaenopsis sp.) (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis)

126
Stigma Petal Flower bud
Sepal Pedicel
Plicate (folded) Anther (flowerstalk)
lamina (blade) Stamen
Filament Bract
of young leaf (leaflike structure)
Petiole
(leaf stalk) Receptacle
Node

Lora
(strip of Lamina
dead cells) (blade)
Leaf
Petiole
(leafstalk) Stem

Leaf base Branch


Lateral
Vein bud
(branchedvenation)
MONOC OTYLEDONOUS LEAF BASES FORMING STEM
Chusan palm
(Trachycarpus fortunei) Midrib
Stem
Bud scale Pith
leaf Axillary bud
(buddeveloping
between leaf and stem)
Main root
Petiole
(leaf Immature Lateral root
stalk) foliage leaf
Vascular supply
to axillary bud
Leaf base Phellem
(protectivecork layer)
Leaf trace Vascular tissue of stem
(vascularbundlesupplying leaf) (xylem and phloem)
MICROGRAPH OF LONGITUDINAL SECTION THROUGH
A DICOTYLEDON
A WOODY DICOTYLEDONOUS STEM
Hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis)
Maple (Acer sp.) Protoxylem
Pericycle Metaxylem
(outer layer Xylem
Xylem
of stele) Metaxylem
Protoxylem
Epidermis Cortex
(outer layer (layerbetween Epidermis
of cells) epidermis and (outer layer
vascular tissue) of cells)
Phloem
Pith
Pericycle
Cortex (outer layer
(layerbetween of stele)
epidermis and
vascular tissue) Endodermis Phloem Endodermis
(inner layer (inner layer
Stele of cortex) Stele of cortex)
(vascular cylinder) (vascularcylinder)
MICROGRAPH OF CROSS-SECTION THROUGH MICROGRAPH OF CROSS-SECTION THROUGH
A MONOCOTYLEDONOUS ROOT A DICOTYLEDONOUS ROOT
Corn (Zea mays) Buttercup (Ranunculus sp.)

127
PLANTS

Herbaceous flowering plants


HERBACEOUS FLOWERING PLANTS TYPICALLY HAVE GREEN, NON-WOODY STEMS, and tend to be relatively
short-lived. Many herbaceous plants live for only one or two years. Annuals (e.g., sweet peas) grow from
seed, produce flowers and then seeds, and die within a single year. Biennials
(e.g., carrots) have a two-year life cycle. In the first year, seeds grow into plants, Young plant
which produce leaves and store food in underground storage organs; the stems forming
and foliage then die back in winter. In the second year, new stems grow from
the storage organs, produce leaves, flowers, and seeds, and then die. Some
herbaceous plants (e.g., potatoes) are perennial. They grow back year after year, Petiole (stalk)
of young leaf
producing shoots and flowers in spring,
storing food in underground tubers or
rhizomes during summer, Lateral Stipule
dying back in the fall, root (structure at Trifoliate
base of leaf) leaf
and surviving
underground Node
during winter. Simple
ovate
Root Main leaflet
nodule root
STRAWBERRY
SWEET PEA (Fragaria x ananassa)
(Lathyrus odoratus)
Runner
Remains (creeping stem)
Lateral of leaves Leaf
root scar Stem scar Rib

Lateral root Tap Leaf base


root Leaf Petiole Spine
CARROT scar (leaf (modified
(Daucus carota) stalk) leaf)
Slender
rhizome

Stem Adventitious
tuber root
Stem
Narrow,
succulent leaf Simple
deltoid
leaf
ROCK STONECROP
POTATO (Sedum rupestre)
(Solanum tuberosum)

Adventitious
root

128
HERBACEOUS FLOWERING PLANTS

PARTS OF HERBACEOUS FLOWERING PLANTS

Bracteole
Bract (small bract)
(leaflike
structure)
Midrib
Cyme
Succulent, (type of inflorescence)
simple ovate
leaf Inner, tubular Outer, ligulate
disk floret ray floret

Flower bud
Node
Peduncle
(inflorescence stalk)
Dentate Capitulum
margin (typeofinflorescence)
Leaf
Internode
LIVE-FOREVER OR Simple lobed Peduncle
ICE PLANT leaf (inflorescence
(Sedum spectabile) stalk) Flower
bud
Petiole Petiole
(leaf stalk) (leaf
Succulent stalk)
stem Leaf base Stem Linear
Leaf Lateral FLORISTS CHRYSANTHEMUM leaf
scar bud Prickle (Chrysanthemum morifolium)

BEGONIA Bract Capitulum Hollow


CEREOID (Begonia x (leaflike (type of stem
CACTUS tuberhybrida) structure) inflorescence) Sheath formed
Spinose-dentate from leaf base TOADFLAX
margin Dentate (Linaria sp.)
Rachis margin Unwinged rachis
(mainaxis of SLENDER THISTLE (main axis of
Winged pinnate leaf) (Carduus tenuiflorus) pinnate leaf)
stem Peduncle
Stipule Winged (inflorescence
(structure at rachis stalk)
base of leaf) Tendril Stem (main Flower bud
segment axis of
pinnate
leaf) HOGWEED
Pinna (Heracleum sphondylium)
(leaflet) Bract
Margin of (leaflike Tepal
cladode Toothed structure)
Petiole notch PERUVIAN LILY
(leaf stalk) (Alstroemeria aurea)
Peduncle Cladode
(inflorescence (flattened stem) Stem
stalk) branch
Raceme
(type of inflorescence)
CRAB CACTUS
(Schlumbergera truncala)
EVERLASTING PEA
Petal Sepal (Lathyrus latifolius)

129
PLANTS

Woody flowering plants


WOODY FLOWERING PLANTS ARE PERENNIAL, that is, they continue to grow and reproduce for many years.
They have one or more permanent stems above ground, and numerous smaller branches. The stems and branches
haveastrong woody core that supports the plant and contains vascular tissue for transporting water and
nutrients.Outside the woody core is a layer of tough, protective bark, which has lenticels (tiny pores) in it to
enable gases to pass through. Woody flowering plants may be shrubs, which have several stems arising from the
soil; bushes, which are shrubs with dense branching and foliage; or trees, which typically have a single upright
stem (the trunk) that bears branches. Deciduous woody
plants (e.g., roses) shed all their leaves once a year Pinnate Simple
and remain leafless during winter. Evergreen compound entire
woody plants (e.g., ivy) shed their leaves leaf leaf Dentate
margin
gradually, so retaining full Aggregate fruit
leaf cover throughout (succulent fruit)
the year. Tendril
BRAMBLE
(Rubus fruticosus)
Trifoliate Rachis
compound
leaf Petiole
Main Prickle (leaf stalk)
root Leaflet
ROWAN COMMON MULBERRY
(Sorbus aucuparia) (Morus nigra)
C LEMATIS Prickle
(Clematis Internode Lenticel (pore)
montana)

CHUSAN PALM Leaf scar


Node ELDER
(Trachycarpus fortunei) Node ROSE
(Rosa sp.) (Sambucus
Stem nigra)
Lateral
Lateral Petiole bud
root (leaf stalk)
Dormant
C OMMON HORSE Ring scar bud
CHESTNUT Petiole
(Aesculus Petiole Leaf scar (leaf
hippocastanum) (leaf stalk) stalk)
Adaxial (upper)
surface of
Simple lamina
palmate leaf Leaflet Triple spine
Lora (strip Terminal (modified leaf)
ofdead cells) bud
COMMON HORSE CHESTNUT
PASSION FLOWER Tendril (Aesculus hippocastanum)
(Passiflora caerulea)

Palmate
compound leaf
Stipule (structure
at base of tendril)

CHUSAN PALM
(Trachycarpus fortunei)

130
WOODY FLOWERING PLANTS

PARTS OF WOODY FLOWERING PLANTS


DURMAST OAK
(Quercus petraea)
Simple
lobed Midrib
obovate
leaf
Remains
Pinnate of bracts Flower
compound Immature bud
leaf Nut acorn Sepal
(dryfruit) Pedicel Stamen
Receptacle (flower
stalk)
Petal
Spine Bract
Pinna Sepal
(leaflet) Pedicel (flower
stalk) Ovary
MAHONIA Axillary Peduncle
(Mahonia lomariifolia) bud (inflorescence stalk) ROSE
(Rosa sp.)
Pome Stipule
Variegated (succulent (structure at Leaflet
lamina fruit) base of leaf) ROSE
(blade) (Rosa sp.)
Remains Lateral
Adventitious of style ROWAN bud
root (Sorbus
Stem aucuparia) Petal
Petiole
COMMON ENGLISH IVY Ring scar (leaf stalk)
(Hedera helix Goldheart) Node
Flower bud
Culm BAMBOO ROWAN
Pedicel
(jointed stem) (Arundinaria nitida) (Sorbus aucuparia) (flower
Petiole stalk)
(leaf stalk) Adaxial (upper) Stem
surface of Simple
Vein lamina Petiole lanceolate leaf
(blade) (leaf stalk)

C LEMATIS
(Clematis sp.)
Peduncle
TREE MALLOW (inflorescence stalk)
(Lavatera arborea) Peduncle
Pedicel (inflorescence
Leaf Double samara stalk)
Stem (flower
stalk) (winged dry Pedicel
fruit) Drupe (flower
(succulent stalk)
Wing fruit)
Pericarp (fruit wall) PEACH
enclosing seed (Prunus persica)
Triple spine Compound
(modified inflorescence
leaf) (panicle)
BARBERRY SYCAMORE RUSSIAN VINE
(Berbers sp.) (Acer pseudoplatanus) (Polygonum baldschuanicum)

131
PLANTS

MICROGRAPH OF PRIMARY ROOT DEVELOPMENT

Roots Cabbage (Brassica sp.)


Split in testa
as seed
Cotyledon
(seed leaf)
Primary root

ROOTS ARE THE UNDERGROUND PARTS OF PLANTS. They have germinates


threemain functions. First, they anchor the plant in the soil.
Second, they absorb water and minerals from the spaces
between soil particles; the roots absorptive properties are
increased by root hairs, which grow behind the root tip,
allowing maximum uptake of vital substances. Third, the
root is part of the plants transport system: xylem carries
Testa Root hair
water and minerals from the roots to the stem and leaves, (seedcoat)
and phloem carries nutrients from the leaves to all parts of
the root system. In addition, some roots (e.g., carrots) are food
stores. Roots have an outer epidermis covering a cortex of parenchyma
(packing tissue), and a central cylinder of vascular tissue. This arrangement
helps the roots resist the forces of compression as they grow through the soil.
CARROT FEATURES OF A TYPICAL ROOT Phloem sieve tube Root tip
(Daucus carota) Buttercup (through which (region of
(Ranunculus sp.) Stele nutrients are cell division)
(vascularcylinder) transported)
Pericycle Companion cell
(outer layer (cell associated
of stele) with phloem
sieve tube)
Root hair
Cortex
(layerbetween
epidermis and
Air space vascular tissue)
(allowing gas
diffusion in Root hair
the root)

Cell wall
Epidermis Xylem vessel Endodermis Nucleus Parenchyma
(outer layer (throughwhichwater (inner layer (packing) cell
of cells) andminerals are transported) of cortex) Cytoplasm

132
ROOTS

PRIMARY ROOT AND MICROGRAPHS OF SECTIONS THROUGH ROOTS


Stele
(vascular
Lateral root cylinder)

Apical meristem Primary root


(region of actively
dividing cells)
Elongating region
Root cap
(protects
dividing Epidermis
cells) (outer layer
of cells) Cortex
(layerbetween
epidermis and Epidermis
Stele vascular tissue) (outer layer
(vascular of cells)
cylinder) CROSS-SECTION THROUGH ROOT OF BUTTERCUP
(Ranunculus sp.)
Cortex
(layerbetween Cortex Epidermis
epidermis and (layerbetween (outer layer
Lateral root vascular tissue) epidermis and of cells)
vascular tissue)
CROSS-SECTION THROUGH ROOT OF FAVA BEAN
(Vicia faba)
Endodermis
(inner layer
Cortex of cortex)
Stele (layerbetween
(vascular epidermis and
Epidermis cylinder) vascular tissue) Phloem
(outer layer
of cells) Root tip Metaxylem
(region of Stele Protoxylem
cell division) (vascular
cylinder) Pericycle
(outer layer)
PRIMARY ROOT OF FAVA BEAN
(Vicia faba)
CROSS-SECTION THROUGH ROOT OF LILY
(Lilium sp.)
Cortex
(layerbetween
epidermis and Epidermis
vascular tissue)

Elongating region

Stele
(vascular
cylinder)

Apical meristem
(region of actively
dividing cells)
Hyphae of fungus
Root cap inmycorrhizal
(protects (symbiotic) association Starch grain
dividing cells) with orchid
LONGITUDINAL SECTION CROSS-SECTION THROUGH ROOT OF ORCHID IN
THROUGHROOT TIP OF FAVA BEAN MYCORRHIZAL ASSOCIATION WITH FUNGUS
(Vicia faba)

133
PLANTS

MICROGRAPH OF LONGITUDINAL

Stems SECTION THROUGH APEX OF STEM


Coleus sp.

THE STEM IS THE MAIN SUPPORTIVE PART OF A PLANT that grows


above ground. Stems bear leaves (organs of photosynthesis), which Apical
meristem Procambial
grow atnodes; buds (shoots covered by protective scales), which grow (region of strand (cells
at thestem tip (apical or terminal buds) and in the angle between a actively that produce
leaf and the stem (axillary or lateral buds); and flowers (reproductive dividing vascular tissue)
cells)
structures). The stem forms part of the plants transport system: xylem Leaf primordium
tissue in the stem transports water and minerals from the roots to the (developing leaf)
aerial parts of the plant, and phloem tissue transports nutrients Cortex
Developing
manufactured in the leaves to other parts of the plant. Stem tissues bud (layerbetween
are also used for storing water and food. Herbaceous (non-woody) epidermis and
vascular tissue)
stems have an outer protective epidermis covering a cortex that
consists mainly of parenchyma (packing tissue) but also has some Vascular
collenchyma (supporting tissue). The vascular tissue of such stems tissue
is arranged in bundles, each of which consists of xylem, phloem, Epidermis
and sclerenchyma (strengthening tissue). Woody stems have an outer Pith (outer layer
protective layer of tough bark, which is perforated with lenticels (pores) of cells)
to allow gas exchange. Inside the bark is a ring of secondary phloem, Young
which surrounds an inner core of secondary xylem. leaves
emerging
YOUNG WOODY STEM EMERGENT BUDS
Lime London plane
(Tilia sp.) (Platanus x acerifolia)
Secondary Pith Phellem
phloem (protective Terminal bud
Cortex cork layer)
(layer between phellem
and vascular tissue)

Xylem vessel
(through which Lateral bud
water and
minerals are
transported) Vascular cambium
(actively dividing cells Node
Xylem fiber that produce xylem
(supporting andphloem) Internode
tissue)
Inner
Ray Fall budscale
(parenchyma wood
cells) Secondary
Spring xylem
wood
Phloem sieve tube Outer
(through which budscale
nutrients are
transported) Node Leaf scar
Companion cell
(cell associated
Phloem fiber with phloem
(supporting sieve tube)
tissue) Lenticel
(pore) Woody
Lenticel stem
(pore)

134
STEMS

MICROGRAPHS OF CROSS-SECTIONS THROUGH VARIOUS STEMS Prickle


(outgrowth of epidermis)
Epidermis
(outer layer Vascular cambium Sclerenchyma
of cells) (actively dividing (strengthening
cells that produce tissue)
xylem and phloem)
Collenchyma
(supporting Secondary
tissue) phloem
Pith
cavity Secondary
xylem Pith

Pith
Primary
xylem
Xylem Cortex
Vascular Cortex Epidermis (layerbetween
bundle Phloem (layerbetween (outer layer epidermis and
epidermis and of cells) with thick cuticle vascular tissue)
CHERVIL vascular tissue) (waterproof covering) ROSE
(Anthriscus sp.) (Rosa sp.)
Secondary Sclerenchyma Mesophyll
Collenchyma phloem Secondary (strengthening (layer of
(supporting xylem tissue) photosynthetic
tissue) tissue)
Pith with stellate
parenchyma Vascular
Primary (star-shaped bundle
xylem packing
tissue)
Epidermis
(outer layer Xylem
of cells) Pith
Phloem

Epidermis
Pith (outerlayer Sclerenchyma
cavity ofcells) with thick (strengthening
Cortex cuticle (waterproof tissue)
(layerbetween covering)
epidermis and DEADNETTLE RUSH
vascular tissue) (Lamium sp.) (Juncus sp.)
Parenchyma Vascular bundle
Epidermis (packingtissue) with (xylem, phloem,
(outer layer of cells) bundles of sclerenchyma and sclerenchyma
Phloem (strengthening tissue) fibers)
Vascular
Xylem tissue
Lacuna
(air space) Epidermis
(outer layer
of cells)

Pith

Cortex
(layerbetween Mesophyll
epidermis and (layer of Cortex
vascular tissue) Endodermis photosynthetic (layerbetween
(inner layer tissue) epidermis and
MARES TAIL of cortex) COCONUT PALM vascular tissue)
(Hippuris vulgaris) (Cocos nucifera)

135
PLANTS

SIMPLE LEAF SHAPES

Leaves Subacute apex


Acuminate
apex

LEAVES ARE THE MAIN SITES OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS (see pp.


138-139) and transpiration (water loss by evaporation)
inplants. A typical leaf consists of a thin, flat lamina
(blade) supported by a network of veins; a petiole (leaf
stalk); and a leaf base, where the petiole joins the
stem. Leaves can be classified as simple, in which
CHECKERBLOOM the lamina is a single unit, or compound, in Entire Entire
(Sidalcea malviflora) margin margin
which the lamina is divided into separate
leaflets. Compound leaves may be pinnate, with pinnae (leaflets)
on both sides of a rachis (main axis), or palmate, with leaflets
arising from a single point at the tip of the petiole. Leaves can
be classified further by the overall shape of the lamina, and
by theshape of the laminas Cuneate
Apex base Cordate
apex, margin, and base. base

GENERAL LEAF PANDURIFORM LANCEOLATE


FEATURES Croton Sea buckthorn
(Codiaeum variegatum) (Hippophae rhamnoides)

COMPOUND LEAF SHAPES


Terminal
pinna
(leaflet)
Midrib
Lamina
(blade)
Emarginate
apex

Margin
Rachis
(mainaxis of
pinnate leaf)

Pinna
(leaflet)
Lateral
vein
Petiolule
(lea flet
stalk)

Lamina base
Petiole (leaf stalk) Petiole
(leaf stalk)
Leaf base

Sweet chestnut ODD PINNATE


(Castanea sativa) False acacia
(Robinia pseudoacacia)

136
L E AV E S

Subacute Acuminate Subacute Acuminate


apex apex Mucronate apex
apex apex
Entire
margin
Entire Serrulate
margin margin

Cuneate base
ELLIPTIC ORBICULAR Entire
Fig Camellia margin
(Ficus sp.) (Camellia japonica)
Acute apex Cuspidate apex
Entire
margin Entire
Variegated margin
Cuneate lamina
base (blade) Entire
margin
Cuneate base
Truncate
Cordate base base
OBOVATE RHOMBOID PALMATELY LOBED DELTOID LINEAR
Tupelo Persian ivy Common ivy Persian ivy Iris
(Nyssa sylvatica) (Hedera colchica (Hedera helix) (Hedera colchica) (Iris lazica)
Sulfur Heart)
Pinnule
(leaflet of
Pinna pinna)
Pinna Leaflet (leaflet)
(leaflet)
Petiolule
(leaflet
stalk)
Rachis
(mainaxis of
pinnate leaf)
Rachis
(mainaxis of
pinnate leaf)
Petiole Rachilla
Petiole (leaf stalk) Petiole (secondary
(leaf stalk) (leaf stalk) axis of
EVEN PINNATE DIGITATE BIPINNATE pinnate leaf)
Black walnut Horse chestnut Honey locust
(Juglans nigra) (Aesculus parviflora) (Gleditsia triacanthos)
Pinnule
(leaflet of
pinna) Pinna
(leaflet)
Leaflet Leaflet Rachilla
(secondary axis Rachis
of pinnate leaf) (main axis
oj pinnate
Rachis leaf)

Petiolule
(leaflet stalk)
Petiole Petiole
Petiole (leaf stalk) (leafstalk)
BITERNATE (leaf stalk) TRIFOLIATE TRIPINNATE
Clematis Laburnum Meadow rue
(Clematis sp.) (Laburnum x watereri) (Thalictrum delavayi)

137
PLANTS

MICROGRAPH OF LEAF

Photosynthesis Lily (Lilium sp.)

PHOTOSYNTHESIS IS THE PROCESS by which plants make their food


using sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide. It takes place inside special
structures in leaf cells called chloroplasts. The chloroplasts contain
chlorophyll, a green pigment that absorbs energy from sunlight.
During photosynthesis, the absorbed energy is used to join together
carbon dioxide and water to form the sugar glucose, which is the
energy source for the whole plant; oxygen, a waste product, is
releasedinto the air. Leaves are the main sites of photosynthesis,
and have various adaptations for that purpose: flat laminae (blades)
providea large surface for absorbing sunlight; stomata (pores) in the
lower surface of the laminae allow gases (carbon dioxide and oxygen)
to pass into and out of the leaves; and an extensive network of veins Stoma Guard cell Lower
brings water into the leaves and transports the glucose produced by (pore) (controls surface of
photosynthesis to the rest of the plant. opening lamina
andclosing (blade)
of stoma)
THE PROCESS OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS
Glucose molecule Sunlight, which is absorbed
Oxygen Carbon Hydrogen Glucose is a high-energy by chloroplasts in the leaf,
atom atom atom product of photosynthesis. provides the energy for
It travels to all parts of the photosynthesis
plant through the phloem
The leaf is the main site of
photosynthesis. Its broad,
thin lamina (blade) is an
adaptation for this process

Hydrogen atom
Oxygen atom Water
molecule
Hydrogen atom

Oxygen atom
Carbon dioxide Carbon atom Oxygen
molecule atom
Oxygen atom Oxygen
Oxygen molecule
Water, a raw material atom
in the soil, travels to the Carbon dioxide, a raw Oxygen, a waste product
leaf from the roots via material in the air, enters of photosynthesis, leaves
the xylem the leaf through stomata the leaf through stomata
on the lower surface of the on the lower surface of
lamina (blade) the lamina (blade)

138
PHOTOSYNTHESIS

CROSS-SECTION THROUGH LEAF


Christmas rose
(Helleborus niger) Cuticle (waterproof covering)

Upper (adaxial)
epidermis (outer Cell wall
layer of cells)
Cytoplasm
Vacuole
Chloroplast
Palisade mesophyll (photosynthetic
(tightly packed layer organelle)
of photosynthetic
tissue) Nucleus
Intercellular
space
Sclerenchyma
(strengthening
tissue)
Xylem (tissue
that transports
water and
mineral salts)
Spongy mesophyll
(loosely packed layer Phloem (tissue
of photosynthetic that transports
tissue) sugars and
othernutrients)

Vein

Lower (abaxial)
epidermis (outer
layer of cells) Parenchyma
(packing
Guard cell tissue)
(controls opening Stoma
and closing of (pore) Substomatal
stoma) chamber
INTERNAL VIEW OF CHLOROPLAST
Lamella
Granum (membrane of Thylakoid
(stack of thylakoids that thylakoid) (flat sac of
hold chlorophyll granum)
molecules in position)
Deoxyribonucleic
Stroma acid (DNA)
(waterymatrix) strand

Outer Starch grain


Chloroplast membrane
envelope
Inner
membrane

Stroma thylakoid
Ribosome (link between grana)
(siteof protein
synthesis)

139
PLANTS

Inner tepal Honey

Flowers 1 (monocotyledonous
petal)
Groove
guide

FLOWERS ARE THE SITES OF SEXUAL REPRODUCTION in secreting


flowering plants. Their component parts are arranged nectar
Style
inwhorls around the receptacle (tip of the flower stalk). Filament
The sepals (collectively called the calyx) are outermost;
typically small and green, they protect the developing
flower. The petals (collectively called the corolla) are
typically large and brightly colored; they are found inside
the sepals. In monocotyledonous flowers (see pp. 126-127), sepals Outer tepal
and petalsare indistinguishable; individually they are called tepals (monocotyledonous
sepal) Stigma
(collectively called the perianth). The petals surround the male
Anther
and female reproductive structures (androecium and gynoecium). EXTERNAL VIEW
The androecium consists of stamens (male organs); each stamen
is made up of a filament (stalk) and anther. The gynoecium
has one or more carpels (female organs); each carpel consists
of an ovary, style, and stigma. Some flowers (e.g., lily) occur Outer tepal
singly on a pedicel (flower stalk); others (e.g., elder, (monocotyledonous
sepal)
sunflower) are arranged in a group (inflorescence)
on a peduncle (inflorescence stalk).
A MONOCOTYLEDONOUS
FLOWER
Lily Inner tepal
(Lilium sp.) (monocotyledonous
Ovary petal)
Syncarpous
(fused carpels) Honey
gynoecium Stigma guide

Style
Tepal
scar
Anther
Stamen Receptacle
Filament
Ovary
wall Ovule
Pollen on
anther Pedicel
(flower
stalk)

Papilla
(fleshy hair)
Outer tepal Style Folded inner tepal
sheath (monocotyledonous petal)
Stigma Ovary
Receptacle
Pedicel
Anther (flower
stalk)
LONGITUDINAL SECTION Filament
THROUGH FLOWER BUD

140
FLOWERS 1

Posterior
Honey Posterior sepal
guide sepal Membranous
spur of Posterior
False anthers posterior sepal petal
Posterior attract pollinating
petal insects Anterior
petal
Lateral Bract
sepal (leaflike Anther
structure)
Anterior
petal Anterior
Anther sepal
Anterior
sepal
Bract
(leaflike Pedicel Pedicel
structure) (flower stalk) (flower stalk)
Lateral
EXTERNAL VIEW sepal
SIDE VIEW

A DICOTYLEDONOUS FLOWER
Larkspur
(Delphinium orientalis) Position
of nectary Posterior
petal

Membranous Anterior
spur petal
Posterior
sepal

Immature
spurof
posterior sepal
Androecium
Bract
(leaflike
structure) Ovary Sepal
sheath
Receptacle Carpel Style Filament
Stamen
Stigma Anther
Pedicel Pedicel
(flower stalk) Bract (flower
(leaflike stalk)
structure)
EXTERNAL VIEW
OF FLOWER BUD

Nectary
Membranous Ovary
spur Filament
Anther
Receptacle
Anterior Sepal
sepal Pedicel sheath
(flower stalk)
LONGITUDINAL SECTION THROUGH FLOWER BUD

141
PLANTS

COMPOUND INFLORESCENCE

Flowers 2 (CAPITULUM)
Sunflower
(Helianthus annulus)
Disk florets

Ray floret

Sterile ray floret to


attract pollinating
insects
Florets (small
Florets with flowers)are grouped
Outer Two-lobed anthers ready together to resemble
fertilized stigma to shed pollen asingle large flower
floret Pollen Inner, immature
Style Anther florets
Corolla
tube
(fused
Pappus petals)
(modified Corolla tube (fused petals)
sepal) Ovary
Ovary

FLORETS FROM SUNFLOWER

Pollen
Anther Ray floret
Nectar Disk floret

Stigma
Style

Ovary
Corolla tube
(fused petals)
Pappus
(modified
Bract sepal)
(leaflike structure) Domed receptacle
(flattened top of
Hair inflorescence stalk)
Pith

Epidermis
(outer layer Peduncle
LONGITUDINAL SECTION THROUGH of cells) (inflorescence
SUNFLOWER INFLORESCENCE ofpeduncle stalk)
(inflorescence
stalk)

142
FLOWERS 2
ARRANGEMENT OF FLOWERS ON STEM

Spathe
(large bract)
to attract
Flower pollinating insects
Spadix (fleshy
axis) carrying
male and female
Bract flowers
(leaflike
structure) Petal
Flower

Ovary

Peduncle
(inflorescence
Remains of tepals stalk)
(monocotyledonous Peduncle
petals and sepals) Peduncle Pedicel (inflorescence
(inflorescence (flower stalk)
stalk) stalk)
INFLORESCENCE (SPIKE) INFLORESCENCE INFLORESCENCE (SPADIX)
Heliconia peruviana (COMPOUND UMBEL) Painters palette
Common elder (Anthurium andreanum)
Stigma Anther (Sambucus nigra)
Stamen
Style Filament
Flower
bud
Three-lobed Flower
stigma

Pedicel Inner tepal


(flower (monocotyledonous
stalk) petal)
Style
Bract
(leaflike
structure)

Filament
Ovary Stamen
Anther
Peduncle
(inflorescence Outer tepal
stalk) fused (monocotyledonous Corolla
tobract sepal)
Calyx
Pedicel Peduncle
(flower stalk) (inflorescence
stalk) Bract
SINGLE FLOWER (leaflike
Glory lily structure)
(Gloriosa superba) SINGLE
FLOWER
INFLORESCENCE
(DICHASIAL CYME) INFLORESCENCE
Common lime (SPHERICAL UMBEL)
(Tilia x europaea) Allium sp.

143
PLANTS

REPRODUCTIVE STRUCTURES IN

Pollination WIND-POLLINATED PLANT


Sweet chestnut
(Castanea saliva)
POLLINATION IS THE TRANSFER OF POLLEN (which contains
the male sex cells) from an anther (part of the male Flower bud Male
reproductive organ) to a stigma (part of the female Prominent stigma flower
reproductive organ). This process precedes fertilization protrudes from flower
(seepp. 146-147). Pollination may occur within the same Female
flower (self-pollination), or between flowers on separate flower
Peduncle
plants of the same species (cross-pollination). Part of male (inflorescence
Petiole catkin stalk)
In most plants, pollination is carried out either (leaf stalk) (inflorescence
by insects (entomophilous pollination) or by the adapted for
wind (anemophilous pollination). Less commonly, Bract wind Filament
(leaflike pollination)
birds, bats, or water are the agents of pollination. structure)
Insect-pollinated flowers are typically brightly
Peduncle Anther
colored, scented, and produce (inflorescence
nectar, on which insects stalk)
feed. Such flowers also Stigma
FEMALE MALE
tend to have patterns that
are visible only in ultraviolet REPRODUCTIVE STRUCTURES IN
INSECT-POLLINATED PLANTS
light, which many insects can
see but which humans cannot. Endothecium
These features attract insects, (pollen sac wall)
which become covered with the
Style
sticky or hooked pollen grains Pollen
when they visit one flower, Dehisced grain
and then transfer the pollen (split open)
pollen sac Anther
to the next flower they visit. Stamen
Wind-pollinated flowers are Filament
generally small, relatively
inconspicuous, and unscented. Boundary between
They produce large quantities two fused carpels
of light pollen grains that are (each carpel
consistsof a stigma,
easily blown by the wind to style, and ovary)
other flowers. Calyx
Ovary (whorl of
sepals)

MICROGRAPHS OF MICROGRAPH OF CARPELS (FEMALE ORGANS) MICROGRAPH OF STAMENS (MALE ORGANS)


POLLEN GRAINS Yellow-wort Common centaury
Exine (outer coat of pollen (Blackstonia perfoliata) (Centaurium erythraea)
grain) Colpus
(furrow-shaped Exine Colpus
aperture) (outer (furrow-shaped
coat of aperture)
pollen Exine
grain) (outer
coat of
pollen
Pore grain)
Exine Baculum
Pore (outercoat of (rod-shaped Equatorial
pollen grain) structure) furrow
EUROPEAN FIELD ELM JUSTICIA AUREA MEADOW CRANESBILL BOX-LEAVED MILKWORT
(Ulmus minor) (Geranium pratense) (Polygala chamaebuxus)

144
P O L L I N AT I O N

INSECT POLLINATION OF MEADOW SAGE


Pollen grains attached
Immature, unreceptive to hairy abdomen
stigma
Sepal Long style curves
downward when Sepal
bee enters flower
Anther pushed on to
bees hairy abdomen
Mature, receptive
Labellum stigma touches bees
Pollen grains from abdomen, picking Labellum
(lip) forming (lip) forming
landing stage anther stick to up pollen
bees abdomen landing stage
for bee for bee
1. BEE VISITS FLOWER WITH MATURE 2. BEE FLIES TO 3. BEE VISITS FLOWER WHERE
ANTHERS BUT IMMATURE STIGMA OTHER FLOWERS THE ANTHERS HAVE WITHERED
AND THE STIGMA IS MATURE
SUNFLOWER UNDER NORMAL
AND ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT Petal ST. JOHNS WORT
UNDER NORMAL AND
Ovary ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT
Central area of Filament Stigma
disk florets Stamen Honey guide
Anther directs insects
Ray floret to dark,
central part
NORMAL LIGHT of flower
NORMAL LIGHT

Paler, outer part


of ray floret
Darker, inner
part of ray floret

Insects attracted to
darkest, central part
offlower, which
contains nectaries,
anthers, and stigmas

Dark central area containing


nectaries, anthers, and stigmas
ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT
Colpus
(furrow-shaped
ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT Columella (small aperture)
Trilete mark column-shaped Exine
Exine (development structure) (outercoat of
Pore (outercoat of scar) pollen grain)
pollen grain)

Tricolpate
Exine Exine (three colpae)
(outercoat of (outercoat of pollen grain
pollen grain) pollen grain)
MIMULOPSIS SOLMSII THESIUM ALPINIUM RUELLIA GRANDIFLORA CROSSANDRA NILOTICA

145
PLANTS

DEVELOPMENT OF A SUCCULENT FRUIT

Fertilization Blackberry
(Rubus fruticosus)

FERTILIZATION IS THE FUSION of male and female


gametes (sex cells) to produce a zygote (embryo). Petal
Following pollination (see pp. 144-145), the pollen Filament
grains that contain the male gametes are on Stamen
thestigma, some distance from the female Anther
gamete (ovum) inside the ovule. To enable the
gametes to meet, the pollen grain germinates
and produces a pollen tube, which grows Ovary
down and enters the embryo sac (the inner Carpel Stigma
part of the ovule that contains the ovum).
Two male gametes, traveling at the tip of the Style 1. FLOWER IN FULL BLOOM
ATTRACTS POLLINATORS
pollen tube, enter the embryo sac. One gamete
fuses with the ovum to produce a zygote that
Abortive
will develop into an embryo plant. The other Endocarp seed
Remains of
male gamete fuses with two polar nuclei to style
(inner layer of
produce the endosperm, which acts as a food pericarp)
Carpel
supply for the developing embryo. Fertilization Mesocarp
also initiates other changes: the integument (outer (middle Receptacle
part of ovule) forms a testa (seed coat) around the layer of
pericarp)
embryo and endosperm; the petals fall off; the stigma
and style wither; and the ovary wall forms a layer Exocarp Remains
(called the pericarp) around the seed. Together, the (outer of stamen
layer of
pericarp andseed form the fruit, which may be pericarp)
succulent (seepp. 148-149) or dry (see pp. 150-151).
Sepal Pedicel
BANANA In some species (e.g., blackberry), apomixis can (flower
(Musa lacatan) occur: the seeddevelops without fertilization of stalk)
the ovum by amale gamete but endosperm formation and fruit
4. PERICARP FORMS
development take place as in other species. FLESH,SKIN,AND A HARD INNER
LAYER (SHOWN IN CROSS-SECTION)
Exocarp Exocarp Drupelet
(outer layer of (outerlayer of Exocarp
pericarp) pericarp) (outer layer
of pericarp) Drupelet
Carpel Remains
of style Remains
of style
Remains
of style
Remains
of stamen Remains
of stamen
Remains Remains
of sepal of sepal Remains
of sepal Remains
of stamen
Pedicel Pedicel Pedicel
(flower (flower (flower
stalk) stalk) stalk)

7. MESOCARP (FLESHY PART OF PERICARP) 8. CARPELS MATURE INTO DRUPELETS 9. MESOCARP OF DRUPELET BECOMES
OF EACH CARPEL STARTS TO (SMALL FLESHY FRUITS WITH SINGLE SEEDS DARKER AND SWEETER
CHANGECOLOR SURROUNDED BY HARD ENDOCARP)

146
F E R T I L I Z AT I O N

THE PROCESS OF FERTILIZATION


Anther Stamen Remains of stigma Generative nucleus
Filament and style (divides to form two Pollen tube
Carpel nucleus
male gametes)
Ovary
Pollen grain Pore
Anther lands on stigma
Stamen
Filament Surface of stigma
Pollen
tube
Sepal
Male gamete Pollen
Pedicel Prickle (sex cell) tube
(flower Sepal nucleus
stalk) Pedicel POLLEN GRAIN GERMINATES
(flower stalk) Pollen grain Stigma
2. FERTILIZATION HAS TAKEN 3. OVARIES BEGIN TO SWELL;
PLACE; PETALS FALL OFF STAMENS WITHER AND DIE Style
Pollen tube
Polar nucleus
Exocarp Remains Antipodal
(outer layer of style cell
Exocarp Remains of pericarp)
(outer of style
layer of Carpel Ovary Ovule
pericarp) Carpel
Micropyle
Remains of (entrance
stamen to ovule)
Remains Embryo sac
of stamen Male gamete
Ovum
(femalegamete) Receptacle
Sepal MALE GAMETES TRAVEL TO
EMBRYO SAC
Sepal Pedicel Pedicel Nucellus
(flower stalk) (flower stalk) (layersurrounding Antipodal cell
embryo sac) Integument
(outer part
5. CARPELS EXPAND AND BECOME 6. CARPELS EXPAND of ovule)
MORE FLESHY FURTHER 2nd male gamete
fuses with polar 1st male
Exocarp nuclei to form gamete fuses
(outer layer Remains Remains of style endosperm nucleus with ovum to
of pericarp) of style form embryo
Synergid nucleus
(disappears after Pollen tube reaches
Drupelet fertilization) ovum via micropyle
FERTILIZATION
Exocarp Drupelet
(outer Style and
layer of stigma wither
pericarp)
Testa
Remains Endosperm (seedcoat)
of stamen (food store)
Cotyledon
Remains (seed leaf)
Remains of stamen Pericarp
of sepal (maturing Plumule
Pedicel Pedicel ovary wall) (embryonic
(flower (flower Remains shoot)
stalk) stalk) of sepal
Embryo plant Radicle
(embryonic
10. DRUPELETS (COLLECTIVELY 11. DRUPELETS RIPEN FULLY root)
AN AGGREGATE FRUIT) EXPAND DEVELOPMENT OF EMBRYO

147
PLANTS

HESPERIDIUM (A TYPE OF BERRY)

Succulent fruits Pedicel


Lemon
(Citrus limon)
Endocarp
Pedicel
(flower stalk)
A FRUIT IS A FULLY DEVELOPED and ripened ovary (flower Mesocarp Exocarp
(seed-producing part of a plants female reproductive stalk)
organs). Fruits may be succulent or dry
(seepp. 150-151). Succulent fruits are
fleshy andbrightly colored, making
them attractive to animals, which
eat them and so disperse the seeds Seed
Leathery
away from the parent plant. The exocarp Vesicle
wall (pericarp) of a succulent fruit Oil (juice
has three layers: an outer exocarp, gland sac)
a middle mesocarp, and an inner Remains Remains Placenta
endocarp. These three layers vary of style of style
in thickness and texture in different EXTERNAL VIEW LONGITUDINAL SECTION
types of fruits and may blend into OF FRUIT THROUGH FRUIT
each other. Succulent fruits can be
classed as simple (derived from Embryo Seed
Hilum Carpel
BERRY one ovary) or compound (derived (point of wall
Cocoa from several ovaries). Simple attachment
(Theobroma cacao) succulent fruits include berries, to ovary) Carpel
which typically have many seeds, and drupes, which
typically have a single stone or pit (e.g., cherry Testa
(seed Placenta
and peach). Compound succulent fruits include coat) Cotyledon
aggregatefruits, which are formed from many (seed leaf)
ovariesin one flower, and multiple fruits, which EXTERNAL VIEW AND CROSS-SECTION
SECTION THROUGH SEED THROUGH FRUIT
develop from the ovaries of many flowers. Some
fruits,known as false fruits or pseudocarps, develop
from parts of the flower in addition to the ovaries. SYCONIUM (A TYPE OF FALSE FRUIT)
Fig Remains
Forexample, the flesh of the apple is formed (Ficuscarica) of female Fleshy infolded
fromthereceptacle (the upper end of the flowers receptacle
flowerstalk). Peduncle Pip (seed Remains
(inflorescence surrounded of male
stalk) by endocarp) flowers

FRUIT WITH FLESHY ARIL


Lychee
(Litchi chinensis)
Pedicel Pedicel
(flower stalk) (flower stalk) Pore closed
by scales
Skin
EXTERNAL VIEW LONGITUDINAL SECTION
Seed OF FRUIT THROUGH FRUIT
Remains
of style Endocarp
EXTERNAL VIEW AND
Aril (fleshy SECTION THROUGH PIT
outgrowth Drupelet
from seed Pit
stalk)
Pedicel Endocarp Cotyledon
Pericarp Pericarp (flower (seed leaf)
(fruit wall) (fruit wall) stalk) Embryo
Testa
EXTERNAL VIEW LONGITUDINAL SECTION REMAINS OF A SINGLE (seedcoat)
OF FRUIT THROUGH FRUIT FEMALE FLOWER

148
SUCCULENT FRUITS

BERRY AGGREGATE FRUIT Pedicel


Cape gooseberry Calyx Raspberry (flower
(Physalis peruviana) Calyx (whorlofsepals) (Rubus idaeus) stalk)
(whorl Remains Mesocarp Pit (seed
ofsepals) surrounding berry of stamen surrounded
and by endocarp)
exocarp
Drupelet

Remains
of style

Exocarp
ofberry
Pedicel Pedicel Receptacle Drupelet
(flower (flower
stalk) stalk)
EXTERNAL VIEW INTERNAL VIEW EXTERNAL VIEW LONGITUDINAL SECTION
OF FRUIT OF FRUIT OF FRUIT THROUGH FRUIT

Hard
Seed endocarp
Testa Cotyledon
(seed coat) Hard Pit (seed leaf)
Placenta endocarp
Seed
Pericarp Testa
(seed
coat)
CROSS-SECTION EXTERNAL EXTERNAL VIEW AND
THROUGH FRUIT VIEW OF SEED SECTION THROUGH PIT

POME (A TYPE OF FALSE FRUIT) PEPO (A TYPE OF BERRY)


Apple Charentais melon
(Malus sylvestris) (Cucumis melo) Rind
Pedicel (flower (fusedreceptacle
stalk) Seed Mesocarp Pedicel and exocarp)
and exocarp (flower stalk)
Swollen
receptacle Seed

Waxy skin Endocarp Vascular


strand
EXTERNAL CROSS-SECTION Rind
VIEW OF FRUIT THROUGH FRUIT (fusedreceptacle Mesocarp
and exocarp) and
Hilum (point endocarp
of attachment EXTERNAL VIEW CROSS-SECTION
to ovary) Embryo OF FRUIT THROUGH FRUIT

Testa Embryo
(seedcoat) Testa
Cotyledon (seedcoat) Testa
(seed leaf) (seedcoat)
Cotyledon
Testa (seed leaf)
(seed coat)
EXTERNAL VIEW AND EXTERNAL VIEW AND
SECTION THROUGH SEED SECTION THROUGH SEED

149
PLANTS

LEGUME Pedicel

Dry fruits Pea


(Pisum sativum)
Receptacle
(flower stalk)

Receptacle
Pedicel
(flower
stalk)
DRY FRUITS HAVE A HARD, DRY PERICARP (fruit wall) Remains
around their seeds unlike succulent fruits, which have fleshy of sepal
Remains Remains
pericarps (see pp. 148-149). Dry fruits are divided into three types: of stamen of sepal
dehiscent, in which the pericarp splits open to
Funicle
release the seeds; indehiscent, which do not split Placenta (stalk
open; and schizocarpic, in which the fruit splits attaching
but the seeds are not exposed. Dehiscent dry seed to
placenta)
fruits include capsules (e.g., love-in-a-mist),
follicles (e.g., delphinium), legumes (e.g., pea), Pericarp Pericarp
and siliquas (e.g., honesty). Typically, the (fruit (fruit
wall) wall)
seedsof dehiscent fruits are dispersed by
NUTLET
the wind. Indehiscent dry fruits include nuts
Goosegrass (e.g.,sweet chestnut), nutlets (e.g., goosegrass), Seed
(Galium aparine) achenes (e.g., strawberry), caryopses
(e.g.,wheat), samaras (e.g., elm), and cypselas (e.g., dandelion).
Some indehiscent dry fruits are dispersed by the wind, assisted Remains of Remains of
by wings (e.g., elm) or parachutes (e.g., dandelion); others style and style and
(e.g., goosegrass) have hooked pericarps to aid dispersal on stigma stigma
animals fur. Schizocarpic dry fruits include cremocarps EXTERNAL VIEW INTERNAL VIEW
(e.g., hogweed), and double samaras (e.g., sycamore Funicle OF FRUIT OF FRUIT
maple); theseare dispersed by the wind. (stalkattaching
seed to placenta) Cotyledon
NUT Line of splitting (seed leaf) Radicle
Sweet chestnut between valves (embryonic
(Castanea sativa) of cupule Micropyle root)
(pore for water Testa
Peduncle absorption) (seed Plumule
(inflorescence coat) (embryonic
stalk) Testa shoot)
(seed coat) EXTERIOR VIEW AND
Remains SECTION THROUGH SEED
ofmale
inflorescence ACHENE
Strawberry
Nut (Fragaria x ananassa) Pedicel
(indehiscent Pedicel Sepal (flower
fruit) Sepal (flower stalk) stalk)
Spiked cupule
(husk around Swollen
fruit formed receptacle
from bracts) EXTERNAL VIEW OF FRUIT WITH
SURROUNDING CUPULE Remains
Remains of stigma
Remains and style Swollen
of stigma of stigma Remains fleshytissues
Remains of style Achene of receptacle
of style (one-seeded
dry fruit) EXTERNAL VIEW LONGITUDINAL SECTION
OF FRUIT THROUGH FRUIT
Embryo Pericarp
Nut (fruit
(indehiscent Cotyledon
Cotyledon wall) (seed leaf)
fruit) Pericarp
(seed leaf) (fruit wall)
Testa Testa
(seed coat) (seed coat)
Woody pericarp Woody pericarp
(fruit wall) EXTERNAL VIEW AND (fruit wall) EXTERNAL VIEW AND
SECTION THROUGH FRUIT SECTION THROUGH SEED

150
DRY FRUITS

DOUBLE SAMARA Remains Pedicel


Sycamore of sepal (flower stalk)
(Acer pseudoplatanus) Pericarp (fruit wall)
enclosing single seed

Pericarp
(fruit
Seed Remains wall)
of stigma extended and
Testa and style flattened to
(seed coat) Mericarp form wing that
(half-fruit) assists in wind dispersal
CAPSULE CREMOCARP
Love-in-a-mist Remains Hogweed
(Nigella damascena) of style (Heracleum sp.)
Branching Line of
bracteole dehiscence Flattened
(leaflike (splitting) Vitta pericarp
structure) Carpel (oilduct) (fruit
Placenta wall wall)
Testa
Fused (seed coat)
edge of Seed
carpels
EXTERNAL
VIEW OF SEED
Pericarp Pedicel
(fruit (flower stalk)
Receptacle wall) EXTERNAL VIEW OF FRUIT Pericarp
Abortive (fruit wall)
ovule Pericarp
Pedicel Carpophore covering
(flower Pedicel (central seed
stalk) (flower stalk) supporting
strand)
EXTERNAL VIEW OF FRUIT LONGITUDINAL SECTION
THROUGH FRUIT One-seeded
Carpel Placenta Cotyledon
wall (seed leaf) mericarp
Sculptured (half-fruit)
Seed testa Vitta
(seedcoat) (oilduct)
Pericarp Testa
(fruit Carpel (seedcoat) Pedicel
wall) VIEW OF SEPARATED CARPELS
CROSS-SECTION
(flower stalk)
EXTERIOR VIEW AND
THROUGH FRUIT SECTION THROUGH SEED
FOLLICLE
Remains of Larkspur
style and (Delphinium sp.) Carpel split open
SILIQUA Remains of stigma along one side
Honesty stigma and style Testa
(Lunaria annua) (seed coat)
False Pericarp
Placenta (fruit wall)
Seed septum Flattened Seed
edge of testa
aids dispersal
of seed Pericarp
(fruit
Valve of wall)
pericarp Hilum (point
of attachment Carpel split
to ovary) open,
Embryo exposing
seeds
Cotyledon Pericarp
Replum Pedicel Testa (seed leaf) Receptacle (fruit
(ridgesurrounding (flower stalk) (seedcoat) wall)
false septum) EXTERNAL VIEW AND SECTION Pedicel
PARTS OF SPLIT-OPEN FRUIT THROUGH SEED (flower stalk)

151
PLANTS

HYPOGEAL GERMINATION Cotyledon

Germination Fava bean


(Vicia faba)
(seed leaf)
Cotyledon
(seed leaf)
GERMINATION IS THE GROWTH OF SEEDS INTO SEEDLINGS. It starts when
seeds become active below ground, and ends when the first foliage Testa Plumule
(embryonic
leaves appear above ground. A seed consists of an embryo and (seed shoot)
its food supply, surrounded by a testa (seed coat). The embryo is coat)
made up of one or two cotyledons (seed leaves) attached to a central Epicotyl
(upper part
axis. The upper part of the axis consists of an epicotyl, which has a of axis)
plumule (embryonic shoot) at its tip. The lower part of the axis consists
Hypocotyl
of a hypocotyl and a radicle (embryonic root). After dispersal from the (region
parent plant, the seeds dehydrate and enter a period of dormancy. between
Following this dormant period, germination begins, provided that the epicotyl and
radicle)
seeds have enough water, oxygen, warmth, and, in some cases, light.
In the first stages of germination, the seed takes in water; the Radicle
embryo starts to use its food supply; and the SEED AT START OF (embryonic
GERMINATION root)
radicle swells, breaks through the testa, Cotyledon
and grows downward. Germination (seed leaf)
then proceeds in one of two ways, Foliage leaf
depending on the type of seed.
In epigeal germination, the Cotyledon
(seed leaf)
hypocotyl lengthens, pulling
the plumule and its protective Stipule
cotyledons out of the soil. (structure at
base of leaf)
Inhypogeal germination,
the cotyledons remain below Epicotyl
ground and the epicotyl increases in
length and
lengthens, pushing turns green
the plumule upward.
Cataphyll
Split in testa (scale leaf
(seed coat) due of plumule)
to expanding Epicotyl
cotyledons (upper part
Young of axis)
shoot
Hypocotyl
(regionbetween
Cataphyll Testa epicotyl and radicle)
(scale leaf of (seed coat)
plumule) FOLIAGE
Epicotyl LEAVES APPEAR
(upper part Plumule
of axis) (embryonic Cotyledons (seed
Cotyledons lengthens shoot) leaves) remain Primary
(seed leaves) food source for root
remain within Hilum (point of the seedling
testa (seed Primary attachment to ovary)
coat) below root Cortex
soils surface Radicle
Vascular tissue (embryonic
(xylem and root)
Lateral root phloem)
Epidermis
Root tip Lateral
SHOOT APPEARS RADIC LE BREAKS (region of root system
ABOVE SOIL THROUGH TESTA cell division)

152
G E R M I N AT I O N

EPIGEAL GERMINATION Epicotyl Epicotyl


Black bean (upper part Hypocotyl (upper part
(Phaseolus sp.) of axis) (region between of axis)
epicotyl and
Plumule radicle) Testa
(embryonic (seed coat)
shoot)
Radicle Plumule
(embryonic (embryonic
Testa root) shoot)
(seed coat)
Hilum
(point of
Raphe attachment
(ridge) to ovary)
Testa
(seed coat) Cotyledon
(seed leaf) Cotyledon
Hilum (point (seed leaf)
of attachment
to ovary) LONGITUDINAL SECTION Hypocotyl
THROUGH SEED AT START OF (regionbetween
Micropyle GERMINATION epicotyl and radicle)
(pore for
water
absorption) First foliage Lateral root
leaf fully
grown
Petiole Growing
(leaf stalk) point

Cotyledon (seed
leaf) withers
EXTERNAL VIEW OF SEED AT
START OF GERMINATION
Primary root
First foliage leaf Cotyledon (elongated
protected by cotyledons (seed leaf) radicle)
(seed leaves)

Hypocotyl
hook pushes
out of soil Hypocotyl (region
Testa between epicotyl
(seed and radicle)
coal) Hypocotyl (region straightens RADICLE BREAKS THROUGH
splits between epicotyl and andlengthens TESTA AND LENGTHENS
radicle) elongates
Testa (seed Testa (seed
coal) shed coat) begins to
disintegrate
Lateral
root
Root
Root

Primary
root
HYPOCOTYL
STRAIGHTENS, Root cap
HYPOCOTYL PULLING LEAVES FIRST FOLIAGE (protective
HOOK APPEARS AND COTYLEDONS LEAVES FULLY covering for
ABOVE SOIL OUT OF SOIL DEVELOPED root tip)

153
PLANTS

ADVENTITIOUS BUD

Vegetative Mexican hat plant


(Kalanchoe
daigremontiana)
Apex of
leaf

reproduction
MANY PLANTS CAN PROPAGATE THEMSELVES by vegetative
reproduction. In this process, part of a plant separates
off, takes root, and grows into a new plant. Vegetative
reproduction is a type of asexual reproduction; that
is, it involves only one parent, and there is no Lamina
(blade)
fusion of gametes (sex cells). Plants use various of leaf
structures to reproduce vegetatively. Some plants
C ORM
use underground storage organs. Such organs include
Gladiolus rhizomes (horizontal, underground stems), the
(Gladiolus sp.) branches of which produce new plants;
Leaf
bulbs (swollen leaf bases) and corms (swollen stems), margin
which produce daughter bulbs or corms that separate
off from the parent; and stem tubers (thickened Notch in leaf
underground stems) and root tubers (swollen margin containing
adventitious roots), which also separate off from meristematic
(actively dividing)
the parent. Other propagative structures include cells
runners and stolons, creeping horizontal stems that
take root and produce new plants; bulbils, small bulbs that
develop on the stem or in the place of flowers, and then
drop off and grow into new plants; and adventitious buds,
miniature plants that form on leaf margins before dropping
to the ground and growing into mature plants.

BULBIL IN PLACE OF FLOWER Adventitious bud


Orange lily (detachable bud Petiole
(Lilium bulbiferum) with adventitious (leaf stalk)
Scar left roots) drops
by flower fromleaf
Leaf

Pedicel
(flowerstalk) STOLON
Ground ivy
(Glechoma hederacea)
Internode Parent
Terminal plant
bud
Stolon
(creepingstem)
Detachable Node
bulbil formed
in place of
flower Node
Peduncle
(inflorescence
stalk) Adventitious root Daughter plant
of daughter plant developed from
lateral bud

154
V E G E TAT I V E R E P R O D U C T I O N

ROOT TUBER STEM BULBIL GROWING BULB


Sweet potato Lily Grape hyacinth
(Ipomoea batatas) (Lilium sp.) (Muscari sp.)
Leaf Apex
Foliage of leaf
leaf Foliage
Petiole leaf
(leaf
stalk)
Stem
Stem bulbil Flower bud
Immature
developing spike (type of
Terminal from lateral Stem bulbil Peduncle
bud at base of (inflorescence inflorescence)
bud
Aerial stem stalk)
stem Lateral Fleshy scale
branch leaf containing
Lateral stored food
bud
Fleshy scale
leaf containing Stem
Root tuber Root stored food
(swollen
adventitious Adventitious
root) Adventitious root
root

ROOT TUBER CORM BULB WITH SHOOT


Begonia Gladiolus Amaryllis
(Begonia x tuberhybrida) (Gladiolus sp.) (Hippeastrum sp.)
Remains of Shoot
flowering shoot New
New corm forming foliage Shoot
Food Shoot Protective at base of shoot leaf
store scale leaf
Apical bud Protective
(flower bud) scale leaf

Swollen stem
containing
Last years stored food Vascular
root tissue
Adventitious
Developing root
adventitious Fleshy scale
root Aerial shoot developing leaf containing
from terminal bud stored food
RHIZOME
Ginger Stem Adventitious
Scale leaf (Zingiber officinale) Foliage root
scar leaf Scale Epidermis
Node leaf
Scale Cortex
Internode leaf
Scale leaf Developing
Node adventitious
root
Epidermis
Vascular
Food store Vascular tissue
Lateral bud tissue
EXTERNAL VIEW LONGITUDINAL SECTION CROSS-SECTION
THROUGH AERIAL SHOOT THROUGH RHIZOME

155
PLANTS

Dryland plants STEM SUCCULENT


Golden barrel cactus
(Echinocactus grusonii)
DRYLAND PLANTS (XEROPHYTES) are able to Areole Trichome
survive in unfavorable habitats. All are found (modified (hair) Spine
lateral shoot) (modified
in places where little water is available; some leaf)
live in high temperatures that cause excessive
loss of water from the leaves. Xerophytes
show a number of adaptations to dry
LEAF conditions; these include reduced leaf area,
SUCCULENT rolled leaves, sunken stomata, hairs,
Lithops sp. spines, and thick cuticles. One group,
succulent plants, stores water in specially
enlarged spongy tissues found in leaves, roots,
or stems. Leaf succulents have enlarged, fleshy,
water-storing leaves. Root succulents have a
large, underground water-storage organ with
short-lived stems and leaves above ground. Stem
succulents are represented by the cacti (family
Cactaceae). Cacti stems are fleshy, green, and
photosynthetic; they are typically ribbed or
covered by tubercles in rows, with leaves
being reduced to spines or entirely absent.
Waxy cuticle
(waterproof
Spine covering) Water-storing
(modified
leaf) parenchyma Tubercle
(packing tissue) (projection
from stem
Sinuous surface)
(wavy)
Tubercle cell wall Vascular
(projection cylinder
from stem (transport
surface) tissue)
Stoma (pore)
Root controlling
exchange of
gases
EXTERNAL VIEW MICROGRAPH OF STEM SURFACE

Spine
(modified
leaf)

Root
Areole
(modified
lateral shoot) Tubercle
(projection from
stem surface)

Waxy cuticle
(waterproof
covering)
LONGITUDINAL SECTION
DETAIL OF STEM SURFACE THROUGH STEM

156
DRYLAND PLANTS

LEAF SUCCULENT Translucent LEAF SUCCULENT


Haworthia truncata window Lithops bromfieldii
allows light Leaf Dead,
to reach withered
base of leaf Fissure leaf
Translucent Succulent
window leaf Mottled
allows light Waxy cuticle surface
to reach base (waterproof of leaf
of leaf covering)
Water-storing
Root tuber parenchyma
(packing tissue)
Photosynthetic
region Dead
flower in Unified
Translucent old fissure leaf pair
window
allows light to Fissure
reach center
LONGITUDINAL SECTION of leaf
THROUGH LEAF

Raised cell
surface Waxy cuticle
(waterproof
covering)
Root
Stoma
(pore) Photosynthetic Water-storing
region parenchyma
(packing
Cup surrounding tissue)
sunken stoma LONGITUDINAL SECTION
(pore) THROUGH LEAF PAIR
MICROGRAPH OF LEAF SURFACE
ROOT SUCCULENT
Oxalis sp.
Petiole
(leaf stalk)
Stem
Flower
bud

STEM AND ROOT SUCCULENT Root tuber


String of hearts Pedicel
(Ceropegia woodii) (flower stalk)
EXTERNAL VIEW
Root
Petiole Succulent
(leaf stalk) trailing stem Trifoliate
Stem leaf

Succulent Root
leaf tuber
Root tuber Water-storing
parenchyma

Root
Root
LONGITUDINAL SECTION
THROUGH ROOT TUBER

157
PLANTS

Wetland plants
WETLAND PLANTS GROW SUBMERGED IN WATER, either partially (e.g., water hyacinth) or completely (e.g.,
pond weeds), and show various adaptations to this habitat. Typically, there are numerous air spaces inside the
stems, leaves, and roots; these aid gas exchange and buoyancy. Submerged parts generally have no cuticle
(waterproof covering), enabling the plants to absorb minerals and gases directly from the water; in addition,
being supported by the water, they need little of the supportive tissue found in land plants. Stomata, the gas
exchange pores, are absent from plants Abaxial (lower) WATER HYACINTH
Adaxial (upper) surface (Eichhornia crassipes)
that are completely submerged; in surface of of lamina (blade)
partially submerged plants with lamina (blade)
floating leaves (e.g., water lilies), Inflated petiole
stomata are found on the upper (leaf stalk)
leaf surfaces, where they cannot providesbuoyancy
be flooded. Isthmus (narrow
Leaf connecting
region)
WATER FERN Dorsal lobe
(Azolla sp.) of leaf Orbicular
lamina
(blade)

Leaf with tiny


Stem hairs to prevent Rhizome
waterlogging
Adventitious
root

Dense, fibrous
root system
Adventitious
root
Lateral branch of
adventitious root
Orbicular
lamina
(blade)
Vein
Endodermis
Isthmus (inner layer
(narrow of cortex) CANADIAN POND WEED
connecting (Elodea canadensis)
region) Lacuna Phloem Vascular Internode
(airspace) Xylem tissue
Epidermis
(outer layer
of cells) Node
Inflated
petiole Node
Lacuna (leaf stalk)
(air space)
Cortex Stem
Epidermis (layerbetween
Leaf base (outer layer epidermis and
of cells) vascular tissue)
Adventitious
LAMINA AND SECTION THROUGH INFLATED MICROGRAPH OF CROSS-SECTION root
PETIOLE OF WATER HYACINTH THROUGH ROOT OF WATER HYACINTH

158
WETLAND PLANTS

WATER LILY
(Nymphaea sp.) Star-shaped sclereid Upper epidermis Palisade mesophyll
(short strengthening cell) (outer layer of cells) Vein (tightly packed
photosynthetic tissue)
Lacuna
(air space) Parenchyma
(packing tissue)
MICROGRAPH OF CROSS-SECTION Lower epidermis Phloem
THROUGH LEAF OF WATER LILY (outer layer of cells) Vascular
Xylem tissue
Flower Midrib
Adaxial (upper)
Petal Lateral Abaxial (lower) surface of Margin
vein Midrib Waxy, water-repellent surface of lamina (blade) oflamina
lamina (blade) lamina (blade) (blade)

Petiole
Pedicel (leafstalk)
(flower stalk)
Developing Cortex
leaf (layerbetween
Cortex Star-shaped sclereid
(layerbetween epidermis and
epidermis and (shortstrengthening cell) vascular tissue)
vascular tissue)

Vascular Lacuna Epidermis


bundle (air space) (outer layer
of cells)
Epidermis Endodermis
(outer layer (inner layer
of cells) of cortex) Lacuna
MICROGRAPH OF CROSS-SECTION (airspace) Vascular
THROUGH STEM OF bundle
ELODEA SP. Flower
bud MICROGRAPH OF CROSS-SECTION THROUGH
PETIOLE OF WATER LILY
Pedicel
(flower stalk)
Rhizome

Plant fully
submerged
Leaf
Adventitious
root

159
PLANTS

Areola PITCHER PLANT

Carnivorous (windowof
transparent tissue)
Fishtail nectary
Cobra lily (Darlingtonia californica)

Hood

plants Wing
Pitcher
Tubular
petiole
CARNIVOROUS (INSECTIVOROUS) PLANTS FEED ON INSECTS and other small (leaf stalk)
animals, in addition to producing food in their leaves by photosynthesis. Areola
(window of
The nutrients absorbed from trapped insects enable carnivorous plants to transparent
thrive in acid, boggy soils that lack essential minerals, especially nitrates, tissue)
where most other plants could not survive. Smooth surface
All carnivorous plants have some leaves
Dome-shaped Nectar roll
modified as traps; many use bright colors hood develops
and scented nectar to attract prey; and Fishtail
most use enzymes to digest the prey. There nectary
are three types of traps. Pitcher plants, such appears Mouth
as the monkey cup and cobra lily, have leaves Immature Wing
modified as pitcher-shaped pitfall traps, pitcher
half-filled with water; once lured inside the
Downward
mouth of the trap, insects lose their footing on pointing hair
the slippery surface, fall into the liquid, and DEVELOPMENT OF MODIFIED
either decompose or are digested. Venus fly LEAF IN COBRA LILY
traps use a spring-trap mechanism; when an Immature
insect touches trigger hairs on the inner trap
surfaces of the leaves, the two lobes of the trap Closed
snap shut. Butterworts and sundews entangle Interlocked trap
prey by sticky droplets on the leaf surface, teeth
while the edges of the leaves
slowly curl over to envelop
and digest the prey.

VENUS FLY TRAP


(Dionaea muscipula) Red color of trap
attracts insects
Phyllode
(flattened
petiole)
Trigger
Sensory hair
Summer petiole hinge
(leaf stalk)

Nectary zone
(glands secrete Inner
nectar) surface
of trap
Digestive zone
(glands Trap
Lobe (twin-lobed
secrete of trap
digestive leaf blade)
enzymes) Midrib Spring petiole
(hinge of (leaf stalk) Digestive
trap) gland
MICROGRAPH OF LOBE OF
Tooth Trigger hair VENUS FLY TRAP

160
CARNIVOROUS PLANTS

PITCHER PLANT
Monkey cup
Lamina (Nepenthes mirabalis) Inner surface
(blade) of pitcher

Digestive
gland Outer surface
of pitcher

Lamina
(blade)
Tendril Nectar-
Immature MICROGRAPH OF WALL OF PITCHER secreting
pitcher gland
Lid (attracts insects; Midrib
stops rainwater from
Lid flooding pitcher)
Rim of pitcher
Rim of Mouth (containing
pitcher ofpitcher Spur nectar
glands)
Lid
Pitcher opens Tendril
Waxy zone
Lid remains (no foothold
firmly closed as for insects)
pitcher develops Mouth of
pitcher
Tendril Digestive
Recently elongates zone
formed leaf (normally
containing
Frontal digestive Partly
rib fluid) digested
insects
Tendril at tip of
recently formed leaf Digestive
gland

DEVELOPMENT OF MODIFIED LEAF Swelling forms Immature pitcher Mature SECTION THROUGH
IN PITCHER PLANT at tip of tendril fills with air pitcher PITCHER
BUTTERWORT Insect
Stalked secretory (Pinguicula caudata) trapped
gland (produces onsticky
sticky, mucuslike surface
substance) Flattened oflamina
Digestive gland lamina (blade)
(produces enzymes) (blade)
Adaxial
(upper) surface
of leaf

Margin of
lamina (blade)
Abaxial rolled inwards
(lower) surface MICROGRAPH OF Immature
of leaf BUTTERWORT LEAF leaf

161
PLANTS

Epiphytic and parasitic plants


EPIPHYTIC AND PARASITIC PLANTS GROW ON OTHER LIVING PLANTS. Typically, epiphytic plants are
not rooted in the soil; instead, they live above ground level on the stems and branches of other
plants. Epiphytes obtain water from trapped rainwater and from moisture in the air, and
minerals from organic matter that has accumulated on the surface of the plant on which
they are growing. Like other green plants, epiphytes produce their food by photosynthesis. Epiphytes
include tropical orchids and bromeliads (air plants), and some mosses that live in temperate regions.
Parasitic plants obtain all their nutrient requirements from the host plants on which they grow. The parasites
produce haustoria, rootlike organs that penetrate the stem or roots of the host and grow inward to merge
with the hosts vascular tissue, from which the parasite extracts water, minerals, and manufactured nutrients.
As they have no need to produce their own food, parasitic plants
lack chlorophyll, the green photosynthetic pigment, and they
have no foliage leaves. Partial parasitic plants (e.g., mistletoe) Inflorescence
obtain water and minerals from the host plant but have (spike) Peduncle
green leaves and stems and are therefore able to (inflorescence
produce their own food by photosynthesis. Flower stalk)
bud
EPIPHYTIC ORCHID Strap-shaped
Brassavola nodosa arching leaf
(part of rosette
Peduncle of leaves)
(inflorescence Leaf margin
stalk) with spines
Flower
Pedicel Overlapping leaf
(flower bases in which
stalk) rainwater is trapped Mass of
adventitious roots
EPIPHYTIC BROMELIAD Stem
Aechmea miniata
Bark of tree to
Scale which epiphyte
leaf Leaf is attached

Velamen Exodermis
(multi-layeredepidermis (outer layer
capable of absorbing of cortex)
water from rain or
condensation)

Cortex
(layerbetween
epidermis and
vascular tissue)
Aerial
root Cortex cell
Node containing
chloroplasts
Pith
Stem
Vascular Xylem
tissue Endodermis
Phloem (inner layer
Bark of tree to of cortex)
which epiphyte MICROGRAPH OF CROSS-SECTION THROUGH
is attached AERIAL ROOT OF EPIPHYTIC ORCHID

162
E P I P H Y T I C A N D PA R A S I T I C P L A N T S

LONGITUDINAL SECTION THROUGH EPIPHYTIC BROMELIAD ROOT PARASITE


Scarlet star Broomrape
(Guzmania (Orobanche sp.)
lingulata) Stem of host plant
Bract
(leaflike Leaf (part of
structure) rosette of leaves)
Immature
bracts

Flower bud
of broomrape
Overlapping leaf bases
in which rainwater is Flower of
trapped broomrape
Leaf of
host plant
Stem of
Stem broomrape
Tuber of broomrape attached to
Immature host plants roots through
flowers haustoria (penetrating organs Shoot of
that absorb nutrients from hosts broomrape
Swollen stem base vascular tissue)

STEM PARASITE
Dodder
(Cuscuta europaea)
Tip of dodder
stem showing
circular Inflorescence Main root
movement (spike) of dodder ofhost plant
around flowers
hostplant Point of
attachment Lateral root of
ofdodder stem host plant
to host stem

Haustorium
(penetrating organ that
absorbs nutrients from Vascular tissue
Leaf of hosts vascular tissue) of dodder
host plant
Union of host and dodder
vascular systems
Thread-like
stem of dodder Stem of
twined around dodder
stem of host
plant
Stem of
host plant
Vascular
tissue of Phloem
host plant
Xylem

Stem of
host plant
EXTERNAL VIEW OF PLANT MICROGRAPH OF CROSS-SECTION THROUGH STEM
PARASITIZED BY DODDER OF PLANT PARASITIZED BY DODDER

163
ANIMALS
SPONGES, JELLYFISH, AND SEA ANEMONES. . . . . . . . . . 166
INSECTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
ARACHNIDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
CRUSTACEANS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
STARFISH AND SEA URCHINS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
MOLLUSKS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
SHARKS AND JAWLESS FISH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
BONY FISH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
AMPHIBIANS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
LIZARDS AND SNAKES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
CROCODILIANS AND TURTLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
BIRDS 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
BIRDS 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
EGGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
CARNIVORES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
RABBITS AND RODENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
UNGULATES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
ELEPHANTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
PRIMATES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
DOPHINS, WHALES, AND SEALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
MARSUPIALS AND MONOTREMES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
ANIMALS

Sponges, jellyfish, INTERNAL ANATOMY OF A SPONGE

Amoebocyte
Osculum

and sea anemones (excurrent pore)


Choanocyte
(collar cell)
SPONGES ARE MAINLY MARINE animals that make Ostium
up the phylum Porifera. They are among (incurrent pore)
the simplest of all animals, having no
tissues or organs. Their bodies consist Porocyte (pore cell)
of two layers of cells separated by a Mesohyal
jellylike layer (mesohyal) that is strengthened
Spongocoel
by mineral spicules or protein fibers. The body (atrium;paragaster)
is perforated by a system of pores and water
channels called the aquiferous system. Special Spicule
cells (choanocytes) with whiplike structures Pinacocyte
(flagella) draw water through the aquiferous (epidermal cell)
system, thereby bringing tiny food particles
Ostium (incurrent pore)
to the sponges cells. Jellyfish (class Scyphozoa),
sea anemones (class Anthozoa), and corals
(also class Anthozoa) belong to the EXTERNAL FEATURES
phylum Cnidaria, also known as SKELETON OF A SPONGE OF A SEA ANEMONE
Coelenterata. More complex than Protein matrix
sponges, coelenterates have simple
tissues, such as nervous tissue;
aradially symmetrical body;
anda mouth surrounded by
tentacles with unique stinging
cells (cnidocytes).

EXAMPLES OF SEA ANEMONES Pore

Tentacle
PARASITIC ANEMONE
(Calliactis parasitica)
JEWEL ANEMONE
(Corynactis viridis) PLUMOSE ANEMONE MEDITERRANEAN SEA ANEMONE
(Metridium senile) (Condylactis sp.)

GREEN SNAKELOCK
ANEMONE
(Anemonia viridis)

BEADLET ANEMONE
(Actinia equina)
GHOST ANEMONE
(Actinothoe
sphyrodeta)

Sagartia elegans

166
S P O N G E S , J E L LY F I S H , A N D S E A A N E M O N E S

INTERNAL ANATOMY OF A JELLYFISH EXAMPLES OF


CORALS
Stomach
Filament Gonad

Ectoderm
Endoderm Mesoglea
Radial canal
HONEYCOMB CORAL
Hood (Goniastrea aspera)
Tentacle

Subgenital pit
Rhopalium
Oral arm
Mouth

EXTERNAL APPEARANCE
OF A JELLYFISH STRUCTURE OF A CNIDOCYTE Thread

Spine MUSHROOM CORAL


Operculum Cnidocil Barb (stylet) (Fungia fungites)
Cnidocil (trigger) (trigger)
Operculum
Barb (stylet)
Thread
Nucleus Nucleus

BEFORE DISCHARGE AFTER DISCHARGE STAR CORAL


(Balanophyllia regia)

INTERNAL ANATOMY OF A
SEA ANEMONE

Oral disk Mouth Ostium (mesenteric


perforation)

Tentacle
Sphincter Collar
muscle
Siphonoglyph
Mesenteric
filament Complete
mesentery
Incomplete Retractor
mesentery muscle

Gonad

Oral disk
Gastrovascular
Basal disk Pharynx cavity
Mouth (pedal disk)

167
ANIMALS

Insects
EXAMPLES OF INSECTS

Compound eye Antenna


THE WORD INSECT REFERS to small invertebrate creatures,
especially those with bodies divided into sections. Insects, Front
leg Head
including beetles, ants, bees, butterflies, and moths, belong to
various orders in the class Insecta, which is a division of the
phylum Arthropoda. Features common to all insects are an Middle
exoskeleton (external skeleton); three pairs of jointed legs; leg
Thorax
threebody sections (head, thorax, and abdomen); and one
PUPA Hind
(CHRYSALIS)
pairof sensory antennae. Beetles (order Coleoptera) are the leg
biggest group of insect, with about 300,000 species (about 30
percent of all known insects). They have a pair of hard elytra (wing cases),
which are modified front wings. The principal function of the elytra is to Wing
protect the hind wings, which are used for flying. Ants, together with bees Claw
and wasps, form the order Hymenoptera, which contains about 200,000
species. This group is characterized by a marked narrowing between the
thorax and abdomen. Butterflies and moths form the order Lepidoptera, BUMBLEBEE

which has about 150,000 species. They have wings covered with tiny
scales,hence the name of their order (Lepidoptera means scale wings).
Compound
The separation of lepidopterans into butterflies and moths is largely eye
artificial, since there are no features that categorically distinguish one
group from the other. In general, however, most butterflies fly by day,
whereas most moths are night-flyers. Some insects, including butterflies Stigma
(spot)
and moths, undergo complete metamorphosis (transformation) during their
life-cycle. A butterfly metamorphoses from an egg to a larva (caterpillar),
then to a pupa (chrysalis), and finally to an imago (adult). Vein

Elytron Abdomen
EXTERNAL FEATURES
OF A BEETLE DAMSELFLY
Tarsus

Claw Tibia Costal margin

Pedicel Apex
Femur Vein
Flagellum
Trochanter Wing
Mandible
Scape Coxa
Labrum
CRICKET ANT
Labial palp

Abdomen
Compound
eye Head
Prothorax Mesothorax
Front leg Scutellum Hind leg FLY EARWIG

Metathorax Middle leg

168
INSECTS

EXTERNAL FEATURES
OF A CATERPILLAR Vein Apex
Head Thorax Abdomen Postabdominal
spine Forewing
Spiracle

Antenna
Anal clasper
Thoracic Segment Prolegs
legs
EXTERNAL FEATURES Costal
OF A BUTTERFLY margin

Compound
eye

Antenna
Head
Outer
Proboscis margin

Front leg

Thorax Spur

Middle
leg Femur

Tibia
Abdominal Abdomen Hind wing
Hind leg segment

Tarsus
INTERNAL ANATOMY OF A FEMALE BUTTERFLY

Abdomen Thorax Head

Copulatory bursa
Intestine Ovary Dorsal blood Antenna
Crop vessel Esophagus
Colon Heart
Cerebral
Rectum ganglion
Anus (brain)
Opening of oviduct
Proboscis
Opening of Oviduct
copulatory bursa Midgut
Salivary gland
Seminal Malpighian
receptacle tubule Ventral nerve cord

169
ANIMALS

Arachnids
THE CLASS ARACHNIDA INCLUDES SPIDERS (order Araneae) and
scorpions (order Scorpiones). The class is part of the phylum
Arthropoda, which also includes insects and crustaceans.
Spiders and scorpions are characterized by having four pairs of
walking legs; a pair of pincerlike mouthparts called chelicerae; another
pair of frontal appendages called pedipalps, which are sensory in spiders
but used for grasping in scorpions; and a body divided into two
sections (a combined head and thorax called a cephalothorax MEXICAN TRUE RED-
LEG GED TARANTULA
or prosoma, and an abdomen or opisthosoma). (Euathlus emilia)
Unlike other arthropods, spiders and
scorpions lack antennae. Spiders INTERNAL ANATOMY OF A FEMALE SPIDER
and scorpions are carnivorous.
Spiders poison prey by biting Anterior Ostium
aorta Heart
with the fanged chelicerae, Sucking
scorpions by stinging stomach Digestive gland
with the end of the Posterior aorta
metasoma (tail). Brain Malpighian
tubule
Intestine
Simple eye Cloaca
Ovary
Poison gland
Anus
Poison duct Spinneret

Chelicera Oviduct Silk gland


Vagina Trachea
Fang Book lung Spermatheca
(seminal receptacle)
Mouth Gut caecum
Esophagus Spiracle
EXTERNAL FEATURES OF A SCORPION Metasoma
(tail)
Pedipalp Sting
Chela (claw of pedipalp) Prosoma
(cephalothorax) Opisthosoma (abdomen)

Chelicera
Median eye Patella
Tibia
Tarsus
Femur
Coxa 3rd walking leg 4th walking leg
1st walking leg Claw Metatarsus
Trochanter 2nd walking leg

170
EXAMPLES OF SPIDERS

RAFT SPIDER ORB SPIDER HUNTSMAN SPIDER BLACK WIDOW SPIDER HOUSE SPIDER
(Dolomedes fimbriatus) (Nuctenea (Heteropoda (Latrodectus mactans) (Tegenaria gigantea)
umbratica) venatoria)
4th walking leg
Spinneret
EXTERNAL FEATURES OF A SPIDER Opisthosoma
(abdomen)

3rd walking leg

Simple eye

Prosoma
(cephalothorax)

Trochanter

2nd walking leg

Pedipalp
Chelicera Femur
1st walking leg Patella

Tibia

Metatarsus

MOLT OF A TARANTULA
Spiders must shed their
Tarsus exoskeleton (external skeleton)
togrow. During molting, the
exoskeleton splits and the spider
Claw pulls itself out, leaving behind
the old exoskeleton, shown above.

171
ANIMALS

Crustaceans 1st swimmeret


THE SUBPHYLUM CRUSTACEA is one of the largest groups (1st pleopod)
inthe phylum Arthropoda. The subphylum is divided
into several classes, the most important of which
are Malacostraca and Cirripedia. The class
Malacostraca includes crayfish, crabs,
lobsters, and shrimps. Typical features of
malacostracans include a body divided 2nd swimmeret
into two sections (a combined head (2nd pleopod)
and thorax called a cephalothorax, 3rd swimmeret (3rd pleopod)
and an abdomen); an exoskeleton 4th swimmeret (4th pleopod)
(external skeleton) with a large 5th swimmeret (5th pleopod)
plate (carapace) covering the Telson Abdomen
cephalothorax; stalked,
compound eyes; and two
pairs of antennae. The class
Cirripedia includes barnacles,
which, unlike other
crustaceans, spend their
adult lives attached to a Endopod
Uropod
surface, such as a rock. Other Exopod Abdominal
characteristics of cirripedes segment
include an exoskeleton of
3rd leg
overlapping calcareous plates; (3rdpereopod)
abody consisting almost entirely
of thorax (the abdomen and head
are minute); and six pairs of thoracic
appendages (cirri) used for filter feeding.
5th leg (5th 2nd leg (2nd
EXTERNAL FEATURES Propodus pereopod) pereopod)
OF A CRAB
Carpus Dactylus 4th leg (4th
pereopod)
Compound eye
Antenna

EXTERNAL FEATURES OF A SHRIMP


Cheliped (chela;
claw; 1st leg; Cephalothorax
1st pereopod) Compound eye

Abdomen
Carapace (shell)

Merus Antenna
Leg Swimmeret
Abdomen 2nd leg (pereopod) (pleopod)
(2ndpereopod) Exopod
Uropod
Endopod
5th leg (5th pereopod) 3rd leg (3rd pereopod)
Telson
4th leg (4th pereopod)

172
C R U S TA C E A N S

EXTERNAL FEATURES OF A STALKED BARNACLE


Tergum plate Carina plate
Dactylus
Propodus Cirrus
Scutum plate
Carpus
Merus
EXTERNAL FEATURES
Ischium OF A CRAYFISH
Antenna
Basis

Coxa Mandible 2nd maxilliped INTERNAL ANATOMY OF


A STALKED BARNACLE
Cephalothorax Cirrus
Scutum plate Tergum plate
3rd maxilliped
Female
Rostrum gonopore Penis
Testis
Mouth
Antennule Anus
Adductor muscle
Carina plate
Compound Supraoesophageal
eye ganglion Midgut
Carapace Cephalic groove Esophagus Mantle cavity
Digestive caecum
Stomach Ovary
Oviduct Stalk (peduncle)
Cement gland

Antennule
Cheliped (chela; claw;
1st leg; 1st pereopod)

INTERNAL ANATOMY OF A FEMALE CRAYFISH


Dorsal abdominal artery Heart Ostium Ovary Proventriculus (stomach)
Intestine (hindgut) Brain

Opening of
Ganglion green gland
Green gland
Ventral nerve Digestive Mouth
Anus cord caecum
Ventral abdominal artery Sternal artery
Oviduct

173
ANIMALS

Starfish and
sea urchins EXTERNAL FEATURES OF
A STARFISH (UPPER, OR
ABORAL, SURFACE)

STARFISH, SEA URCHINS, AND THEIR relatives (including


feather stars, brittle stars, basket stars, sea daisies,
sea lilies, and sea cucumbers) make up the phylum Disk
Echinodermata. A unique feature of echinoderms is the water
vascular system, which consists of a series of water-filled canals
from which protrude thousands of tiny tube feet. The tube feet
may be used for movement, feeding, or respiration. Other features
include pentaradiate symmetry (that is, the body can be divided into
five parts radiating from the center); no head; a diffuse, decentralized
nervous system that lacks a brain; and no excretory organs. Typically,
echinoderms also have an endoskeleton (internal skeleton)
consisting of hard calcite ossicles embedded in the
body wall and often bearing protruding spines or
tubercles. The ossicles may fit together to
form a test (as in sea urchins) or
remain separate (as in
seacucumbers).

Madreporite Spine

Arm
INTERNAL ANATOMY
OF A STARFISH
Rectum
Pyloric stomach
Madreporite Tube foot
Anus
Stone canal Rectal caecum

Ring canal
Lateral canal Cardiac stomach
Radial canal Pyloric duct
Ampulla Pyloric caecum
Mouth
Esophagus
Gonad
Conopore

174
S TA R F I S H A N D S E A U R C H I N S

EXAMPLES OF SEA URCHINS


Tube foot

EDIBLE SEA URCHIN CALIFORNIAN PURPLE PENCIL SLATE SEA


INTERNAL ANATOMY (Echinus escelentus) SEA URCHIN URCHIN
OF A SEA URCHIN (Strongylocentrotus (Heterocentrotus
Gonopore Anus Madreporite purpuratus) mammillatus)
Genital plate
EXTERNAL FEATURES OF A
Intestine SEA URCHIN (UPPER, OR
Gonad ABORAL, SURFACE)
Stone canal
Axial gland Anus
Ring canal
Siphon
Polian vesicle
Test Spine

Pharynx Spine
Nerve ring
Radial nerve Mouth
Tube foot
Radial canal
Ampulla

Tube foot

CUSHION STAR
(Asterina gibbosa)
COMMON BRITTLE STAR
(Ophiothix fragilis)
Tube foot

EXAMPLES OF
STARFISH Mouth

Ambulacral groove

C OMMON STARFISH EXTERNAL FEATURES OF A STARFISH


(Asterias rubens) (LOWER, OR ORAL, SURFACE)
ANIMALS

Mollusks EXTERNAL FEATURES OF A SCALLOP


Upper valve (shell) Mantle Ocellus (eye)

THE PHYLUM MOLLUSCA (MOLLUSKS) is a large group of animals that


includes octopuses, snails, and scallops. Octopuses and their relatives
including squid and cuttlefishform the class Cephalopoda.
Cephalopods typically have a head with a radula (a filelike feeding
organ) and beak; a well-developed nervous system; sucker-bearing
Lower valve Shell rib Sensory
tentacles; a muscular mantle (part of the body wall) that can expel (shell) tentacle
water through the siphon, enabling movement by jet propulsion; and
asmall shell or no shell. Snails and their relativesincluding slugs, Ventral margin
Sensory of shell Shell rib
limpets, and abalonesmake up the class Gastropoda. Gastropods tentacle
typically have a coiled external shell, although some, such as slugs,
have a small internal shell or no shell; a flat foot; and a head with
tentacles and a radula. Scallops and their relativesincluding clams,
mussels, and oystersmake up the class Bivalvia (also
called Pelecypoda). Features of bivalves include a shell
with two halves (valves); large gills that are used for
breathing and filter feeding; and no radula.

Anterior wing
INTERNAL ANATOMY Cephalic of shell
OF AN OCTOPUS vein Poison gland
Skull Digestive caecum Umbo Posterior
Brain Crop wing of shell
Dorsal mantle Dorsal margin of shell
cavity
Siphon (funnel)
Mantle muscles Tentacle
Buccal mass
Shell rudiment
Beak
Stomach
Caecum
Gonad
Systemic heart
Kidney
Branchial heart
Ctenidium
Anus
Ink sac
Muscular
septum

Sucker

176
MOLLUSKS

EXTERNAL FEATURES Shell Growth line


OF A SNAIL
Eye Apex of shell
Posterior
tentacle
Collar

INTERNAL ANATOMY
Digestive gland OF A SNAIL
Shell
Heart
Head Foot Ovotestis
Lung
Anterior Hermaphrodite duct Salivary gland
tentacle
Albumen gland Crop
Copulatory bursa Mucous gland
Dart sac
Spermatheca Cerebral
Kidney ganglion

EXTERNAL FEATURES Stomach


OF AN OCTOPUS
Ureter

Eye with horizontal iris Spermoviduct

Siphon (funnel)
Flagellum Anus Penis Radula
Excretory
pore
Vagina Gonopore Mouth
Esophagus Pedal gland

Visceral hump

177
ANIMALS

Sharks and
jawless fish SHARKS JAWS

SHARKS, DOGFISH (WHICH ARE actually small


sharks), skates, and rays belong to a class
of fishes called Chondrichthyes, which is a
division of the superclass Gnathostomata (meaning jawed
mouths). Also sometimes known as elasmobranchs,
sharks and their relatives have a skeleton made of
cartilage (hence their common name, cartilaginous
fish), a characteristic that distinguishes them from Jaws of an adult
tiger shark
bony fish (see pp. 180-181). Other important features
of cartilaginous fish are extremely tough, toothlike Jaws of a young
tiger shark
scales, and lack of a swim bladder. Jawless fish
lampreys and hagfishare primitive, eellike fish EXTERNAL FEATURES
that make up the order Cyclostomata (meaning OF A DOGFISH
round mouths), a division of the superclass
Agnatha (meaning without jaws). In
addition to their characteristic round,
suckerlike mouths and lack of jaws,
cyclostomes also have smooth,
slimy skin without scales, and
unpaired fins.
Snout
FEATURES OF A Outer lip
LAMPREYS HEAD
Mouth Eye
Tongue

Sucker Gill slit

Eye
Pectoral fin

Tooth
Anterior dorsal fin
Fringed inner lip
Posterior dorsal fin
EXTERNAL FEATURES OF A LAMPREY

Eye

Gill opening Anal fin

Sucker Caudal fin

178
S H A R K S A N D J AW L E S S F I S H

EXAMPLES OF CARTILAGINOUS FISH

TIGER SHARK
BASKING SHARK (Galeocerdo cuvier)
(Cetorhinus maximus)

SCALLOPED
THORNBACK RAY HAMMERHEAD SHARK
(Raja clavata) (Sphyrna lewini)

Anterior dorsal fin

Posterior dorsal fin

Pelvic fin

Right lobe Epibranchial


Wolffian duct Dorsal aorta of liver artery
Oviduct Kidney Ovary Spinal cord Lateral dorsal
Esophagus aorta
Rectal gland
Brain Orbital
artery

Mouth
Spiral Pharynx
Cloaca valve Heart
Gill slit
Rectum Intestine Pyloric region
of stomach Ventral aorta
Pancreas
Cardiac region
of stomach

INTERNAL ANATOMY
OF A FEMALE DOGFISH
Caudal fin

179
ANIMALS

Bony fish HOW FISH BREATHE


Fish breathe by extracting oxygen from water
through their gills. Water is sucked in through the
mouth; simultaneously, the opercula close to prevent
BONY FISH, SUCH AS CARP, TROUT, SALMON, perch, and the water from escaping. The mouth is then closed,
cod, are by far the best known and largest group of fish, andmuscles in the walls of the mouth, pharynx, and
with more than 20,000 species (over 95 percent of all opercular cavity contract to pump the water inside
overthe gills and out through the opercula. Some fish
known fish). As their name suggests, bony fish have rely on swimming with their mouths open to keep
skeletons made of bone, in contrast to the cartilaginous water flowing over the gills.
skeletons of sharks, jawless fish, and their relatives (see Pharynx
pp. 178-179). Other typical features of bony fish include
a swim bladder, which functions as a variable-buoyancy
organ, enabling a fish to remain effortlessly at whatever Gill raker
depth it is swimming; relatively thin, bonelike scales; Water
a flap (called an operculum) covering the gills; and out
pairedpelvic and pectoral fins. Scientifically, bony Gill slit
fishbelong to the class Osteichthyes, which is a
divisionof the superclass Gnathostomata Mouth
(meaningjawed mouths). Water in
Operculum
Gill filament
EXAMPLES OF BONY FISH
Vertebra

Neural spine

MANDARINFISH
(Synchiropus splendidus)

OCEANIC SEAHORSE
(Hippocampus kuda)

ANGLERFISH
(Caulophryne jordani)