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Circle concepts

A circle is a simple closed figure in which all the points that lie on it are
equidistant from a point called center.

Heres a circle with center O.

Here are some basics regarding circle and its properties:

Radius: The line segment that connects the center of the circle to any
point on the circle is called radius. OB, OA, OX, OY are the different radii of
the circle in the figure above. Infinite number of radii can be drawn for any
circle.
Diameter: The line segment that passes through the center and connects
two points on the circle is called the diameter. AB is the diameter of the
circle. Like radius, infinite number of diameters can be drawn in a circle.
Diameter = 2 * radius Or

Radius = Diameter / 2

Chord: The line segment that connects any two points on a circle is a
chord. Infinite number of chords can be drawn in a circle. XY is a chord of
the circle.
Apparently, the diameter is the longest chord of a circle.

Circumference:
The measure of the distance around the edge of a circle is the
circumference of the circle.

The circumference of a circle is given by the formula,


C = 2pr

Where C is the circumference and r is the radius.

Since 2*radius = diameter, Circumference is also given by

C = pd

The value of p is approximately 22/7 or 3.14159.

Area:
The area of a circle is given by the formula,

A = pr2

Where r is the radius of the circle.

Since r=d/2, Area is also given by

A = pd2/4

Arcs and sectors:


An arc is a part of the circumference of the circle. XY is an arc in the figure
above.

A sector is the area covered by two radii and the arc connecting them. XLY
and XOY are two of the sectors in the figure above.

Length of an arc is given by the formula, (x/360) * 2pr

Area of a sector is given by the formula, (x/360) * pr2

Where x is the angle subtended by the arc and r is the radius.

Central Angle: The angle whose one vertex lies on the center of the
circle is a central angle. XOY is a central angle in the figure above.
Inscribed angle: The angle whose one vertex lies on one part of the
circle and the other two end points lie on other place on the circle, is
called an inscribed angle. XLY, OXY, OYX are some of the inscribed
angles in the figure above.
Inscribed angles subtended by the same arc are equal.

A central angle is twice the corresponding inscribed angle.

In the figure above,


XOY = 2 XLY

Tangent: A tangent of a circle is a line that just touches the circle at one
point without intersecting it. MN is the tangent in the figure above.
Circumscribed circle: If a polygon is present inside a circle in such a way
that all its vertices lie on the circle, or just touch the circle, then the circle
is called a circumscribed circle.

Note: When a triangle is inscribed inside a circle and if one of the sides of
the triangle is diameter of the circle, then the diameter acts as
hypotenuse and the triangle is right. This is called the Thales theorem.
Inscribed circle: If a circle is present inside a polygon in such a way that
the sides of polygon are just touching the circumference of the circle then
the circle is called an inscribed circle.

Semicircle: A semi-circle is half the circle.


Area of a semicircle = pr2 / 2

Circumference of a semicircle = Half the perimeter of a circle + length of


the diameter
(2pr/2) + 2r

pr+2r

r(2+p)

If QS is the diameter and QR = 6 and radius = 5, find the area of the


shaded region.

Solution:
Area of the shaded region = Area of the circle (Area of the triangle QRS
+ Area of the semicircle)

Area of the circle = 25p

Area of the semicircle = 12.5p

Finding the area of the triangle:

According to the Thales theorem, if diameter is the side of a triangle, then


it becomes the hypotenuse and the triangle is right.

Therefore, QRS = 90.

Radius = 5 Diameter, QS = 10

QR = 6 (given)

According to Pythagoras theorem, QS2 = QR2 + RS2


100 = 36 + RS2 RS = 8. We can also see that this triplet is a multiple of
the famous Pythagorean triplet 3, 4, 5.

Area of a triangle = base * height / 2 = 48 / 2 = 24

Area of the shaded region = 25p (24 + 12.5p) = (12.5p 24) sq. units.