You are on page 1of 10


Fire Safety Journal 43 (2008) 334343

Effect of elevated temperature on bond between steel reinforcement

and ber reinforced concrete
R.H. Haddad, R.J. Al-Saleh, N.M. Al-Akhras
Department of Civil Engineering, Jordan University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 3030, Irbid, Jordan
Received 1 August 2007; received in revised form 7 October 2007; accepted 18 November 2007
Available online 31 December 2007


The bond behavior between ber reinforced concrete and 20-mm reinforcing steel rebars was evaluated under elevated temperatures.
Fifty modied pullout specimens (100  100  400 mm) were prepared using high strength concrete with basalt aggregate and different
volumetric mixtures of three types of bers, namely brass-coated steel bers, hooked steel bers, and high modulus polypropylene bers,
before being cured for 28 days at 40 1C. Specimens, designated for heat-treatment, were then subjected to elevated temperatures, ranging
from 350 to 700 1C, whereas unheated (control) ones were left in laboratory air. The overall response of control and heat-damaged
specimens, pulled out up to failure, and cracking extent and continuity were described. Standard cubes (100 mm3) were cast, cured, and
heat treated under similar conditions, then tested to evaluate compressive and splitting strengths. The results showed marked reductions
in residual compressive, splitting and steelconcrete bond under high temperatures with dramatic changes in bond stressfree-end slip
trend behavior. Use of bers minimized the damage in steelconcrete bond under elevated temperatures and hence the reduction in bond
strength. Specimens which incorporated hooked steel bers attained the highest bond resistance against elevated temperatures followed,
in sequence, by those prepared with the mixture of hooked and brass-coated steel, the mixture of hooked steel and polypropylene, and
brass-coated steel bers. Statistical models for bond stress versus free-end slip and bond strength versus exposure temperature were
developed. These showed excellent agreement with the trend behavior of present experimental data.
r 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Fibers; Concrete; Bond; Fire; Pullout

1. Introduction concrete at high temperature was attributed to three major

factors, namely vapor pressure of capillary and gel water,
The exposure of reinforced concrete (RC) structural decomposition of cement hydration products, and possible
elements to high temperatures during an aggressive re collapse of lling aggregate [6]. The presence of reinforce-
leads to signicant losses in its structural capacity due to ment in RC structural elements, although alleviating the
the reduction in the strength of the concrete, possible extent of damage at high temperatures, may create post-
plastic deformation of embedded steel and most impor- cooling residual stresses in the RC members that along
tantly loss of bond between reinforcing steel and concrete with possible loss of bond between reinforcing steel and
[14]. The latter endangers mainly the structural integrity concrete may endanger the integrity of the entire structure
of RC beams as the transfer of tensile stress from concrete under its service loads [1]. It was reported that the loss in
to reinforcing steel becomes minimal. Previous experience bond strength could reach as high as 60% when RC is
showed that exposure of concrete to temperatures in excess subjected to temperatures in excess of 500 1C [24].
of 400 1C would have detrimental impact on its strength Post-heating behavior of the concretesteel bond has
and integrity [5]. The loss in strength and/or spalling of been investigated over the past 50 years using two types of
bond test specimens, concentric pullout, specied in ASTM
Corresponding author. Tel.: +962 2720 1000x22119; and RILEM test methods, and double tension pullout in
fax: +962 2709 5018. which two test bars were pulled in opposite directions at
E-mail address: (R.H. Haddad). the same time so that the concrete surrounding the test bars

0379-7112/$ - see front matter r 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
R.H. Haddad et al. / Fire Safety Journal 43 (2008) 334343 335

would be in tension [79]. The different studies showed a whereas the damage extent was assessed through compres-
signicant effect of steel rebar surface characteristics, sive and splitting strength measurements and by evaluating
concrete connement, concrete basic properties (w/c ratio, the size and intensity of heat-generated cracks on a random
cement and aggregate type, additives), maturity, and surface of pullout specimens.
relative humidity, and testing condition (heating and
cooling duration and rate, and testing while hot or cold) 2. Experimental program
on concretesteel bond behavior under a wide range of
high temperature conditions [1015]. 2.1. Material properties
The works published about the mechanical performance
of plain and RC under elevated temperatures stipulated the 2.1.1. Fibers
benet of using pozzolanic matter and carbonate aggregate Three types of bers were used in preparing different
as well as insulation of concrete against moisture intrusion brous concrete mixtures namely: BCS, HS, and high-
on maintaining post-heating strength and the concrete performance polypropylene (HP). The mechanical and
steel bond [1019]. Recently, there has been an increasing geometric properties of the bers are listed in Table 1.
interest in using metallic and polymeric bers in ordinary
and high strength concrete mixtures to improve the 2.1.2. Reinforcing steel
resistance of the concrete to elevated temperatures of up Grade 60 deformed steel rebars of diameters (20 and
to 1000 1C [20,21]. The outcome of these studies indicated 10 mm) and smooth steel rebars of diameters (8 mm) were
that although the use of ber contributed to reducing used in preparing different modied pullout specimens.
spalling signicantly, it had limited impact on post-heating The mechanical and the geometric properties for the
residual compressive strength [20,21]. Limited (if any) 20-mm-rebars, obtained before and after heating then
research work has been undertaken to investigate the role cooling, are listed in Table 2.
of bers in maintaining post-heating bond between
concrete and reinforcing steel. 2.1.3. Aggregate
The present study investigates the contribution of three Crushed coarse basalt aggregates and a mixture of equal
types of bers (hooked steel (HS), brass-coated steel (BCS), proportions of crushed ne basalt and silica sand were used
polypropylene) to reducing damage hence maintaining with ordinary Portland cement (Type I) in preparing
bond strength between matured concrete and reinforcing different mixtures. The crushed coarse basalt had a
steel at high temperatures in the range of 350700 1C. The maximum aggregate size of 19 mm. The neness moduli
bers were incorporated in concrete either separately or as of the ne basalt and the silica sand, determined according
a blend at a total volumetric fraction of 2%. The bond to ASTM C136, was found to be 3.4 and 1.6, respectively
strength was evaluated using modied pullout specimens, [22]. The bulk specic gravity and the absorption capacity,

Table 1
Geometric and mechanical properties of bers used in the present study

Types of ber Geometrical conguration Fy (MPa) Specic gravity Fiber diameter (mm) Fiber length Aspect ratio
(gm/cm3) (mm) (Lf/Df)

BCS 2950 7.8 0.15 6 40

HS 1172 7.8 0.5 30 60

HP 525 0.91 Width 100; 40 40

Thickness 0.8

BCS, brass coated steel; HS, hooked steel; HP, high performance polypropylene.

Table 2
The mechanical and physical properties of reinforcing steel bars under high temperatures

T (1C) Yield strength Ultimate strength Strain at Rib height Rib spacing Face angle
(MPa) (MPa) failure (%) (mm) (mm) (deg)

23 592 813 8 0.58 5.6 54

350a 577 799 9.3 0.58 5.6 54
500a 428 522 13.5 0.6 5.6 54
600a 336 486 18.3 0.69 5.7 54
700a 252 466 25.1 0.7 5.7 54
After cooling to room temperature.
336 R.H. Haddad et al. / Fire Safety Journal 43 (2008) 334343

determined according to ASTM C127 and C128, respectively, 2.3. Mixing, casting, and curing of specimens
were found to be (2.73, 2.64, and 2.6) and (1.9%, 5.4%, and
0.5%) for coarse and ne basalt aggregate and silica sand, A tilting drum mixer of 0.15 m3 capacity was used in
respectively [22]. The unit weight of coarse aggregate, obtained mixing the concrete ingredient. The mixing procedure
according to ASTM C29, was found to be 1560 kg/m3 [22]. followed ASTM C192 [22]. BCS bers were pre-blended
with the ne particles prior to mixing whereas HS and HP
2.1.4. Concrete mix bers were spread by hand during mixing. The slump was
One plain and four brous concrete mixtures of high- measured according to ASTM C143 and found to be about
strength concrete mixtures were designed at a w/c ratio of 50 mm [22]. The inside of the wooden molds was painted
0.35 according to ACI 211 mix design procedure. with oil before the steel cages were placed and the concrete
The contents of cement, water, coarse, ne basalt, silica poured in three layers, each consolidated using a vibrating
sand, and superplasticizer used were 600, 227, 763, 413, 402, table. The surface of each specimen was nished off by
and 9 kg/m3, respectively. The brous concrete mixtures were smoothing with a trowel. Finally, the modied pullout
prepared using BCS, HS, a mixture of one part of HP and specimens were demolded after 24 h and immersed in a
three parts of HS (HSHP), and a mixture of equal water bath at 40 1C. The treatment was aimed at: (a)
proportions of BCS and HS (HBCS) at a constant volumetric simulating eld temperatures (in Jordan) and (b) attaining
fraction of 2%. the highest possible strength during the 28 days specied for
curing. Standard concrete cubes (100 mm) were cast in steel
2.2. Specimen geometry and steel reinforcement detailing molds, demolded, and cured under similar conditions to
which the modied pullout specimens were subjected. The
A modied version of the double pullout specimen, test specimens were categorized in ve series of ten each.
proposed by Chapman and Shah [7], was used. The cross- Specimens of each series were prepared from the same
sectional geometric properties and steel detailing are concrete batch and subjected in pairs to heat-treatment at
presented in Fig. 1. Reinforcing steel of 10-mm diameter different temperatures before tested to evaluate bond
were used at the corners of the specimens to prevent tensile behavior, and compressive and splitting strengths.
failure of the concrete prior to bond failure of the 20-mm
rebar embedded in the right side of the specimen. A 2.4. Heating procedure
rectangular steel plate of 0.5-mm thickness was used at the
middle of the specimen to: (a) prevent crack propagation The matured modied pullout and cube specimens were
from the right side, where bond failure is expected to occur, left for 7 days in the laboratory air at a relative humidity of
to the left side where the other 20-mm rebar is xed; and 60% and a temperature of 23 1C. Those designated for
(b) maintain the concentricity of the 20-mm steel bar. The thermal treatment were then subjected to temperatures of
specimens were cast in a specially designed formwork 350, 500, 600, and 700 1C for 2 h by means of an electrical
consisting of a 20-mm-thick wooden mold. A concrete furnace (900  600  1800 mm) according to the furnace
cover of 25 mm to the center of reinforcement was used. temperature versus time schedule presented in Fig. 2.
Special steel spacers were positioned inside the mold Duplicate specimens from each mixture were left in
underneath the reinforcement to achieve the required laboratory air as controls. The interface temperature for
cover. Plastic sleeves were used at both ends of the steel the modied pullout specimen used is expected to be very
bars which were designated to be pulled out, to limit the close to that of the furnace because of its relatively small
embedment length to 150 mm. This arrangement would size and the low-heating rate employed [12].
ensure a uniform shearing stress distribution along the
pulled-out steel rebar. 800
200 mm 200 mm 600 500oC
150 mm 350oC
Temperature ( C)


P 20 mm 20 mm P
1 10 mm
8 mm 300
Sleeves to Break Bond
20 mm
8 mm 100 mm
10 mm Cross Section 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26
Steel Plate
100 mm Time (Hours)

Fig. 1. Details of the modied pullout specimen used. Fig. 2. The timetemperature schedule.
R.H. Haddad et al. / Fire Safety Journal 43 (2008) 334343 337

2.5. Pullout testing photos were taken. The widths of cracks were measured
with the aid of a special scale that allowed measuring crack
The loadslip relationship for the modied pullout widths as small as 0.08 mm.
specimens was established using the setup assembly shown
in Fig. 3a. The steel rebar was pulled out using a Universal 3. Results and discussion
Testing Machine with a maximum capacity of 1200 kN,
while slip was measured using an LVDT, mounted on the The results of the present study are reported and discussed
steel rebar at the side designated to be released while its tip according to the following sequence. The cracking patterns,
was in touch with concrete surface, 15 mm from the surface intensity, and continuity as well as residual strengths of
of the bar, as seen in Fig. 3b. The pulling-out was different modied pullout specimens are evaluated at
performed at a loading rate of 200 N/s so that bond failure different elevated temperatures. The effect of temperature
took place within 315 min. The pullout loads versus on bond behavior between ber RC and reinforcing steel is
slippage readings were acquired and processed to obtain discussed next. Finally, empirical models for predicting BS
the relationship between bond stress (BS) and free-end slip. and bond strength are developed and evaluated.
The BS was calculated from external load (P) on the bar
and total surface area of the embedded portion of the 3.1. Evaluation of damage
reinforcing bar, assuming a constant stress along the
bonded length of the bar (i.e., BS P/(pDL), where D and 3.1.1. Photographic evaluation of damage
L are the diameter of the bar and embedded length, Modied pullout specimens experienced short random
respectively). The pair of specimens tested for bond cracks at 350 1C yet extensive map-type cracking when
behavior showed similar results with less than 3% exposed to high temperatures in the range of 500700 1C.
difference in bond strength and free-end slip values. As can be expected, the intensity of cracking was
determined by the temperature level and the type of bers
2.6. Strength evaluation used. The contribution of bers to reducing the length and
intensity of the cracks was signicant in the temperature
The compressive and splitting strengths of cubes were range of 350500 1C, yet limited in the temperature range
determined before and after heat-treatment according to of 600700 1C. Typical cracking patterns for plain and
BS1881: part 116. The test value was taken as the average brous concrete mixtures with HS, and BCS bers are
of two or three cube specimens. depicted in Fig. 4. The resulting cracking was related to the
combination of three damaging factors, namely expansion
2.7. Evaluation of cracking extent of concrete beyond its elastic limit; vapor pressure of pore
and gel water; and decomposition of cement hydration
The extent of cracking in different pullout specimens was products [6]. The loss of bond between the bers and the
evaluated by visual inspection, and direct crack width and surrounding severely damaged concrete matrix explains the
continuity measurements. The post-heating cracks on the limited role of the bers in reducing cracking at extreme
surfaces of pullout specimens were marked in black before temperatures.

Fig. 3. Testing setup for the modied pullout specimens: (a) the specimen as gripped by the machine and (b) the LVDT mounted on the specimen.
338 R.H. Haddad et al. / Fire Safety Journal 43 (2008) 334343

Without fibers Hooked steel fibers Brass-coated steel fibers




Fig. 4. Cracking pattern on a single surface of different modied pullout specimens.

Table 3 difference in their expansion coefcients at high tempera-

The extent of cracking for the different MP specimens after being tures and (b) the higher sensitivity of brous concrete
subjected to high temperatures mixtures to high temperatures as compared to plain
T (1C) Type of mixture concrete, due to the greater strength of the brous concrete
mixture at room temperature. Heating to 700 1C generated
Plain HSFRC HSPPFRC HBCSFRC BCSFRC extensive cracking and sometimes spalling in the cubic
500 specimens, which was reduced by the use of bers.
CW (mm) 0.1 0.08 0.1 0.08 0.08
NFC 2 0 1 0 0 3.2. Concretesteel bond behavior
CW (mm) 0.1 0.08 0.1 0.08 0.08 The effect of temperature level and ber type and
NFC 3 1 2 0 0 content on the trend behavior of BS versus free-end slip
700 curves and their characteristics was studied. The character-
CW (mm) 1 0.2 1 0.2 0.2 istics considered were the ultimate bond strength, and the
NFC 4 2 2 0 0 free-end slip at failure (FESF). The critical BS correspond-
ing to zero-slip value was negligible. This is referred to the
CW, crack width (mm); NFC, number of faces on which a single crack is
continuous. relatively low value of the ratio of concrete cover to steel
bar diameter and to that the concrete in the modied
pullout specimens was subjected to pure tension during
3.1.2. Crack size and continuity pullout testing.
Width and continuity of the cracks on the surfaces of the
pullout specimens under different exposure temperatures 3.2.1. Bond stress versus free-end slip diagrams
were determined and are listed in Table 3. Cracks were Figs. 59 depict the relationship between BS and free-
initiated at a temperature of 350 1C and their width, end slip for plain concrete and brous concrete with HS,
intensity, and length increased at higher temperatures. At HSHP, HBCS, and BCS bers under different exposure
the extreme temperature (700 1C), specimens showed temperatures (350700 1C). As can be seen, the curves show
extensive cracking and sometimes spalling at their corners. typical behavior, similar to that proposed by Bertero,
The use of bers reduced crack sizes on the surfaces of Popov, and Ellegehausen (BPE) [23], represented by linear
modied pullout specimens and limited or prevented crack behavior up to about 40% of their ultimate amplitudes,
propagation throughout the modied pullout sides. and nonlinear thereafter. Exposure of modied pullout
specimens from different mixtures to temperatures in the
3.1.3. Compressive and splitting strength range of (500700 1C) resulted in softening of BS versus
The results of Tables 4 and 5 indicated that the free-end slip curves.
contribution of bers to maintaining residual compressive The bond behavior of modied pullout specimens in the
and tensile strengths was limited in the temperature range post-heating stage was dictated mainly by the physical state
of 350600 1C, yet signicant at a temperature of 700 1C. of brous concrete with negligible effect of physical and
Such behavior may be related to: (a) the partial loss in geometric properties of the reinforcing bars. The latter is
bond between bers and surrounding matrix due to the attributed to the minimal elongation of the steel free ends
R.H. Haddad et al. / Fire Safety Journal 43 (2008) 334343 339

Table 4
Compressive strength (MPa) for different mixtures without and with different bers before and after exposure to high temperatures


23 77.3 (100%)a 89.8 (100%) 85.5 (100%) 93.75 (100%) 103.6 (100%)
350 48.3 (62.5%) 60.15 (67%) 54.05 (63.2%) 61.4 (65.5%) 63.25 (61.1%)
500 39.95 (51.7%) 45.1 (50.2%) 42.25 (49.4%) 46.5 (49.6%) 49 (47.3%)
600 24.85 (32.1%) 29.45 (32.8%) 27.15 (31.8%) 28.95 (30.9%) 31.35 (30.3%)
700 0.38 (0.5%) 10.4 (11.6) 6.8 (8%) 9.05 (9.7%) 6.9 (6.7%)
Residual strength.

Table 5 16
Splitting strength (MPa) for different mixtures without and with different 23C
bers before and after exposure to high temperatures 14 350C
T (1C) Plain HS HSHP HBCS BCS 12 600C
23 11.8 22.65 20.45 20.7 22.5

Bond Stress (MPa)

(100%)a (100%) (100%) (100%) (100%)
350 8.85 13.4 11.45 13.35 16.4
(75%) (59.2%) (56%) (64.5%) (72.9%)
500 5.9 7.9 7 9.25 7.8
(50%) (34.9%) (34.2%) (44.7%) (34.7%) 6
600 3.55 5.1 4.25 4.9 5.55
(30.1%) (22.5%) (20.8%) (23.7%) (24.7%) 4
700 S 1.7 1.65 1.7 1.4
(7.5%) (8.1%) (8.2%) (6.2%) 2

S, spalled due to high temperature. 0

Residual strength. 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4
Slip (mm)

16 Fig. 6. Bond stress versus free-end slip for modied pullout specimens
23C with HS bers.
14 350C
12 600C 16
Bond Stress (MPa)

10 14 350C
8 12 600C
Bond Stress (MPa)

6 10

4 8

2 6

0 4
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4
Slip (mm) 2
Fig. 5. Bond stress versus free-end slip for modied pullout specimens
prepared with plain concrete. 0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4
Slip (mm)
under loading because: (a) the noticeable reduction in the Fig. 7. Bond stress versus free-end slip for modied pullout specimens
yield strength of reinforcing steel with temperatures was with HSHP bers.
offset by the decrease in the ultimate pullout load capacity
of the modied pullout; and (b) the geometric properties of Consequently, the ultimate BS as well as the compressive
reinforcing steel showed slight changes under high tem- and splitting strengths decreased. Because concrete con-
perature, as deduced from Table 2. nement is governed by the width and intensity of the heat-
The increasing pullout load enlarged heat-generated generated cracks, the rate of increase in free-end slip was
cracks; hence reduced the connement around the steel bar. much higher at temperatures in the range 500700 1C as
340 R.H. Haddad et al. / Fire Safety Journal 43 (2008) 334343

16 Table 6
23C Ultimate bond strength (MPa) and FESF (mm) for different modied
14 350C pullout specimens without and with different bers before and after
500C exposure to different temperatures
12 600C
700C T Type of mixture
Bond Stress (MPa)



6 23 8.94 0.47 10.96 0.63 10.17 0.74 13.22 0.84 15.22 0.83
350 7.54 0.39 10.19 0.64 9.21 0.74 10.58 0.84 10.92 0.73
4 500 3.16 0.68 5.48 0.92 5.70 0.77 7.31 1.12 7.35 1.20
600 2.99 0.46 4.66 1.11 4.60 1.11 4.68 1.12 4.93 0.89
700 2.59 0.56 4.23 0.78 3.51 0.82 3.15 0.71 2.55 0.80
UBS, ultimate bond stress; FESF, free-end slip at failure.
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4
Slip (mm)
Table 7
Fig. 8. Bond stress versus free-end slip for modied pullout specimens Percent residual bond strength for different modied pullout specimens
with HBCS bers. after a single thermal cycle

T (1C) Plain Fiber type

16 (%)
23C HS (%) HSHP (%) HBCS (%) BCS (%)
14 350C
500C 23 100 100 100 100 100
12 600C 350 84 93 90 80 72
700C 500 36 50 56 55 49
Bond Stress (MPa)

600 22 43 45 36 32
700 29 38 34 24 17

values are listed in Tables 7 and 8 whereas residuals for
FESF are listed in Tables 9 and 10, respectively.
Residual bond strength. The results summarized in
2 Table 7 and graphically presented in Fig. 10 show that
the residual bond strength was reduced as the exposure
0 temperature was increased. The residual bond strength
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 versus temperature curves decreased slightly at 350 1C, yet
Slip (mm) sharply at temperatures greater than 500 1C. This behaviors
Fig. 9. Bond stress versus free-end slip for modied pullout specimens is attributed to the increase in intensity, width, and
with BCS bers. extension of cracks with temperature that led to a
reduction in concrete connement of the reinforcing steel
compared to that at 350 1C. Failure occurred because of [6]. Fiber RC mixtures showed better resistance against
local crushing of concrete at the tips of the bar ribs, temperatures than that of plain concrete in the temperature
followed by sudden splitting of concrete along the range from 350 to 600 1C, hence maintaining higher
reinforcing bars. Hence, all the specimens tested showed residual bond strengths (Table 8). The mixture with HS
typical splitting failure along the pulled rebar with radial bers showed the best performance followed, in sequence,
cracking on their cross-section. The splitting failure is by those with HBCS, HSHP, and BCS, respectively. The
observed when the concrete cover to diameter ratio was contribution of different bers to maintaining bond
smaller than 2.5, the minimum ratio for possible pullout strength was enhanced with exposure temperatures. As
failure [24]. exposure temperature was raised to 700 1C, the residual
bond strength for brous concrete mixtures, although
3.2.2. Characteristics of bond stress and free-end slip decreased, maintained higher values than that of plain
diagrams concrete, except for the mixture with BCS bres. The
The bond strengths and FESFs were obtained and are residual bond strength at 350 1C for concrete mixtures with
summarized in Table 6. The residuals after a single thermal HS, HSHP, HBCS, and BCS bers were 136%, 123%,
cycle were computed with favorite effect of exposure 141%, and 145%, respectively. The corresponding values
temperature and mixture type. Residual bond strength at 500 and 700 1C were 172%, 178%, 228%, 231% and
R.H. Haddad et al. / Fire Safety Journal 43 (2008) 334343 341

Table 8 100
Percent residual bond strength for different modied pullout specimens
with favourite effects of mixture type

T (1C) Plain Fiber type 80


Residual Bond Strength (%)

HS (%) HSHP (%) HBCS (%) BCS (%)
23 100 124 115 148 171
350 100 136 123 141 145
500 100 172 178 228 231
600 100 235 230 235 245
700 100 162 135 124 98

plain HS
Percent residual free-end slip for different modied pullout specimens
after a single thermal cycle

T (1C) Plain Fiber type 0

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700
(%) Temperature ( oC)
HS (%) HSHP (%) HBCS (%) BCS (%)
Fig. 10. Residual bond strength versus temperature for modied speci-
23 100 100 100 100 100 mens prepared with different FRC mixtures.
350 83 102 100 100 88
500 145 146 104 133 145
600 98 176 150 133 107 a more effective arresting of heat-generated cracks during
700 119 124 111 85 96
pullout testing. The escape channels formed by melting of
the polypropylene bres, impart limited improvement in
bond resistance against heating because of the reduction in
Table 10 both splitting and compressive strengths as a result of the
Percent residual free-end slip for different modied pullout specimens with increase in the overall porosity.
favorite effects of mixture type Free-end slip at failure. The results of Table 9 showed a
T (1C) Plain Fiber type signicant increase in FESF at temperatures in the range
concrete 500600 1C because of the increase in steelconcrete bond
(%) ductility generated by stable cracks, yet showed limited
HS (%) HSHP (%) HBCS (%) BCS (%) changes in FESF at temperatures of 350 and 700 1C. At the
23 100 134 157 179 177 latter two temperatures, cracking was limited and severe,
350 100 164 190 215 187 respectively, and hence the modied pullout specimens
500 100 135 113 165 176 showed limited slip at failure. The residual FESF values
600 100 241 241 243 193 were higher for brous concrete mixtures than for plain
700 100 139 146 127 143
concrete in the pre and post-heating stages because of the
contribution the bers to increasing concrete ductility in
the vicinity of reinforcing steel, as can be deduced from the
162%, 135%, 124%, 98%, respectively. It should be data of Table 10. The residual FESF showed no specic
mentioned that although some brous concrete mixtures trend in its behavior versus temperature with its highest
showed lower residual bond strength than that of plain value being at 600 1C. The implication of the free-end slip is
concrete, their bond strengths maintained always higher that it gives an indication of the ultimate slip that can be
values. The statistical linear correlation between residual allowed in practice prior to bond failure represented by
compressive or splitting strength and residual bond sudden splitting of concrete along the steel bar.
strength was found to be limited. This may be attributed
to the connement effect of steel reinforcement which 3.3. Analytical modeling
imparted to the ber RC (in the modied pullout
specimens) higher residual strengths than that of the plain In this section two empirical models are developed. The
cubes, used as standard test specimens for compressive or rst model describes BS as a function of free-end slip for
splitting strength evaluation. the present type of brous concrete mixtures and cong-
The above behavior can be explained as follows. The uration of bond test specimen. Development of such a
anchorage of HS with the concrete matrix was much higher model is aimed at: (a) establishing that the present BS and
than that of smooth and short BCS bers. This resulted in free-end slip relationship ts well with the typically
342 R.H. Haddad et al. / Fire Safety Journal 43 (2008) 334343

16 100

14 Plain
80 Concrete

Residual Bond Strength (%)

Bond Stress (MPa)

10 60 HS Fibers

6 500C
4 20 Model Prediction
Experimental data Experimental Data
Model prediction
0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 o
Temperature ( C)
Slip (mm)
Fig. 12. Model prediction of residual bond strength for modied pullout
Fig. 11. Model prediction of bond stress for modied pullout specimens specimens without and with HS bers.
with HS bers.

stipulated behavior; (b) estimating actual bond strength in 3.3.2. Residual bond strength
practice, based on direct measurements of slippage that are A nonlinear empirical model, which relates percentage
carried out as a part of usual surveillance procedures. The residual bond strength to exposure temperature, was
second model, which predicts residual bond strength as a developed using the present experimental data. The model
function of exposure temperature, would aid the estimation is similar in form to that of Haddad [25]. It is given as
of bond strength in ber reinforced structures or help in p
designing concrete mixtures for best resistance against 1  0:0035 T  0:522 
RBS k , (2)
elevated temperatures. 1 0:0035T  0:522 
where RBS is the residual bond strength, T the exposure
3.3.1. Bond stress versus free-end slip temperature greater than 23 1C, and k a constant that
The trend of behavior of ascending and plateau parts of depends on the type of the mixture used. It takes values of
the present BS versus free-end slip curves is similar to that 152, 170, 170, 159, and 149 for plain concrete, and brous
of the model suggested by BPE [23]. Therefore, the concrete mixtures with HS, HSHP, HBCS, and BCS bers,
ascending part of the present curves can be described respectively.
using the following equation: The model parameters were obtained using the software
t S STATISTICA. The statistical parameter (R2) exceeded
, (1) 96%; indicating an excellent t of the model of the
t1 S1
experimental data. Fig. 12 shows typical comparisons
where t1 (UBS) is the ultimate bond strength and S1 is the between the trend behavior of experimental and predicted
corresponding slip. The parameters S and t are the varying residual bond strengths versus exposure temperature for
values of BS and free-end slip along the curves, respec- plain concrete and brous concrete with HS bers. The
tively. The parameter n is a curve tting parameter that concrete mixtures with HS and BCS bers showed the
must be less than 1 to be physically meaningful [23]. highest and lowest coefcients for the model parameter (k),
Nonlinear regression was performed using STATISTI- respectively. These results are in agreement with previous
CA computer package to obtain the parameters of the discussion that indicated that the highest and the lowest
above equation. The regression results indicated an residual bond strength values were attained by the mixtures
excellent t of the present model of data used as indicated with HS and BCS bers, respectively.
by the high values of the multiple coefcient of determina-
tion (R2) which exceeded 97%. Fig. 11 shows comparison
between predicted and experimentally measured BSs for 4. Conclusion
the concrete mixture with HS bers at exposure tempera-
tures of 500 and 700 1C. As can be seen, the model The following conclusions can be drawn from the
suggested ts the data well with relatively low prediction experimental results:
error percentage. Similar conclusions apply for the same
mixture at exposure temperatures of 350 and 600 1C and 1. Exposure of the modied pullout specimens used in the
for the other concrete mixtures under the entire tempera- present study to temperatures in excess of 400 1C
ture spectrum (350700 1C). resulted in signicant reduction in bond strength
R.H. Haddad et al. / Fire Safety Journal 43 (2008) 334343 343

between reinforcing steel and ber RC and softening of [9] H. Kasami, T. Okuno/Odano, S. Yamane/Jamane, Properties of
the BS versus free-end slip curves pertaining. concrete exposed to sustained elevated temperature, in: Transactions
of the Third International Conference on Structural Mechanics in
2. Incorporation of bers in modied pullout specimens
Reactor Technology, London, 1975, pp. 110.
limited cracking of concrete and prevented spalling [10] U. Diederichs, U. Schneider, Bond strength at high temperatures,
under elevated temperatures below 600 1C; therefore, Mag. Concr. Res. 33 (115) (1978) 7584.
enhanced post-heating residual bond strength between [11] K. Hertz, The anchorage capacity of reinforcing bars at normal and
reinforcing steel and concrete. The concrete mixture high temperatures, Mag. Concr. Res. 35 (121) (1982) 213220.
with HS bers showed the highest residual bond [12] R. Royles, P. Morley, M.R. Khan, The behavior of reinforced
concrete at elevated temperatures with particular reference to bond
strength followed, in sequence, by those with the strength, in: P. Bartos (Ed.), Proceedings of Conference on Bond in
mixture of HS and BCS, the mixture of HS and Concrete, Paisley, Scotland, 1982, pp. 217228.
polypropylene, and BCS bers. [13] R. Royles, P. Morley, Response of the bond in reinforced concrete to
3. The bers used in the modied pullout specimens high temperatures, Mag. Concr. Res. 35 (123) (1983) 6774.
contributed to increasing steelconcrete bond ductility [14] F.I. Faiyadh, M.A. Al-Aussi, Effect of elevated temperatures on
splitting tensile strength of ber reinforced concrete, Int. J. Cem.
regardless of the magnitude of exposure temperature as Compos. Lightweight Concr. 11 (3) (1989) 175183.
indicated by the values of FESF. [15] Z. Bazant, M. Kaplan, Concrete at High Temperatures: Material
4. The empirical models developed to predict BS and bond Properties and Mechanical Models, Longman Group Limited,
strength showed excellent t of the data used. England, 1996.
[16] C.S. Poon, S. Azhar, M. Anson, Y.L. Wong, Comparison of the
strength and durability performance of normal and high-strength
pozzolanic concretes at elevated temperatures, Cem. Concr. Res. 31
Acknowledgments (2001) 12911300.
[17] G.A. Khoury, Compressive strength of concrete at high temperature:
The authors would like to acknowledge the support a reassessment, Mag. Concr. Res. 44 (161) (1992) 291309.
received from the deanship of scientic research of [18] R. Sarshar, G.A. Khoury, Material and environmental factors
inuencing the compressive strength of unsealed cement paste and
University of Science and Technology at Jordan and the concrete at high temperatures, Mag. Concr. Res. 45 (162) (1993)
assistance of the technicians at the engineering workshop 5161.
and civil engineering laboratories. [19] R.H. Haddad, L.G. Shannis, Post-re behavior of bond between high
strength concrete and reinforcing steel, Constr. Build. Mater. 18
(2004) 425435.
References [20] B. Chen, L. Juanyu, Residual strength of hybrid-ber-reinforced
high-strength concrete after exposure to high temperatures, Cem.
[1] G.A. Khoury, Effect of re on concrete and concrete structures, Proc. Concr. Res. 34 (2004) 10651069.
Struct. Eng. Mater. J. 2 (2000) 429447. [21] C. Han, Y. Hwang, S. Yang, N. Gowripalan, Performance of spalling
[2] V. Kodur, R. McGrath, Fire endurance of high strength concrete resistance of high performance concrete with polypropylene bers
columns, Fire Technol. 89 (2003) 7387. content and lateral connement, Cem. Concr. Res. 35 (2005)
[3] R. Haddad, L. Shannis, Post-re behavior of bond between high 17471753.
strength pozzolanic concrete and reinforcing steel, Constr. Build. [22] ASTM, Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Cement, Lime, Gypsum,
Mater. 18 (2004) 425435. American Society of Testing and Materials, 1991.
[4] P. Morely, R. Royles, Response of the bond in reinforcing concrete to [23] E. Cosenza, G. Manfredi, R. Realfonzo, Behavior and modeling of
high temperatures, Mag. Concr. Res. 35 (123) (1983) 6774. bond of FRP rebars to concrete, J. Compos. Constr. 1 (2) (1997)
[5] Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Concrete, American Society for 4051.
Testing Materials, 1993. [24] K. Leet, D. Bernal, Reinforced Concrete Design, third ed., McGraw-
[6] RILEM, Bond test for reinforcement steel: 2-pull-out test, Recom- Hill Book Co, Singapore, 1997.
mendation RC6, CEB News 73, 1983. [25] R.H. Haddad, A. Qudah, Statistical modeling of post-heating
[7] R.A. Chapman, S.P. Shah, Early aged bond strength in reinforced residual strength for Portland cement concrete, in: B. Topping
concrete, ACI Mater. J. 84 (6) (1987) 501510. (Ed.), Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Civil,
[8] V. Reichel, How re affects steel-to-concrete bond, Build. Res. Pract. Structural and Environmental Engineering Computing, Civil-Comp
6 (3) (1978) 176187. Press, Stirlingshire, Scotland, 2007, pp. 113.