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Turbulent Flow

• Consider the case of laminar flow, where velocity u increases with y.

• Even though the fluid particles are moving horizontally to the right,

because of molecular motion, molecules would cross line ab and

transport momentum with them.

• The velocities of molecules in slower moving fluid

• Faster moving fluid

• The result is shear stress along trace ab

• In turbulent flow the velocity at a point in the flow field fluctuates

in both magnitude and direction.

• We may observe these fluctuations in accurate velocity

measurements and we may commonly see their effects on pressure

gauges and manometers.

• The fluctuations result from a multitude of small eddies, created by

the viscous shear between adjacent particles.

.

it changes with turbulency . First Expression ?? ????????? ?ℎ??? ?????? = η ?? η = ???? ????????? ?? ?? ?? ?= ? + η = ? ?+ ? ?? ?? ?? ? = ????????? ???? ????????? In viscous flow velocity remain constant as a function of time at a particular time In turbulent flow. velocity varies as a function of time at a particular point Turbulency increases with o Velocity o Roughness in the pipe η is not the physical property of liquid.

turbulent flow cannot exist there. is a property of flow alone. • Eta may be said as coefficient of momentum transfer. analogous to kinematic viscosity. • Next to and perpendicular to smooth wall. expressing the transfer of momentum. • Its value may range from zero to many thousand times the value of µ. epsilon). • Kinematic eddy viscosity ε (=µ/ρ. • The shear stress always acts to cause the velocity distribution to become more uniform. • Near a smooth wall the shear is due to laminar flow alone and τ=µ du/dy. First Expression • Eddy viscosity is not constant(unlike µ) for a given fluid at a given temperature. .

2 r . • The latter can be large. at the centre of the wall? • In turbulent flow as well as laminar flow. and so the viscous shear becomes negligible in comparison with the turbulent shear. why? • Because of great turbulence that may exist at an appreciable distance from the wall. such as 0. the shear stress is maximum at the walls and decreases linearly to zero at the axis. the value of du/dy becomes small in turbulent flow. . even though du/dy is small. • Then what about.• At some distance from the wall.

Conversely what would be change in momentum when a mass “m” moves from upper zone to lower zone 5. Second Expression 1. If this fluid of mass “m” moves upward where the velocity is u+∆u. what would be the momentum 3. What would be the momentum of the fluid below line ab. What would the increase in initial momentum is the axial direction 4. What would be shear stress if this velocity profile is vertical? And what about ∆u . if mass is “m” and velocity is “u” 2. This transfer of momentum back and forth across at will produce a shear in the plane through ab 6.

The slower moving mass from below ab tend to retard the flow above ab 13.6 and 8. By inspecting 8. It will transport into upper zone where velocity is u+u’ 12. According to Prandtl . 18. Momentum per unit time on an average=? 11.5 + ʋ’ is associated with –u’ and vice versa. If the distance ∆y is chosen so that average value of +u’ in upper zone. u’ʋ’: temporal average of the product of u’ and ʋ’ 15. ‘m’ mass moving upward from below ab with a velocity ʋ’ 10. In modern turbulence theory -ρu’ʋ’ is known as Reynolds stress 16. over a time period to include many velocity fluctuation 8. Minus sign appears because the product u’ʋ’ on average is negative 17. Second Expression 7. The distance between two streams is known as the maximum length “l” 9. This creates shear along ab 14.

Second Expression • Reynold simplify this equation by using fluctuation component of velocity i. u’ and v’ • u’ = fluctuation in the direction of flow • v’ = lateral fluctuation in flow ? ′ ′ ?= = ?? ? ?? .e.

In this theory u’ = v’ so equation will become ′ ′ 2 ?? 2 ? = −?? ? = ?? ( ) ?? . Prandtl mixing length theory for turbulent shear stress To simplify the reynold’s equation. Prandtl give a theory for turbulent shear stress. From figure ′ ?? ? = ? ?? Where. It increases with turbulence. the distance b/w two layers. l = Prandtl mixing length.

.

the turbulent boundary layer generally increases in thickness much more rapidly. Laminar boundary layer increases in thickness till the transition. • So the length of in-viscid core where two opposite layers meet is relatively shorter. • No single equation exist to predict entrance length for tubulent flow. Viscous Sublayer in Turbulent Flow • The initial condition is much like laminar flow.000ϑ/U . the velocity profile is generally fully developed within 20 to 40 pipe diameter. • It takes about four times this length (inviscid core) for the velocity profile to become fully developed and 8 to 12 times this length for the detailed structure of turbulence to become fully developed. ie the length over which flow is developing. . • The transition occurs where the length xc of the laminar portion of the boundary layer is about equal to 500. Only when all these aspects are complete do we have fully developed turbulent flow. where U is uniform velocity • After transition. As an approximate guide.

.

we find that quantity under-root (τo/ρ).• By plotting one velocity profile from the wall on the assumption that the flow is entirely laminar and plotting another velocity profile with assumption that flow is turbulent. scientists have named it the “shear stress velocity”. • One curve must merge into the other with some kind of Transition. • When studying such velocity profiles. • The two will intersect. u* . no abrupt change is observed. frequently occurs. .

the value of y seems to about or 14?? ?∗ . 70? For the latter point.Law of the Wall ? ??∗ = ?∗ ? 5? The thickness of viscous sublayer: ?? = ?∗ The transition zone appears to extend from a to c.

?? ? ?∗ = =? ? 8 When ?? ∗ = 5 or ? = ?? ? 14.14? ?? = = ? ? ? ? .14? 14.

the pipe will behave as transitionally rou ? . the roughness has no effect on friction. the viscous sublayer completely buries the surface roughness. Hydraulically smooth pipe When (??∗/? < 5) (or e<?? ) e= equivalent height of the roughness projections. and pipe is hydraulically smooth. ? Transitionally rough ?? ∗ When (5 ≤ ≤ 70) (or ?? ≤e≤14?? ). Fully rough pipe ?? ∗ When ( > 70) (or e>14?? ). the pipe will behave as fully rough.

• A more general approach. Pipe Roughness • It has been proved that the friction depends not only on the size and shape of the projections. • Diameter of these sand grains have been represented by “e”. but also on their distribution and spacing. including ‘e’ as parameter reveals that f= (R. • In 1933 by a German engineer. a student of Prandtle. which is known as absolute roughness. • It has already been known that the friction factor ‘f’ is the function of Reynold’s Number. coated several different sizes of pipe with sand grains that he had sorted by sieving into different grain sizes of reasonably uniform diameters. e/D) • The term e/D is known as the relative roughness. Nikuradse. . J.

• Iteration or a graph of f versus R must be used to solve the equation for “f”. which becomes increasingly thinner with increasing R. f=0 when R= infinity. (As from the equation . when this condition prevails the flow is known as smooth pipe flow. It is implicit in f. Smooth Pipe Flow: . • Range : R>4000 • Assumption is that the surface is so smooth that the effects of projections do not pierce the viscous sublayer. the equation applies to turbulent flow in any pipe as long as δν>e.• Prandtl an equation for friction factor.

exponent< 1/7 .• Colebrook suggested another explicit equation . Range : 4000 R 108 Smooth Pipe Flow: • Blasius smooth pipe: • Blasius smooth pipe: 7th Root Law for turbulent velocity distribution(y=ro- r) For R >105.

then friction factor is independent of Reynolds number Fully rough pipe flow . • If δν < e/14. flow would behave fully rough pipe flow. roughness element protrude to the viscous sublayer.• Von Karman found another friction factor expression for fully rough pipe • At high value of R. δν becomes much smaller.

all pipes (Colebrook): • It provide good approximation to conditions in intermediate range • When e=0. which makes it inconvenient to use manually evaluate f.Turbulent Flow. . • Thus it applies to all turbulent flow conditions • Disadvantage : it is implicit in f. Colebrook equation reduces to smooth-pipe equation. • For large R it reduces to fully rough pipe equation.

Turbulent Flow. all pipes (Haaland): • Range: 4000 R 108 • Advantage: explicit in f .

so both FPS and SI unit systems can be used. • All the quantities involved in the chart are dimensionless . • It is based on the preceding equations. • The inconvenience was largely overcome by reading numerical values from a chart prepared by Moody in 1944. Chart for friction factor • The preceding equations for f have been very inconvenient to use in a number of circumstances. • The chart is often called as the Moody diagram. .

e/D Sharp line of demarcation between the transition zone and the zone of complete turbulence was suggested by R.S . Zones in Moody’s Chart Laminar Flow Zone Critical zone Where the values are uncertain because the flow might be either laminar or turbulent.. Transition Zone Where f is the function of both Reynold’s number and relative pipe roughness Zone of Complete turbulence Where the value of f is independent of Reynold’s number and depends solely upon relative roughness. the equation of this line is 3500/(e/D) .J.

Chart for Friction Factor .

.054 mm) 1500 m long. the head loss is 0. Find friction head loss in 30 m of pipe. 3. what will be the friction head loss when glycerine at 68 degree F flows through this same pipe at the same rate. Excercise 1.002 mm). Find the head loss.0004 ft/ft. 2.855) at 50 degree celcius flows at 300L/s through a 450mm diameter pipe (e=0. Air at 30 degree Celcius and atmospheric pressure flows with velocity of 6.5m/s through a 75 mm diameter pipe (e=0. When water at 50 degree F flows at 2. Crude oil (s=0.5 cfs in a 20-in pipeline.

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