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1. 1. aerobic respiration
a. glucose + oxygen carbon dioxide + water + energy
2. anaerobic respiration
b. glucose acid lactic + energy
c. glucose carbon dioxide + ethanol + energy

2a. 1. both are types of cell respiration

2. both produces energy
3. both are catalysed by enzymes
Aerobic respiration Anaerobic respiration
1. occurs in the presence of 1. occurs in the absence of
Oxygen Oxygen
2. releases large amount of energy 2. releases small amount of energy
( 38 molecules of ATP ) ( 2 molecules of ATP )
3. produces carbon dioxide and 3. produces lactic acid ( in human
Water muscles ) or carbon dioxide and
ethanol in yeast.
4. glucose is completely broken 4. glucose is not completely broken
down Down
5. occurs in mitochondria and 5. occurs in cytoplasm.

Anaerobic respiration, energy
glucose, oxygen, lactic acid and energy
oxygen debt
breathing, lactic acid, carbon dioxide. water, energy
oxygen debt

4. (a) i. Glucose + oxygen carbon dioxide + water + 38 ATP

ii. Glucose ethanol + carbon dioxide + 2 ATP
iii.Glucose lactic acid + 2 ATP

(b) i. Low concentration of oxygen in waterlogged soil.

ii. During vigorous exercise, more oxygen is used than can be supplied to the
When we stop exercising, we still carry on breathing more quickly and deeply
than usual for several minutes.
The extra oygen inhaled into the lungs and then absorbed by the blood which
corresponds to the oxygen debt.
The oxygen is used to oxidise the lactic acid produced during anaerobic
respiration, thus repaying the debt.

(c) Anaerobic respiration is an enzyme-catalysed reaction. Enzymes are inactivated by

low temperature. The rate of ethanol and carbon dioxide production ( anaerobic
respiration ) decreases.


Organism Respiratory Respiratory Characteristics of adaptation of

Structure Surface respiratory
surfaces for gaseous exchange
Protozoa none Plasma * large surface area because of its minute
membrane size
* plasma membrane is thin and moist
to increase the rate of diffusion of gas
Fish gills Gill *large surface area because of numerous
filaments Gill filaments and lamella on gills
and lamella for faster diffusion of gases.
* Gill filaments have thin and
moist membranes to increase rate
of diffusion of gases.
* A network of blood capillaries in the gill
filaments to increase rate of diffusion of
Insect Tracheal tracheoles * many fine tracheoles to increase
system surface area for diffusion.
* A layer of moisture on the walls of the

Skin, Skin, lining * large surface area

Amphibians mouth,lungs of walls * thin and moist respiratory
inside surfaces
mouth, * A network of blood capillaries
Human lungs alveoli * large surface area because of numerous
alveoli in lungs
* The alveolus epithelium is thin , one cell
thick and moist
.* A network of blood capillaries at alveoli
to increase rate of diffusion .

6. P: Integument/cuticle
Q: spiracle
R: trachea
S: Tracheole

(b) i. Enable diffusion of gases into and out of the body.

ii. Strengthen by chitin rings.
iii.Prevent trachea tubes from collapsing.

(c) i. S is one cell thick but R is not; S does not have chitin rings but R has.
ii. S ends in each cell. Oxygen dissolves in the fluid filled tips of tracheoles and
then diffuses into the cells

(d) Abdominal muscles contract to force air out of the tracheal system. When the
muscles relax, the abdomen springs back to its normal volume, sucking fresh air in.

8. P : oxygen Q : carbon dioxide

X : inhaled air Y : exhaled air
alveolus : high partial pressure of oxygen
low partial pressure of carbon dioxide
blood capillary : low partial pressure of oxygen
high partial pressure of carbon dioxide

9. (a)
Large number of alveoli increase the surface area for gaseous exchange.
Thin epithelium, only one cell layer to allow gases to diffuse through rapidly.
Permeable, the alveolar epithelium is permeable to oxygen and carbon dioxide.
Moist surface, so that the gas dissolves easily and then diffuses across the

(b) i. Partial pressure of carbon dioxide is higher at P if compared with the partial
pressure of carbon dioxide at Q.

ii. Partial pressure of oxygen at P is lower if compared with the partial pressure of
oxygen at Q.

(c) i. Haemoglobin in red blood cells.

As bicarbonate ions
As carbaminohaemoglobin

iii.Less O2 is transported because iron is needed for the formation of haemoglobin in

the red blood cell to transport oxygen.

CO binds tightly to haemoglobin to form carboxyhaemoglobin.
Less haemoglobin molecules are available for binding with oxygen.
Less oxygen is supplied to body cells for respiration.
The person would die due to carbon monoxide poisoning

respiration, carbon dioxide
low, respiration, photosynthesis
respiration, same, photosynthesis, equal, photosynthesis
high, more, higher

(a) P: Respiration only
Q: Respiration and photosynthesis
R: Respiration and photosynthesis

(b) i. Q
ii. 1.4 units

(c) At P, only respiration occurs. As light intensity increases, photosynthesis begins and
the photosynthetic rate increases until it equals to respiratory rate at Q. Q is the
compensation point.

(d) i. Shade-tolerant plants have low compensation point.

ii. Shade-intolerant plants have high compensation point.

(e) At dawn and at dusk.

Paper 3 Exercise Answer

Temp: 28

1 butt: 35C

3 butt: 40C


1. 1 butt of cigarette increase the temperature to 35C

2. 3 butts of cigarette increase the temperature to 40C


1. 1 butt of cigarette release less heat

2. 3 butts of cigarette release more heat

Variables Particulars to be implemented

Manipulated variable How to alter the manipulated variable

No. of cigarette butt. Use different number of
. cigarette..

Responding variable How to determine the responding variable

Temperature. Record the temperature by using
. thermometer..

Controlled variable How to maintain the controlled variable

same type of cigarette//volume of Use the same type of cigarette// Use the
bicarbonate indicator. same volume of bicarbonate indicator..


When number of cigarette increases the heat release is also increase

Refer JUJ 2007