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According to a 2009 questionnaire of 488 students at a
central California university:

Biggest reasons bystanders dont intervene MEN often DONT INTERVENE if they think the victim:
in an assault: is dressed in provocative clothes
Didnt even notice has been acting provocatively
Didnt see it as a risk / problem was intoxicated2
Didnt take responsibility These are NOT excuses
Lack of skills/knowledge to intervene2 for sexual assault!
Dont be a victim to
Bystanders intervene MORE if they KNOW the victim or perpetrator2 these harmful beliefs!

IMPLEMENT sexual assault prevention programs EDUCATE YOURSELF on factors and
with strategies for victims, perpetrators, and circumstances that increase risk. Attend
bystanders, with alcohol education programs10 sexual assault prevention programs and
PROMOTE culture changes for men, especially acquire the skills and knowledge that will
fraternities and athletic groups help you STOP sexual assault
EDUCATE students about sexual assault statistics, REALIZE that sexual assault means any
risk factors, and success stories3 situation where the victim doesnt give
ENCOURAGE reporting and provide health consent, including when a woman is too
services for victims8 intoxicated to give consent
OFFER confidential methods, personal contacts, INTERVENE in situations that look
and accessible information for reporting8 suspicious
RISE above rape myths and victim-blaming
TALK about sexual assault
CREATE an atmosphere that discourages
attitudes of misogyny and aggression and

encourages empathy, safety, and equality

1. Krebs, C., Lindquist, C., Warner, T,. Fisher, B., Martin, S. (2007, October). The Campus Sexual Assault
(CSA) Study. Prepared for the National Institute of Justice. (Report No. 221153). Retrieved from
2. Burn, S. M. (2009). A situational model of sexual assault prevention through bystander
intervention. Sex Roles, 60(11-12), 779-792. Retrieved from
3. Krebs, C., Lindquist, C., Barrick, K. (2010, November 30). The Historically Black College and University Campus Sexual Assault (HBCU-CSA) Study. Prepared for
the National Institute of Justice. (Report No. 221153). Retrieved from
4. Fisher, B. S., Cullen, F. T., & Turner, M. G. (2000). The Sexual Victimization of College Women. Research Report. Retrieved from
5. Walters, M. L., Chen, J., & Breiding, M. J. (2013). The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS): 2010 findings on victimization by sexual
orientation. Atlanta, GA: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from
6. Grant, J. M., Mottet, L., Tanis, J. E., Harrison, J., Herman, J., & Keisling, M. (2011). Injustice at every turn: A report of the National Transgender Discrimination
Survey. National Center for Transgender Equality. Retrieved from
7. Tyler, K., Hoyt, D. R., & Whitbeck, L. B. (1998). Coercive sexual strategies. Retrieved from
8. Hill, C., & Silva, E. (2005). Drawing the Line: Sexual Harassment on Campus. American Association of University Women Educational Foundation, 1111 Sixteenth
St. NW, Washington, DC 20036. Retrieved from
9. Keehan, Alyssa. (2011). Student Sexual Assault: Weathering the Perfect Storm. United Educators.
10. Annual Security and Fire Safety Report (2013, October 1). Michigan State University. Retrieved from: