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Jeff Morton

E as given, we find that taking the variation of E gives:

Rs

E = s01 k2 q(s)

q(s)

+ V (q(s)) ds

R s1 k

= s0 2 (q(s) q(s))

+ V (q(s)) ds

Rs

= s01 (k q(s)

q(s)

+ V (q(s)) q(s)) ds

Rs

= s01 (k q(s) + V (q(s))) q(s)ds (by parts)

The boundary terms from the integration by parts disappear since we only

consider variations which fix the endpoints of the curve traced by the spring

(i.e. q = 0 at s0 and s1 ). Then if we have that E = 0 for all variations q,

then the equation q must satisfy is

k q(s) + V (q(s)) = 0

or

k q(s) = V (q(s))

2. If V = mgz in 3

, we have that V = (0, 0, mg), so that q(s) = (0, 0, mg k ).

That is, the curve has a constant positive acceleration m k

g

in the z direction

with respect to the parameter s, and constant velocity in the x and y direc-

tions with respect to s. So we can also think of the curve as having constant

acceleration in the z direction with respect to distance in the (x, y) direction

of the particles horizontal velocity. So the curve is a parabola with local

maxima at the endpoints.

3. Replacing s by it, we get

R it1 k

E = q(i

t) q(i

t) + V (q(it)) idt

R it1 2 k

it0

d

= i it0 2 q(it) d(i t) q(it) + V (q(it

)) dt

R it1 i2 k

= i it0 q(i

t) q(i

t) + V (q(it)) dt

R t1 2k 2

= i t0 2 kq(t)k V (q(t)) dt

i t01 k2 kq( t)k2 V (q(t)) dt

R t

=

moving in a potential (K V , where K = k/2kqk 2 with k playing the role

of the mass m).

4. We have the analogy:

1

STATICS DYNAMICS

Principle of Least Energy Principle of Least Action

spring particle

energy action

stretching energy kinetic energy

potential energy potential energy

spring constant k mass m

5. The statics problem in (2) corresponds to the dynamics problem of a particle

moving in a potential with constant gradient. The solution to that problem

has the particle moving in a parabola with local minima at the endpoints -

the acceleration is in the direction opposite to that observed in the statics

problem of the spring.

6. Formally replacing t by it in Newtons equation F = ma, where a(t) is x

(t),

the second derivative of position with respect to t:

2

d

F = m dt 2 x(it)

= mi2 x(it)

= m x(it)

that acceleration x

plays the role of displacement.)

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