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Jordan (/'d???rd?n/; Arabic: ????????

Al-Urdunn), officially The Hashemite Kingd

om of Jordan (Arabic: ??????? ???????? ?????????? Al-Mamlakah Al-Urdunniyah Al-H
ashimiyah), is an Arab kingdom in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan R
iver. Jordan is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the east and south, Iraq to the nort
h-east, Syria to the north, Israel, Palestine and the Dead Sea to the west and t
he Red Sea in its extreme south-west.[6] Jordan is strategically located at the
crossroads of Asia, Africa and Europe.[7] The capital, Amman, is Jordan's most p
opulous city as well as the country's economic, political and cultural centre.[8
What is now Jordan has been inhabited by humans since the Paleolithic period. Th
ree stable kingdoms emerged there at the end of the Bronze Age: Ammon, Moab and
Edom. Later rulers include the Nabataean Kingdom, the Roman Empire, and the Otto
man Empire.[9] After the Great Arab Revolt against the Ottomans in 1916 during W
orld War I, the Ottoman Empire was partitioned by Britain and France. The Emirat
e of Transjordan was established in 1921 by the then Emir Abdullah I and became
a British protectorate. In 1946, Jordan became an independent state officially k
nown as The Hashemite Kingdom of Transjordan. Jordan captured the West Bank duri
ng the 1948 Arab Israeli War and the name of the state was changed to The Hashemit
e Kingdom of Jordan in 1949.[10] Jordan is a founding member of the Arab League
and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, and is one of two Arab states to ha
ve signed a peace treaty with Israel. The country is a constitutional monarchy,
but the king holds wide executive and legislative powers.[11]
Jordan is a relatively-small, semi-arid, almost-landlocked country with a popula
tion numbering at 9.5 million. Sunni Islam, practiced by around 92% of the popul
ation, is the dominant religion in Jordan. It coexists with an indigenous Christ
ian minority. Jordan is considered to be among the safest of Arab countries in t
he Middle East, and has avoided long-term terrorism and instability.[12] In the
midst of surrounding turmoil, it has been greatly hospitable, accepting refugees
from almost all surrounding conflicts as early as 1948, with most notably the e
stimated 2.1 million Palestinians and the 1.4 million Syrian refugees residing i
n the country.[13] The kingdom is also a refuge to thousands of Iraqi Christians
fleeing the Islamic State.[14] While Jordan continues to accept refugees, the r
ecent large influx from Syria placed substantial strain on national resources an
d infrastructure.[15]
Jordan is classified as a country of "high human development" with an "upper mid
dle income" economy. The Jordanian economy, one of the smallest economies in the
region, is attractive to foreign investors based upon a skilled workforce.[16]
The country is a major tourist destination, and also attracts medical tourism du
e to its well developed health sector.[17] Nonetheless, a lack of natural resour
ces, large flow of refugees and regional turmoil have crippled economic growth.[