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Construction and Building Materials 111 (2016) 262–274

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Construction and Building Materials
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/conbuildmat

Review

Pervious concrete as a sustainable pavement material – Research
findings and future prospects: A state-of-the-art review
Anush K. Chandrappa, Krishna Prapoorna Biligiri ⇑
Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, West Bengal 721 302, India

h i g h l i g h t s 

Presented current state-of-the-art regarding pervious concrete pavements. 
Reviewed durability issues associated with pervious concrete mixtures. 
Documented past studies related to field performance of pervious concrete mixes. 
Discussed environmental and economical aspects of pervious concrete materials. 
Pervious concrete found to be a very promising candidate in pavement applications.

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: In the last few years, the use of pervious concrete as a pavement material in low-volume road applica-
Received 14 September 2015 tions has gained importance due to its positive environmental aspects. This paper reviews the develop-
Received in revised form 15 December 2015 ments and state-of-the-art pertinent to pervious concrete research and practices. The investigations on
Accepted 17 February 2016
mechanical-hydrological-durability properties of pervious concrete performed in various studies have
Available online 23 February 2016
been reviewed. The storm water purification efficiency of pervious concrete has been documented. The
field investigations of few test sections and in-service pervious concrete pavements have been discussed.
Keywords:
A review has been made on rehabilitation techniques to increase the hydraulic efficiency of pervious con-
Pervious concrete
Pavements
crete pavements. A note has been mentioned on the life cycle cost analysis of pervious concrete. Due to an
Strength increased use of pervious concrete in the pavement industry due to its multitudinous benefits, there
Durability exists an expansive scope for further research to understand the material better, which will make it a
Environment promising sustainable roadway material in future.
Life cycle cost analysis Ó 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Field performance

Contents

1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263
2. Pervious concrete: materials, mix design, and mechanical properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
2.1. Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
2.1.1. Aggregates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
2.1.2. Cementing materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
2.1.3. Admixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
2.2. Mix design and proportioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
2.3. Mechanical properties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
2.3.1. Strength properties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
2.3.2. Abrasion and freeze-thaw studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266
2.4. Pore properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
2.4.1. Non-transport related properties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
2.4.2. Transport related pore properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268
2.4.3. Clogging in pervious concrete mixes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268

⇑ Corresponding author.
E-mail addresses: anushkc@civil.iitkgp.ernet.in (A.K. Chandrappa), kpb@civil.iitkgp.ernet.in (K.P. Biligiri).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2016.02.054
0950-0618/Ó 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . However. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . the porous thermal ambience such as the creation of a difference in the tem. Chandrappa. . .4–7]. . . . . . . . . . . . .8–12]. . . . . . . The impervious nature of the conventional pavement systems Among various strategies for low-impact development in pave- has resulted in increased stormwater runoff quantity that has ments. . . . . . . . . . The construction of conventional impervious pave. . . . . nature is found to reduce the UHI effect. . . .12]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pervious concrete pavements: field investigations . . . . . Introduction In order to decrease the effect of high-impact development. . . The score of benefits has undoubtedly bolstered the use of per- vious pavement systems which act as heat storage media release vious concrete in pavement applications in the various regions of the heat back to the atmosphere during night times [13]. . . . . . . 270 6. . . . . and road user benefits level of pollutants. . . . . . . . . . . . . and non-skid. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gies that result in low-impact development [10]. as construction practices. .14. . . . . 269 5. . pervious concrete pavement system has become a suitable stemmed in a large volume of first flush containing unacceptable candidate due to its structural. . . . . . . . . 272 1. 272 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tity or absence of fines in pervious concrete creates highly resistant wearing courses is virtuous of the impervious pavement curvaceous pores that help store stormwater within them. . . . . . . . .K. . . . . . . . Biligiri / Construction and Building Materials 111 (2016) 262–274 263 3. . known to be caused due to the impervious urban fabric. . . there is a need to compile literature of pervious concrete material in pavement applications Pervious concrete: State-of-the-art review Mix design and mix proportions Compressive strength Flexural. . . . This phe. . . problems such as decreased nected macro-pore internal structure [18–21]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [12. 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . unfavorable changes in the surrounding reduce runoff quantity in a scientific manner. . . . . . . . . . . 272 8. . . On-going research . and systems [2. making the solution uneconomical [16. . . . . . . including: (1) changes in the hydrological aspects. Conclusions. . . . . . . . . . . . Life cycle cost of pervious concrete. . Water purification effects of pervious concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . forming the natural pervious ground into an impervious land most of the urban planners and developers have adopted detention cover [1–4]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Concurrently. . . hydroplaning surfaces. . . . . . . . Further. . . . . . 270 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . More. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . the implemen- nomenon commonly called Urban Heat Islands (UHI) has led to tation of pervious concrete as a pavement material in many coun- thermal discomfort for urban dwellers. . . . areas. . . . . . . Pervious concrete is a unique concrete pavement type over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Research review outline. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . water from such basins will require engineered ment. . . . . . . . . . . . . which has prompted the tries especially emerging countries is still not practiced due to lack consumption of additional electricity for cooling purposes and of a standard technique in material preparation and testing as well increased CO2 emissions [6. .P. . . . and helps maintain con- perature between urban and the surrounding rural areas are also ducive surrounding ambience. . . . . . K. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . implementation of sustainable materials and eco-friendly strate- tructure by the construction of conventional pavements is trans. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prospects of pervious concrete pavement applications . and retention basins as strategies to reduce runoff from the urban ment systems has caused two major shifts in the local environ. However. . .17]. . . . Further. . . . . . sev- eral transportation organizations have focused on research and High-impact development in the areas of transportation infras. the treatment of first flush requires large detention basins mainly composed of rationally graded coarse aggregate and and purification plants before it is discharged into the natural cementing materials which provide the mix with an intercon- water bodies [3. . . . . . . . . . economical. . . . . . . . . . . . . Conventionally. . . . . . and unwarranted flash floods [3. . . . . . . and (2) treatment before discharging it into natural water bodies. . . . . . . . . . The imper. . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . thus variations in the surrounding thermal ambience [2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268 4. . . fracture and Mechanical properties fatigue strength Abrasion and freeze - thaw resistance Non-transport properties Pore properties Transport properties Clogging Field investigation of On-going research at IIT Kharagpur Future scope of research pervious concrete Fig. . . . the world over the last several years [19]. The limited quan- groundwater recharge. . . .10]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . In addition. . . .

8 320.29] which provide specification limits for those properties that affect the performance of pervious 2. Typically.4 4. This collation of research reposi. Biligiri / Construction and Building Materials 111 (2016) 262–274 Table 1 Mix proportions used to produce pervious concrete mixture. The porosity of a typical pervi.390 1800 300 125.35 Ibrahim et al.33 1544 309 102 5:1 0.36 mm with the main aim to increase the research mentioned as part of the review would help investigators strength properties [19. For example.27 1550 360 100 4.17. few other studies have indicated that variable is lower compared to those used in the conventional con. The aggregate physical characteristics such as size.30 2010 1440. pavements [30. The typical aggregate contents to further their understanding of pervious concrete pavements in used in the various studies are shown in Table 1. K.25:1 0. shape. Although limestone aggregate has been commonly used (NRMCA) [22]. The pervious concrete mixtures compared to conventional concrete.85 12:1 0. contractors. Cementing material.28– higher porosity levels compared to similar mixtures made with 0. for the aggregates [23. aggregate types obtained has been varied in the range of 4:1 to as high as 6:1.57 4:1 0.28 1510 380 100 3. the aggregate ous concrete varies in the range of 15–25% with a minimum of 15% type also has a significant influence on the properties of pervious as prescribed by the National Ready Mix Concrete Association concrete. Fig.418 2006 1541.20 1560 367 110.44:1 0.1 4.33 1524 305 101 5:1 0.2:1 0.72:1 0. the aggregate-to-cement ratio In another study carried out by [30]. Aggregate-to cement ratio (A/C) Water-to cementitious material ratio Author kg/m3 kg/m3 kg/m3 (W/Cm) 1995 1651.47:1 0. [36] 1800 150 52. The aggregate gradation for the pervious con.5–2. and crete typically consists of single-sized coarse aggregates/binary distribution play important role in controlling the mechanical. Year Aggregate. and will aid in its implementation.K.1 4.40 with the main intention to provide sufficient cement coating limestone/slag aggregates [32]. Aggregates as a pavement strategy. and chert are mentioned. the limits of deleterious materi- properties als such as clay.33 1546 309 102 5:1 0.33 1558 312 103 5:1 0.27 1620 310 80 5.32 412. capillary pores [21]. Pervious concrete: materials. In order to maintain sufficient voids in the material.3 Crouch et al.3 2009 1820 180 50 10:1 0.1. [18] 1568 314 104 5:1 0. engineers.24 1570 330 100 4.5 3.5:1 0. scientists.25:1 0.264 A.25 4.97:1 0. plan- ners.6 123.28 Kevern et al. [26] 1700 260 70 6.96 6.6 4. Materials tory will help researchers. Apart from the aggregate size.5:1 0. Chandrappa.35 from past and current research.69 105.1 3.26 1600 340 80 4.9 352. It is envisioned that the future scope of gates of size 9.5:1 0. Thus.35 1586.4 115.31].1. 1 presents the scope of the research review. [25] 1620.30 Lim et al. Further.93 344.5:1 0. from seventeen sources were used to study the effect of aggregates the volume of aggregates in pervious concrete is about 50–65% on freeze–thaw (F–T) resistance. dead end.26 1560 495 148. It is to be noted that the Pervious concrete is a gap-graded material with characteristic physical properties of aggregates to be used in pervious concrete pore structure which consists of interconnected.78:1 0.9 330.P.01 4.72 5:1 0.30 1560 330 100 4.4 4. mix design.381 1740 348 135.1.30 1560 430 110.62:1 0.2 112. pervious the main purpose of this review paper was to introduce the reader concrete is usually made up of aggregates sizes in the range of with the existing knowledge of pervious concrete material as a 19–9. mixture of coarse aggregates with optimal amount of cement to durability. which is about 60–75%. several studies have used coarse aggre- pavement strategy.5 mm [21].24 287.30 1560 367 73.70:1 0. and should be similar to those used in the conventional concrete.5:1 0. [8] 1560 242 72.64:1 0.83 153.15:1 0. It is recom- various facets.75:1 0. Water. [19] 1486. The water-to-cement ratio being a very important to produce pervious concrete.15 87.372 Ghaffori and Dutta [16] 1692 376 143. which affect the bonding between aggregate and cement paste. 2.24]. mended that the aggregates to be used in pervious concrete should have properties as specified in [28.1 4.35 Huang et al. made up of granite aggregate type showed superior F–T resistance .3:1 0.33 2013 1560 367 110. designers.25–27]. and mechanical concrete pavements.25:1 0. and permeability characteristics of pervious concrete coat and bind aggregates together. and practitioners to appreciate its prominence 2.33 Neithalath et al. dolomitic aggregates provide higher compressive strength at crete mix.21 5.4 6:1 0.30 2014 1600 200 70 8:1 0.35 2010 1559 312 103 5:1 0.26 1580 330 90 4. and has been historically varied over the range of 0. However.

20. which was mainly attributed to the larger sur. adopted in their respective studies. K. these ants of pervious concrete. Nguyen et al. SCMs decrease the strength 4:1–12:1.57].35 mm 4. the most common principle of mix gates leading to higher probability of F–T damage and durability design is to provide enough cement coating to the aggregates.27].3. evaporation retarders are recommended to reduce the evaporation of gauged water from the freshly laid surface. The cementing material coating thickness has been found to be a very important factor in assessing the structural and hydrological 2.42. ment of pervious concrete [41]. The study also showed that with an structural and functional properties include: compressive strength. the aggregate density content varied in the effect of SCM on pervious concrete is not similar to those observed range of 1400–1800 kg/m3 with aggregate to cement ratio of in conventional concrete. Yahia and Kabagire [20] proposed mix proportioning method content used in various studies is shown in Table 1.19. the been investigated by a number of researchers in the past [2.16. the conventional concrete.3. These results indicated that aggregate properties should be con. an increase in the cement con- 4 tent increases the paste thickness around the aggregate. A. researchers have used supplementary lute volume method. fly ash as partial researchers for their investigations and designs are shown in replacement for OPC. tional time to place and finish owing to its harshness.2–0. ous in terms of cement paste coating thickness though a similar the aggregate type has had a significant role in the strength develop- type of compaction method was used. it has to be noted that irrespective of the com- Cement paste thickness. Most of the studies have used 0 water reducing admixtures to increase the workability. cement coating.19. abrasion and freeze-thaw resistance. many researchers [2. the elastic modulus and compressive flexural strength. The 2. cracking in these pavements. fatigue life. The cement gates.2. The limestone and river gravel admixtures can be used to increase F–T durability. 2. Deo [23] deter- mined the paste thickness using digital microscope for pervious The mechanical properties of pervious concrete are deemed concrete consisting of different aggregate sizes. which dictates the 1 use of different admixtures that increase the workability without 0. Additionally. Strength properties mine the paste thickness in pervious concrete mixtures. The results from those two studies are incongru. 2.54 mm 6. Comparison of cement paste coating thickness. The para- had thinner coating.3. flexure. However. Research studies recommend different mix designs and propor- trolled in pervious concrete because of thin cement paste. aggregate mixtures were easily damaged by F–T cycles.45.42. which 3.38–49. which tioning systems for pervious concrete based on the various princi- allows water to easily permeate into the pore of individual aggre. These properties have ical properties. Another recent study [35] developed a novel method to deter. mount properties of interest for designing pavements for their face area of smaller aggregates. retardation admixtures can be used to ease the field Authors placement problems since pervious concrete may require addi- Fig. Nonetheless. Further. with increase in paste thickness.K. [17] developed a pervious concrete mix design and proportioning hypothesis based on the excess paste theory. This result is found to be in contradiction to a Over the last few years. Biligiri / Construction and Building Materials 111 (2016) 262–274 265 5 In addition. . mm 9. 2011 522R-10 [21] also suggests using various types of admixtures. based on the ratio of paste volume (PV) to inter-particle voids tion of the cementing material is to provide sufficient coating (IPV). 2015 Deo. The study The strength properties pertinent to pervious concrete include correlated the cement paste thickness with strength and hydrolog.5 Pervious concrete usually has zero slump. Chandrappa. the water to cement ratio varied in the properties of pervious concrete after a certain threshold partial range of 0. ples [17.5 paction and mix design methods. and air-entraining irrespective of source/location.3. increase in aggregate size. Additionally.P. Probably. and fatigue strength. strength properties increased and pore properties such as porosity 25. Owing to thin cement coating around the aggregates. The comparison of average values of cement paste The addition of polymers and rubber increased the fracture tough- thickness of two different studies for two different aggregate sizes ness of the material due to an increase in the ductility is shown in Fig. and was in the lower range as compared to replacement as reported in [34].1.16. [19. it showed that with an increase erties are function of mix variables. Evidently. and ACI Torres et al.36–53] number of other previous studies.56.5 undue increase in water content.36. strength increased. For instance. and in fact. the strength reduced due to a reduction in aggregate-to-cement ratio rather than water-to-cement ratio [25].2. Mechanical properties performances of pervious concrete pavements. The phys- ical properties such as abrasion resistance and water absorption of 2.20. Other than OPC.1. The main func. Admixtures 1.1. The study results indicated that strength prop- and permeability reduced. Deo and Neithalath [27] used the traditional method of cal- around the aggregates to increase the durability of the pervious culating mix proportions for pervious concrete based on the abso- concrete. 2. the results have indicated that the Table 1. The mix proportions used by various cementitious materials (SCM) such as silica fume.5 may have higher strength but will defeat the purpose of using per- 3 vious concrete pavements in providing better permeability.5 2 2. Cementing materials cement paste volume required to provide sufficient coating was Pervious concrete has been normally produced using ordinary determined by dividing it with surface area of the spherical aggre- Portland cement (OPC) (Type-1) confirming to [33]. and are more sensitive to in aggregate size. 2. Mix design and proportioning aggregates played a significant role in controlling F–T damage. which showed that an increase have investigated and estimated these properties for different vari- in aggregate size results in the strength reduction. An account of the various mechanical differences can be attributed to the different mix design methods properties is detailed as follows. compressive. As observed.49]. It was found that important since they control the design thickness of the pavement larger aggregates had thicker coating while smaller aggregates layer and its durability (and functional) characteristics.

structure parameters such as mean free spacing. In these vious concrete where the porosity is normally higher. and microsilica as modifiers in [48].P. pervious Lian et al. There geneous pore path in these mixtures. Kabagire [20] Paste volume 2014 Rubber type NA Rubber chips have negative effect on the compressive strength Gesoglu et al. The compaction method specified in the proposed test method ity. the number of three models: contact. The larger sized aggregate mixtures showed higher of pervious concrete pavements become important to understand . which may distribute the com- bond was used to model the cement paste. K. sand and fibers can optimize the strength and drainage Huang et al.56]. A nonlinear regression consideration of these factors may reduce the scatter in the test model was developed relating compressive strength and pore results. uate the compressive strength of pervious concrete whose salient Very limited literature is available in the areas of fatigue char. The results showed that few  Compaction effort: fresh mixture to be filled in two layers pro- pervious concrete samples sustained more than 2 million cycles viding twenty blows per layer using the standard proctor before failure. contact and slip models paction energy in a more identical manner among the different lay- were used to model the displacement and frictional behavior ers that may reduce the porosity distribution along the depth. Further. Discrete Element Modeling concrete mixtures with large sized aggregate are well simulated [39] 2014 Aggregate size NA Paste volume equal to 50% of inter-particle voids would be optimum to balance strength Yahia and Aggregate gradation and porosity in pervious concrete. The study showed that the pore struc- Due to the exposed aggregate structure and thin coating of ture features have significant role in defining the compressive cement over aggregates. and fatigue life was found to have very high dependency on mix poros. crete was found to be 70–90% of the 28-day compressive strength. tional concrete where 7-day strength is usually about 65–70% of the ASTM subcommittee C09. Rubber content [42] The various studies indicated that curing period had no signifi. compressive and flexure strength of pervious concrete. This may using Discrete Element Modeling (DEM) approach to understand induce initial localized failure near the bottom surface of the per- the mechanical behavior of pervious concrete [38.  Testing: as specified in ASTM C39 [55] and ASTM C78. Biligiri / Construction and Building Materials 111 (2016) 262–274 Table 2 Summary of compressive strength characteristics of pervious concrete. strength. unlike conventional concrete.49] the fatigue life character. averaged pore size. The between the aggregate and cement paste.and 28-day flexural behavioral characteristics of pervious concrete observed by various strength. ous concrete increased the fatigue life at a given stress level.266 A.K.39]. porosity. The fatigue behavior of pervious concrete in compression was studied by using polymers  Sample size: 400 diameter  800 height cylindrical geometry. researchers are tabulated in Table 2.2. Year Study parameter considered SCMs/admixtures Major conclusion Author 6 1995 Compaction effort Super-plasticizers The average ultimate drying shrinkage was found to be 280  10 which was half of Ghafoori and Aggregate to cement ratio typical conventional concrete Dutta [16] Water to cement ratio 2003 Fine aggregate content Silica fume Silica fume can enhance compressive strength without loss in water permeability Yang and Water to cement ratio Vinyl acetate ethylene Jiang [2] Aggregate size Polyvinyl alcohol formaldehyde hydrosol 2010 Aggregate size SBS latex Use of combination of latex. Further. constitutive models were developed as a combination of reduce the effect of vertical porosity distribution. and speci- 2. At present. mer. Chen and Wang [49] investigated fatigue behavior on  Curing: as specified in ASTM C31 [54]. Natural sand properties of pervious concrete [19] Polymer modification Polypropylene fiber Fiber content 2010 Aggregate types Silica fume Silica fume without super-plasticizer may not be effective in increasing the strength of Lian et al. and an addition of polymers improved the fatigue hammer. However. [27] 2011 Aggregate size NA Aggregates with smaller angularity number provides higher compressive strength and Jain and Aggregate shape/angularity less permeability Chouhan [31] 2011 Numerical Modeling – NA An additional research is required to incorporate small sized aggregates in DEM. The compressive strength were no significant differences between 7.49 has proposed a test method to eval- the 28-day compressive strength [47]. and parallel bond models. Polymers in pervi. features are as follows: acterization of pervious concrete mixes. Abrasion and freeze-thaw studies fic surface area of pores [40]. The parallel layers to be filled may be increased. pervious concrete [41] Sand Silica fume 2010 Pore structure parameters NA An increase in porosity by 10% will decrease compressive strength by 50% Deo et al. might cause the crushing/breaking of the aggregate particles near ized under compression was approximately 10 times higher than the top surface due to the impact compaction by the proctor ham- those tested under flexure for similar kind of mixtures. there is no standard test method to evaluate the This strength gain in 7-day was higher than that for the conven. the abrasion and freeze-thaw resistance strength. the 7-day compressive strength of pervious con. strength than smaller sized aggregate mixes due to highly hetero- cant influence on flexural strength of pervious concrete. pervious concrete exhi- Few other research studies developed computational models bits vertical porosity distribution as shown in [44. 3-Dimensional pore distribution density. In order to studies. slip.3. beams at different stress levels and porosities. Chandrappa. Comparing the two studies [48.

62–65]. The applicability of this standard has raised few questions 40 60 50 Porosity 50 60 40 70 30 80 20 90 Depth Martin III [58] 10 100 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Chindaprasrit [46] Porosity vs Compressive strength Porosity vs Flexural Strength Porosity vs Permeability Fig. It was found that this test method was not successful in tribution was determined using various stereological and morpho- differentiating between the different types of pervious concrete logical techniques [18]. which indicated that porosity increased along the depth As a matter a fact. The standard uses Cantabro method of abrasion. Non-transport related properties rubber (with 1 mm size) enhanced the abrasion resistance of per. For example.4. and 15–22 MPa. Tomography (XRT) technique. among researchers due to the presence of thin coating of cement crete is most commonly studied using three methods [50]: Can.44. In another study [62]. where the depth but there exists vertical porosity distribution in pervious the mass loss of hardened pervious concrete mixture with design concrete [62]. As mentioned earlier. K. Pore properties using the three different methods. 4. and thus play crete with pea gravel had the least abrasion resistance due to weak important role in characterizing the material as a sustainable pave- bonds between aggregates and cement paste. Yang and Jiang [2] found reported in [40].K. the compressive strength mag- mass loss after a number of successive freeze and thaw cycles. respectively. few studies [50] have conducted surface abra. Biligiri / Construction and Building Materials 111 (2016) 262–274 267 its long-term durability. ume of the sample [11]. [44] claimed that orate the material. 10 90 sive stresses of water on the cement paste. .11. and studied its behavior in abrasion.1. In general. transition zone. Vertical porosity distribution in pervious concrete: recreated using surface Fig. it was assumed that porosity remained constant along of loading. and tire chips and crumb rubber lowered the abra. This was an indication that strength decreased by additives. their dis- concrete. In another investigation [52].45. the average effective mixtures due to relatively low loss in the mass by abrasion action pore size was found to be 3. 20% and 25%. sion tests as per ASTM C944 [60] to evaluate abrasion in pervious Pores being random in size in a pervious concrete mix. sive F-T damage compared to the traditional concrete made up of Dong et al. block schematic. The fine rubber particles increased air content which acted as entrained air bubbles. the strength of pervious concrete water in the pores and may undergo F–T cycles. pervious ment system. respec- order to quantify F–T resistance. Gaedicke et al. In order to study these variations. ASTM C1747 [58] is the standard to evaluate the pervious concrete is determined as per ASTM C1688.18. In pervious degradation of pervious concrete due to impact and abrasive type concrete.36. 0 100 tance [52].56]. and it followed a normal distribu- Pervious concrete with macro-pore structure generally stores tion fit. Tire chips and crumb rubber were also used to improve F–T resis. A. The total porosity/void content in Currently. 3. around aggregates where the pervious concrete may show exces- tabro test. recreated using [2.4. and surface abrasion test. and higher coefficients of variation in the test results.P. 30 70 which was basically developed for traditional/conventional con- crete. irrespective of the compaction method as shown in Fig. different types of rubber were used in pervious concrete to study the abrasion behavior. loaded wheel abrasion test. and tortuosity.425 mm determined using X-ray only. researchers have used different tively. Further. [50] used fiber and latex to modify pervious concrete the same aggregates [30]. both studies [50. which may deteri. and Proctor hammer compaction [56] test results. These properties can be classified as: non-transport concrete with recycled aggregates showed better resistance related and transport related [10. [51] studied abrasive resistance of pervious concrete made of different aggre- The pore properties of pervious concrete have been adjudged to gate types using Cantabro and surface abrasion tests. The against abrasion and was attributed to the improved interfacial non-transport related properties cover total volumetric porosity.36.17. Due to the non- 20 existence of standard test method to study F–T effects on pervious 80 concrete. F–T resistance is normally measured in terms of for porosities of 15%. The transport related properties tabro (impact type) and surface abrasion tests resulted in lower include effective porosity. Pervious con- be equally important to the strength properties.19. Relation between mechanical and pore properties related as a triangular vibration compaction [44]. The combination of latex and fiber showed superior resistance against abrasion conducted 2.41]. The abrasion resistance of pervious con. In nitudes were in the range of 38–44. [44. pore connectivity. that silica fume with super plasticizers will improve F–T resistance. Total porosity being one of main non-transport related proper- vious concrete. ties is defined as the ratio of the volume of voids to the total vol- sion resistance. and is expressed as a percentage of initial mass. 3.24. thus reducing the effect of expan. Ghafoori and Dutta [16] used air-entraining admixture approximately 50% for every 10% increase in the porosity. Fine crumb 2. decreased with increase in porosity. 29–35. pervious concrete density determined as per ASTM C 1688 [59] is measured after was placed in a single lift and compacted using different methods 500 revolutions. ASTM C666 [61] is used as a standard for F–T evaluation. and also in concrete to improve F–T resistance.51] found that Can- and pore size and distribution. Chandrappa.

This may reduce the infiltration capacity tom. [32] investigated the effect of aggregate type to simulate actual weather conditions. strength concrete pavement systems: properties decrease. using ASTM C1701 and National Center for Asphalt Technology A typical cross-section of a pervious concrete pavement system (NCAT) permeameter techniques. etc.3. mechanical and pore properties of pervious concrete mixes as a tri. [62] and [65] developed two different equations to predict mance in the field.3. Biligiri / Construction and Building Materials 111 (2016) 262–274 2. most of the clay remained and size on the pore structure properties of pervious concrete near the surface forming a thick cover. The strength upper geotextile is optional since few studies have shown that characteristics discussed above are adequate enough to support the geotextile at this location neither improves the overall struc- Pervious concrete layer Upper geotextile (optional) Aggregate bed / base layer Geotextile / geomembrane Subgrade Fig. and dead-end pores [32]. In general. The imaging studies showed that the tures had lower pore connectivity factor as a result of paste clog. their relative behavior and may not represent their true perfor- ity. The cross section consists of pervious concrete values measured as per ASTM C1701 were lower than those layer. hydrological-related aspects in terms of clogging. rial [69]. upper geotextile (optional).4. Clogging in pervious concrete mixes Pervious concrete pavement is expected to serve as a bi. Permeability being a function ary) size had the highest potential for clogging problems due to of aggregate size. 4 shows relations of be intermediate layers of aggregates functioning as choker layer. The difference was mainly attributed to the non- dependency of the applied pressure in case of a falling head perme. was varied in the range of 0. and eventually aid in the recharge of ground water. The effective porosity was found to be 50–75% of the pervious concrete mixtures made up of different aggregate sizes total porosity and the pore connectivity factor was a function of were investigated by using fine and coarse sand as clogging mate- aggregate type than its size. Pervious concrete pavements: field investigations permeameter. dust and material.as well as hydrological-related benefits.41].23. Sumanasooriya and [67]. with an increase in porosity. The findings showed that the is shown in Fig. Typical cross section of pervious concrete pavement system.13 [62].19. storm water runoff [66].  Geotextile between aggregate bed and the subgrade layer. Cosic et al. Noting that permeability is not the only function of poros. After a repeated number of clogging and drying cycles 4. As can be seen from the cross section. 5. pervious concrete was investigated for defined as the ratio of effective length to the total length of the extreme conditions of clogging using bentonite and kaolinite clay sample was determined using XRT. other foreign particles. has also been considered to study ther. However. The in-service vious concrete to function as an environmental-friendly pavement pervious concrete pavements get clogged due to debris. there are few limited studies on the effect of geotex- functional material meaning that the mix should provide tiles on pervious concrete pavement systems’ performance. K. The permeability measurements indicated that age of the Neithalath [63] studied pore connectivity as a function of paste pavement played a significant role in defining the permeability of content and found that high paste content pervious concrete mix. Transport related pore properties low volume traffic loads. which had a mean value of suspensions. However. nected pores.4. capillary pores. The main reason was the differ. performance of pervious concrete.  Geotextile between pervious concrete layer and the aggregate bed. The total of the pervious concrete mix. In a ging.9.268 A. . there angular block schematic fundamentally recreated using the previ. [64] evaluated per- meability of pervious concrete and estimated that falling head per- meameter showed higher values than the constant head 3. top 25 mm of pervious concrete is mostly subjected to clog.P.1–2 cm/s. As observed.75 mm aggregate (single size and bin- pore properties [2. gradation and cement content similarities in the pore and clog material particle sizes. several researchers have also Further. the in-service pavement. and thus its efficiency to reduce porosity in the pervious concrete mix can be divided into intercon. it is to be noted that there may ence in the size of the permeameters. In another study. the mixes made with 4. and subgrade. The clogging potential of using XRT. 2. The clogging potential of in-service pervious concrete pave- connected pore skeleton which aids in the transportation of ments was studied using permeability and imaging principles water is also referred to as effective porosity. The inter. Fur- properties of pervious concrete. are two locations where geotextiles can be provided in pervious ous studies. compaction level.2. At present. aggregate bed/base. In order to study the structural and hydrological permeability by modifying the Kozeny-Carman equation. The structural. and concurrently.36. the limitation comes with its Transport related properties are those which actually help per. which is one of the pore structure dependent the ratio of pore size to particle size was too large or too small.K. pervious concrete tortuosity which is separate study [68]. drainage layer. Fig. brane. Chandrappa. geomem- obtained from the NCAT method. the laboratory studies on different materials indicate ameter. These properties transport water from surface to the bot. [9] compared the two field permeability test methods carried out studies on in-service pavement sections in the field. 5. The clogging potential of pervious concrete decreased as Permeability. the permeability increases for a material. Qin et al.

71]. [79]. 7 [73. (c) surface sealing [73]. However. K. ural and man-made pollutant into the natural water bodies such as  Raveling. 8. 6. In another study. dust. affecting the overall ecology depending  Debonding. the stormwater  Joint deterioration. lakes. The field hydrological performance of the pervious concrete was tural integrity nor provides water quality benefits [70. This removes most of the solid suspended particles from system compared to the traditional concrete as shown in Fig. the durability Aggregate bed tests such as Cantabro loss and F–T resistance indicated that labo- ratory compacted field mixtures had better durability than field cores. are: it can be adjudged that pervious concrete can be used as an effec- tive stormwater management strategy.74]. Chandrappa. during the contact with polluted water. but also pavement test cells are shown in Fig. The thicker aggregate base nal structure of pervious concrete adsorb the suspended mate- layer reduced the overall deflection of pervious concrete pavement rials. The double ring infiltrometer while constructing pervious concrete application of geotextile for pervious concrete pavement is shown pavements to monitor its infiltration capacity periodically. The lower geotextile/geogrid/geomembrane may were used in the field determination of infiltration capacity which be either pervious if infiltration of stormwater into the subgrade indicated that few pervious concrete pavement sections had infil- is required or an impervious one if there is no need for infiltration. 7. Biligiri / Construction and Building Materials 111 (2016) 262–274 269 These results conclude that pervious concrete structural integrity is largely depended on the base and sub-base conditions. under similar base conditions the different impulse loads Eventually. ions (OH) and carbonate ions (CO2 3 ).K. The mechanisms through which it can purify was investigated using Falling weight deflectometer (FWD) the infiltrated stormwater can be classified into three categories: [75. Further. Fortunately.76]. the stormwater thus reducing the pollutants to some extent. It is noteworthy that the field mixes complied well with lab- Geotextile oratory produced mixes and the differences in properties between field cores and laboratory mixes can be mainly attributed to the Fig. which react with the pol- Fig. The field cores showed lowest compressive strength due to higher air voids content. it releases hydroxide ments were four times higher than pervious concrete pavements. (b) raveling. 6. on these waters. The back calculated moduli of conventional concrete pave.  Chemical purification: pervious concrete being alkaline in nature. 1. in Fig. etc. which were found during the ongoing investigation. increases the quality of infiltrated stormwater which is basically The structural integrity of traditional concrete and pervious polluted by several sources such as heavy metals. Based on the study excerpts presented in the previous sections. rivers. the mechanical and hydrological properties of laboratory produced pervious concrete was compared with: (i) field produced mixes brought to the laboratory and then com- pacted. These studies showed that aggregate base conditions play significant role in controlling the structural response of pervious  Physical purification: the sinuous/curvaceous paths in the inter- concrete pavements for traffic loads. . A. Further. is known to cause nonpoint pollution where the runoff carries nat-  Surface sealing. and few investigated which was followed by proposing efficient rejuvena- studies do not recommend it to be placed above the open-graded tion methods as reported in [78]. pervious concrete due to its The photographs of the different distresses in pervious concrete porous nature not only reduces the runoff quantity. Pervious concrete pavement test cells have been constructed in 4. fecal mat- concrete parking pavement systems with different base conditions ters. etc. and (ii) field cores which were extracted three weeks after construction [77]. The most common dis. Different distresses in pervious concrete pavement: (a) joint deterioration. Water purification effects of pervious concrete MnRoad test facilities where it is being monitored to observe and study the different types of distresses [73]. oils. compaction effort. tresses.7–4 times higher than those observed for conventional pave. The single ring infiltrometers base layers [72]. tration capacity less than that of the underlying soil due to com- These geosynthetic materials can be used in the subgrade materials plete clogging.P. The study proposed a novel approach of placing a to stabilize through confinement in case the subgrade is weak. Application of geotextile for pervious concrete pavement system [73]. ments. the suspended particles can be removed during showed that deflection in pervious concrete pavements were about the periodic maintenance. A typical concentration of pollutants in the urban runoff is shown in Table 3. streams.

were compared for cost and benefits. and its effect on tion of heavy metals. oil deposition were studied which indicated that ventional concrete considering only the construction cost due to increase in thickness of pervious concrete layer rendered better non-availability of long-term performance data. There are few studies which have made comparative analysis of the initial cost of construction between permeable and conventional pavements. ing. These studies showed that initial costs are higher for permeable pavements due to con- Fig. and so on.K. Rationally speak- purification. mainly attributed to the fact that pervious concrete pavements vide abode for a number of microbial activities. study thermal properties of pervious concrete.788. and residential streets are still unconventional for many.649 considering installation cost. (mg/L) struction and maintenance cost data. Life cycle cost of pervious concrete Pervious concrete pavements being a good choice for low vol- ume roads such as parking lots. Further. [81]. those available liter- studied by Lee et al. 5. which consume do not require side drains.270 A. which will add to reduce pol- lution of natural water bodies. but none of them have vious concrete to sorb heavy metals was investigated using zinc included the scope of taking into account the UHI mitigation ben- and copper metal concentrated influent solutions [82]. pervious concrete pavement is weaker. as reported in [84.85]. and $3.37 NA NA the project specific LCCA should be developed by monitoring actual costs. and no filtration water.27 3. overlaying. In the report [86]. reduction of life cycle costs considering alleviation of the UHI crete pavements can be laid in industrial areas to reduce heavy effects. long-term performance data.02 0. The Federal High- the suspended materials and dissolving them. it was found that pervious concrete pavements can lutants and precipitate them. The permeable residential pavements reduced the life cycle costs by 30% and pointed out that Industrial zone 221.72 2. there are no particular studies which discuss the cost-benefits of pervious concrete and if available they are mostly applicable for local conditions. Table 3 The overall cost benefits of permeable pavements can be appre- Concentration of different pollutants in urban runoff for various land uses (recreated ciated when life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) is carried out. the authors and colleagues are . to conventional pavements. An in-service pervious concrete pavement was application methods. The impact of the results is that pervious con. The sorption capacity of per. ous concrete removed about 94.33 1.856 water is also increased converting it to be more neutral rather considering water treatment benefits over 25 years span compared than being acidic.81 367. due to lack of large scale testing.69 3. The purification of polluted water in atures have shown that pervious concrete is expensive than con- terms of salinity. One of the best methods to compare similar class of materials would be by considering their relative cost and bene- fits. only stormwater runoff mitigation benefits. better land utilization. However. Additionally. The reduction in construction cost is  Biological purification: the pores in the pervious concrete pro. However.31 Parking lots 67. filtration. but its added benefits come from stormwater management and low-impact on environment.11 8. 8.3% of phosphorous [80]. This section reviews the cost- benefits of pavements of permeable class compared to the conven- tional pavement systems. Chandrappa. the pavement system (combination of pervi. there is a very limited work of thickness of pervious concrete on purifying polluted water was on cost analysis of pervious concrete. From the mechanical properties point of view. most of the studies are considering if discharged in an untreated manner. natural pollutant concentration than only the pervious concrete layer. etc.56 0. Deflection response of different pavement systems for 40 kN impulse load trolled design and placements to achieve proper voids continuity [75]. con- Land use type Concentrations.12 4.98 2. based on [83]). the removal of fecal coliforms and phosphorous increased. way Administration (FHWA) points out that pervious concrete may be 15–20% more expensive than the traditional concrete.45 298. The purification effects of pervious concrete have been studied this depends on several factors such as materials employed and in various facets. three classes of permeable tested for its ability to remove phosphorous material from runoff pavements such as full filtration.94 86. based on the data obtained from sev- eral agencies. The effect Considering the available literature. At present. In another study [85].33 NA management systems used in highway shoulders.5 0.17 1. permeable COD TSS TN TP Fe Zn Cu pavement systems were compared with conventional stormwater Commercial and 302. sub-base) was more effective in reducing vious concrete such as reduction in runoff quality. As reported in [84]. base. The chemical purification effect of 6. K. On-going research pervious concrete was investigated by [83] using sewage water with fecal coliforms and phosphorous as a study subject that are Under the aegis of Government of India’s Ministry of Human known to cause gastroenteritis. The authors identify this as a potential area of research to results indicated that the effluent solutions had lesser concentra. Further. The test efits. The cored samples from the pavement showed that pervi. Biligiri / Construction and Building Materials 111 (2016) 262–274 increase in hydroxide ions. metal concentration in runoff water. the The heavy metals present in the storm water runoff especially pavement system can outperform conventional pavements for originating near industrial areas may be detrimental to aquatic life low volume roads. it has been difficult to study LCCA without many assumptions. ground water recharge. taking into account the environmental benefits offered by per- ous concrete layer. The study showed that with Resources Development project. partial filtration. Further.19 16. sidewalks. the pH of the polluted save up to $64.P.

The results showed that pervious concrete mix ity of the mixes produced was in the range of 29–38% with density had higher specific heat capacity and thermal conductivity than values varying from 1750–2000 kg/m3. order to study the impact of pore diameter and area of pores of which helps keep the surrounding environment cooler by mecha- the mixes. Scanned and binary (threshold) images of surfaces of different pervious concrete samples: (a) 4.75 mm single size. which included 100 mm diameter  200 mm height to mitigate UHI effects. evaporative cooling determined using falling head permeameter for varying cement. thermal dif- mens as shown in Fig. was found to play a vital role concrete mix and compared with a conventional concrete mixture in providing resistance during sample compaction. (c) 4. Biligiri / Construction and Building Materials 111 (2016) 262–274 271 involved in the development of design specifications and standards images were further used to determine the average pore sizes in for pervious concrete pavements for applications in low-volume terms of their area for different pervious concrete mixes roads. A. which is an fusivity. image analyses were carried out on the surface. The permeability increased with decreasing to understand UHI phenomenon better [88].79–5 cm/s.5 mm single size. which was materials perspective. The permeability of pervious con. effect (ECE) of dense and porous concrete pavements was studied to-aggregate ratio. specific heat capacity. including thermal conductivity. physical properties of pervious concrete mixes were also studied pared at the Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur laboratory since literature recommends the use of porous pavement materials facilities. which was a similar range conventional concrete material indicating that porous structure found in other previous studies.2 mm equally composed.5 + 13. Pervious concrete mixture test samples: (a) cylindrical specimens with 100 mm diameter and 200 mm height. trimmed cylindrical samples. 9.5 mm single size.75 + 6.75 mm single size. 10. and (f) threshold image of 4. and decreased with increasing water-to-cement ratio. 10.5 + 13. The fledged mix designs of pervious concrete pavement systems that Fig. In this direction. The scanned and binary images of The ongoing studies are aimed at the development of full- the surfaces of representative samples are shown in Fig.7 + 9. (e) threshold image of 9. The angularity number. and 300 mm  300 mm  150 mm slab speci. K. nisms of evaporation than their conventional counterparts. thermophysical properties cylindrical samples. In showed that pervious concrete materials depicted positive ECE. (d) threshold image of 4. the findings density. In another mini-study. The total poros.75 + 6. will help reduce ill effects of the urban climates from pavement crete mixes was found to be in the range of 0.K.2 mm equally composed. as reported in [87]. Fig. . In addition to the mix design processes undertaken.P. thermo- A wide range of pervious concrete mixture samples were pre.5 mm single sized pervious important aggregate characteristic. and (b) slab specimens of 300 mm  300 mm  150 mm dimensions. Overall. Chandrappa. 9. (b) 9.7 + 9. albedo were determined for 9.

there is no single mix design method for pervious con. Davies. 33 (2002) 381–386 (Elsevier). rehabilitation techniques in respect of structural methods and permeable pavements as a potential practice for heat island mitigation need to be developed. Li. 2015).  Life cycle costs: the initial and maintenance costs of pervious [11] F. 89 (2003) 467–483 (Elsevier). lished in order to appreciate the benefits of pervious concrete [12] G. including. Concr. recycled materials after exposure to fire: a review. M. techniques such as discrete element methods would be more [3] L.T. low-volume roads such as local streets. traditional concrete are being applied for pervious concrete. durability. Haselbach. Schubring.N. the past studies indicated that pervious concrete mix is and this has raised a few issues among researchers due to the a very promising candidate to be used as a pavement material in differences in the material compositions. field-testing can achieve this. Proceedings of the  Urban heat island mitigation: although it is known that pervious Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies. Eng. EPA. Potential use of pervious concrete for nance of pervious concrete is absolutely essential owing to its maintaining existing mature trees during and after urban development. Environ. This will References not only help in understanding the material behavior but help in the implementation of pervious concrete in different parts [1] D. Energy saving potentials and air quality benefits of urban heat This material if developed can certainly reduce the overall side island mitigation. Environ. Fwa. Kolokotroni. [14] H. J. pedestrian walkways and  Laboratory-field correlations: most of the studies being carried driveways. an extensive study is required to understand the [10] J. Manage. M. Fur. in: EPA (Ed. Eng. Sci. pavements for urban heat island mitigation.  Maintenance and long-term performance: the periodic mainte. Accessed on 19 June. M. J. Conclusions urban roads.R. permeability of pervious concrete for use in pavement. ous concrete similar to the other pavement materials such as asphalt concrete or traditional conventional concrete. Prospects of pervious concrete pavement applications paper was to introduce the reader with the importance of pervious concrete and its benefits in the context of urbanization. measurements of portland cement pervious concrete. 44  Structural modeling: finite element model cannot be applied to (2013) 208–223 (Elsevier). M. There is a gap in the development of laboratory-to-field correla- tions in terms of unit weight. L. Rational modeling methods. Watson. [9] H. K. The main objective of this 7. and laboratory and 2971–2979 (Hindawi Publishing Corporation). such as mechanical. A. and make recommendations for implementation. The testing methods specified for pavements. [15] M.M. ments. and possibly in arterials and highways in future if out on pervious concrete are confined to laboratory conditions. Overall. and so forth. 2013. used in various classes of roads.D. The studies will focus on strength. Green. Permeability predictions for sand- appropriate and must be explored. Ren. Environ. Holland. as it is discrete in nature. A. compaction effort.F. [5] H. thermal. . Montes. 9. Thus. Haselbach. Manage. EPA’s heat island reduction initiative.I. Biligiri / Construction and Building Materials 111 (2016) 262–274 will cater to low-volume road applications and possibly other 8. Study on surface heat budget of various requires regular maintenance. (2008) 401–408. The following enlists the future scope of research in the environmental and cost-benefits aspects. Res. S. Li. various benefits. Luck. Chandrappa. hydrological. Transp. Takebayashi. [4] A. Res. Harvey. M. of the understanding of the material and lead to the development crete due to which the results obtained from different studies and implementation of design standards for pervious concrete are usually non-comparable. [7] H. M. and hydrological properties along with placement of field-test sections The use of pervious concrete in low-volume road applications to study real-time behavior of pervious concrete pavement has been attracting urban developers and contractors due to its systems. T. J. as indicated in the future scope of research. Higgins. Constr. Noumowe. 81 (2005) 42–49 (Elsevier). Valavala. Corrigendum: the use of reflective ther. Twan. Board (2009) 1–13.S. Urban porous structure. Remote failure criteria for pervious concrete and hence there is no par- Sens. cur- Acknowledgements ing. S. London’s urban heat island: impact on current and future energy consumption in office buildings. Energy Build. porosity. Mater. Valavala. S. USA. D. [2] J. Kayhanian. there are no defined [6] Q. Workman. Strength and permeability characteristics of pavements. Biosyst. Yang. Based on the previous area of pervious concrete pavements: studies. concrete needs to be developed with reduced abrasion/raveling. Pervious concrete is relatively a new material in pavement The paper has discussed various properties of pervious concrete applications in comparison with the conventional concrete pave. Montes. Urban Greening 8 (2009) 249–256 (Elsevier). this pavement type For. Viswanathan. clogged Portland cement pervious concrete pavement systems. field performance. G. porous concrete pavements. Ministry of Human Resource Development Department of Higher  Development of standard structural design procedures: there is a Education for financial support vide Future of Cities research pro- need to develop a universal thickness design method for pervi- ject grant number F. F. Coyne. 2 (1) (2005) 1–13. Comparative field permeability measurement concrete can alleviate UHI effects. T. T. B. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 2005. Volder.epa. S. 47 (2011) 302–311 (Elsevier). which of the thermal properties has significant contribution. K. there is a lag in studying of permeable pavements using ASTM C1701 and NCAT permeameter methods. Lu.F. Studying the long-term performance and and stormwater management. J. No. Lim. 8 (2013) 1–14 [IOP Publishing]. Effect of mix proportion on strength and aspect. it was found that there exist several research gaps in the subject area. This will certainly help in the development of appropriate testing methods so that field condi- The authors gratefully acknowledge the Government of India tions are mimicked in a laboratory. monitoring of pervious concrete pavements can accomplish this [8] E. Akbari. McCain. 4-22/2014-TS. Kayhanian. A new test method for porosity concrete over a long-term period needs to be collected and pub. Lett. These  Requirement of mix design specifications and testing methods: at gaps if considered and studied can help in the overall improvement present. J. Harvey. Mavrigianni. Mater. 100 thermophysical properties of pervious concrete pavements.htm. 118 (2013) 144–152 (Elsevier). Therefore. 2005 (http://www.J. Dewoolkar. ticular time limit to carryout the rehabilitation procedure.  Applicability for high volume roads: the high strength pervious [13] Reducing urban heat islands: compendium of strategies.K. Weng.P. vol. Jiang. Cree. highways. Residual strength of concrete containing of the world.M. dated 23 January 2014. Cem.H. Adv. Moriyama. M. J. This paper reviewed the current state-of-the-art corresponding to key mechanical and hydrological properties of pervious concrete pavement material.gov/hiri/impacts/ effects of those caused by traditional pavements and can be index. Experimental study on properties of pervious concrete pervious concrete. which gets clogged. Res. 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