# MATHEMATICAL TRIPOS Part IA

Thursday 1 June 2000 9 to 12

PAPER 1

Before you begin read these instructions carefully.

Each question in Section II carries twice the credit of each question in Section I.

In Section I, you may attempt all four questions.

in Section II, at most five answers will be taken into account and no more than
three answers on each course will be taken into account.

Write on one side of the paper only and begin each answer on a separate sheet.

Write legibly; otherwise you place yourself at a great disadvantage.

At the end of the examination:

Tie up your answers in separate bundles, marked A, B, C, D, E and F according
to the code letter affixed to each question. Include in the same bundle questions
from Sections I and II with the same code letter.

Attach a gold cover sheet to each bundle; write the code letter in the box marked
‘EXAMINER LETTER’ on the cover sheet.

You must also complete a Green master cover sheet listing all the questions you
have attempted.

Every cover sheet must bear your examination number and desk number.

[TURN OVER

e3 } by φ(ei ) = bi for i = 1. 2 . the set Sk of points in the complex plane is defined by ½ ¯ ¯ ¾ ¯z − 1¯ Sk = z ∈ C : ¯ ¯ ¯ =k . Describe f geometrically and show that f (Sk ) = S1/k . k > 0. Solve the linear system √  √2 Ax =  2. 4√ 1 1 0 2 2 3 Write down the matrix A of φ with respect to the basis E. e3 =  0  . 2D Algebra and Geometry The linear map φ : R3 → R3 is defined on the basis E = {e1 . Consider the function f : C → C defined by f (z) = −¯ z . e2 =  1  . z + 1¯ Show that Sk describes a circle if k 6= 1. b3 =  −1 2  . 1 b2 =  14 6  . 2. 2 SECTION I 1D Algebra and Geometry For k ∈ R. 3 with       1 0 0 e1 =  0  . Compute its centre and radius. e2 . 0 0 1  1√   √   1 √  2 √2 − 14 6 4 √2 √  b1 = 2 2  . Show that A is an orthogonal matrix and write down its inverse. Give a complete description of S1 .

3 3C Analysis I State the Comparison Test for convergence of series. you should X∞ 1 prove them. n=1 n n=1 n n + 1 [If you use any tests for convergence other than the Comparison Test. (ii) √ −√ . A function f has the form ax + b f (x) = cx + d where a. and deduce that converges for every integer n=1 n(n + 1) n=1 nk k > 2. Show that f can be expressed as a composite of functions of the form x 7→ x + α. Determine whether the following series converge: X∞ X∞ µ ¶ n! 1 1 (i) n . d are real numbers with ad − bc > 0. you may assume the result that diverges. c. and deduce it from the principle that a bounded monotonic sequence converges to a limit. [TURN OVER . and that its derivative is positive wherever it is defined. Show that X∞ 1 X∞ 1 converges to 1. However. x 7→ βx (with β > 0) and x 7→ −1/x. Deduce that f is differentiable at all x ∈ R with at most one exception.] n=1 n 4C Analysis I State and prove the chain rule for differentiation of real-valued functions. b.

) Using a matrix C with C 2 = D show that there exists a diagonalizable matrix B with only positive eigenvalues such that B 2 = A.x = 0 for 1 6 i 6 p and let {b1 . 1. . deduce that U = W .   0 0 1 Find the eigenvalues of the matrix A and compute the corresponding eigenspaces. a2 . Let W be the subspace of vectors y satisfying bj . 4 SECTION II 5D Algebra and Geometry Find all the solutions (x. ap } of Rn with dim(U ) 6 p. For all values of α ∈ R find a homogeneous linear system with space of solutions        1 1 1  U = span  1  .  α + 1  . bq } be a basis for V . . Consider a subspace U = span{a1 . [Hint: (1. .   α+2 4 α+2 6D Algebra and Geometry The linear map φ : R3 → R3 satisfies             1 1 −1 0 1 −1 φ  0  =  −3  . y.y = 0 for 1 6 j 6 q. Give the basis transformation matrix S such that S −1 AS = D. . What are the eigenvalues of B and what are the corresponding eigenspaces? .  1 − α  . 1)T is an eigenvector of A. Given that n = dim(U ) + dim(V ) = dim(V ) + dim(W ).  φ  −1  =  −9  . 0 −3 0 6 1 −5 Find the matrix A of φ with respect to the standard basis         1 0 0  E = 0. .0 . .] Find a basis for which the matrix of φ is a diagonal matrix D. . (You need not calculate S −1 . z)T ∈ R3 of the linear system x + y + (α + 2)z = 0 x + (α + 1)y + 4z = 0 x + (1 − α)y + (α + 2)z = 0 for all values of the parameter α ∈ R. .1. Show that U ⊆ W . φ   1 = 8. Let V be the subspace of vectors x satisfying ai .

n does the intersection of Π and S contain exactly one point? → → → The tetrahedron OABC is defined by the vectors a =OA. 5 7D Algebra and Geometry The equation of a plane Π in R3 is x. Show that φ˜ is well-defined. a . Show that the centre P of Tr satisfies → kb × cka + kc × akb + ka × bkc OP = r . b =OB. 8D Algebra and Geometry For a linear map φ : Rm → Rn show that the kernel K(φ) = {x ∈ Rm : φ(x) = 0} is a subspace of Rm . OBC.n = d where d is a constant scalar and n is a unit vector normal to Π. and OCA in exactly one point. What is the distance of Ψ from the origin? Find the radius of the sphere if it also intersects the face ABC in exactly one point (this is the inscribed sphere of the tetrahedron). What is the distance of the plane from the origin O? A sphere S with centre p and radius r satisfies the equation kx − pk2 = r2 . [TURN OVER . α˜ f . and that m → Rn by φ(˜ it is linear and injective. and c =OC with a. What does the condition a. y ∈ Rm that x ˜=y ˜ if ˜=y and only if x − y ∈ K(φ).(b × c) > 0 mean geometrically? A sphere Tr with radius r > 0 lies inside the tetrahedron and intersects each of the three faces OAB. x = αx for α ∈ R and x. y ∈ Rm . which becomes a vector space when addition and scalar multiplication are defined on Rg m by ˜+y x ^ ˜=x +y . (b × c) Given that the vector a × b + b × c + c × a is orthogonal to the plane Ψ of the face ABC. g Show that these operations are well-defined and that in R m addition is associative.(b × c) > 0. Define a map φ˜ : Rg ˜ x) = φ(x). Deduce that either x ˜ or the two sets x ˜ and y ˜ are disjoint. obtain an equation for Ψ. For which values of the scalar product p. For x ∈ Rm we define x˜ = {x + z : z ∈ K(φ)}. g Let R m = {˜x : x ∈ Rm } be the set of all such x˜ . Show for x.

then there exists c ∈ (a. 10C Analysis I X ∞ Let an z n be a power series with complex coefficients. b−x show that there is an interval [a0 . Hence show that. ∞] such that the series converges absolutely for all z with |z| < R and diverges for all z with |z| > R. b0 ] ⊆ [a. ∞] such that n=0 X ∞ cn cos nz converges absolutely whenever |Im z| < Y and diverges whenever n=0 |Im z| > Y . b) with f (c) = y. where z is a complex number. Now suppose that f is the derivative of an everywhere differentiable function F : R → R. there is a unique Y ∈ [0. G(a) = f (a) x−a and F (b) − F (x) H(x) = (x 6= b). if (cn ) X ∞ is a sequence such that cn converges. . 6 9C Analysis I Prove the Intermediate Value Theorem: if f : [a. b] → R is a continuous function and y a real number such that f (a) < y < f (b). X ∞ Now consider a series of the form bn enz . b] such that (F (b0 ) − F (a0 ))/(b0 − a0 ) = y. and that f (a) < y < f (b). H(b) = f (b) . Prove that there exists a n=0 unique R ∈ [0. Deduce that f satisfies the conclusion of the Intermediate Value Theorem (as stated above). Show n=0 that there is a unique X ∈ [−∞. By considering the functions G and H defined by F (x) − F (a) G(x) = (x 6= a). ∞] such that the series converges absolutely whenever Re z < X and diverges whenever Re z > X. State the Mean Value Theorem.

f (0) = 0. b] and Zb Zb fu (x) dx − fl (x) dx < ². x) when 0 √ < x < 1 and n −n when −1 < x < 0. 1). n! 0 Now let f (x) = (1 − x)1/2 . b) containing 0. and g and h are integrable on [a. [You may assume the result that f is integrable on [a. and deduce that it is integrable. then these should also be defined. b] → R to be (Riemann) integrable on [a. for any x ∈ (a. b]. with −(2n)! f (n+1) (x) = 22n+1 n!(1 − x)(2n+1)/2 for all n > 0. for each ² > 0. b]. Hence show that the power series ∞ µ X ¶ 2n xn+1 1− n=0 n (n + 1)22n+1 converges to f (x) for −1 < x < 1. Show also that if f (x) = g(x) − h(x) for all x. [Hint: Construct a function g which is constant on each interval where f is decreasing.] 12C Analysis I Explain what it means for a function f : [a. (If your definition involves the terms ‘upper integral’ and ‘lower integral’. x) k! k=1 Zx 1 where Rn (f. 1]. if you need it. 7 11C Analysis I Suppose the real-valued function f is (n+1) times continuously differentiable on an open interval (a. 1]. b).] a a Now let f (x) = πx2 cos(π/x) + 2x3 sin(π/x) (0 < x 6 1). Prove by induction on n that. x) = (x − t)n f (n+1) (t) dt.) Prove that if f is monotonic non-decreasing on [a. Show that f is infinitely differentiable on (−1. Show that f can be written as the difference of two non-decreasing functions on [0. and such that g(x) − f (x) is constant on each interval where f is increasing. then f is integrable on [a.] . b]. we have n X xk (k) f (x) = f (0) + f (0) + Rn (f. You may assume Stirling’s formula that n!/(n e 2πn) tends to 1 as n → ∞. [Hint: You will need to obtain separate estimates for Rn (f. there exist step functions fl and fu with fl (x) 6 f (x) 6 fu (x) for all x ∈ [a. Find the turning-points of f in (0. b] if and only if. b] then it is integrable.