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Aircraft Performance

Aircraft Performance
Weight and Balance
The weight and balance system

Weighing of the Proper loading of the
aircraft aircraft

The maintaining of the weight
and balance records

Aircraft Performance
Weight and Balance
The weight and balance system

Improper loading effects:

Cuts down the efficiency of an aircraft.
Failure to complete the flight.
Abnormal stresses in the structure.
Change flying characteristics.

Aircraft Performance
Weight and Balance
The weight and balance system

Aircraft Performance Weight and Balance The weight and balance system .

Aircraft Performance Weight and Balance The weight and balance system The pilot knows the maximum allowable weight of the aircraft and its CG limits. Ensure CG is within the allowable limits. .

Aircraft Performance Weight and Balance Weight control Excessive weight reduces the efficiency of an aircraft and the safety margin available if an emergency condition should arise. .

POH or AFM must be consulted to determine the maximum weight allowed. Aircraft Performance Weight and Balance Weight control When operating from a high altitude airport. .

Aircraft Performance Weight and Balance Effects of Weight All seats are occupied All baggage allowed carried All of the fuel tanks are full OVERLOADED .

which results in a longer takeoff run. Aircraft Performance Weight and Balance Effects of Weight Some of the problems caused by overloading an aircraft are: • The aircraft will need a higher takeoff speed. .

Aircraft Performance Weight and Balance Effects of Weight • Both the rate and angle of climb will be reduced. .

The cruising range will be shortened. . • The cruising speed will be reduced. Aircraft Performance Weight and Balance Effects of Weight • The service ceiling will be lowered.

. Aircraft Performance Weight and Balance Effects of Weight • Maneuverability will be decreased.

. Aircraft Performance Weight and Balance Effects of Weight • A longer landing roll will be required because the landing speed will be higher.

. especially the landing gear. Aircraft Performance Weight and Balance Effects of Weight • Excessive loads will be imposed on the structure.

Aircraft Performance Weight and Balance Basic Weight Definitions .

Aircraft Performance Weight and Balance Basic Weight Definitions .

Weight must be distributed to keep the CG within the limits specified in the POH or AFM. . Aircraft Performance Weight and Balance Balance Loading the aircraft so the gross weight is less than the maximum allowable is not enough.

. Check the CG location for all the flight phases. Aircraft Performance Weight and Balance Balance (Cont’d) Weight and balance of a helicopter is far more critical than for an airplane. At the end of flight CG may have shifted enough for the helicopter to be out of balance laterally or longitudinally.

Aircraft Performance Weight and Balance Balance (Cont’d) Changes of fixed equipment may have a major effect upon the weight of the aircraft. This change will cause the CG to shift. .

. Aircraft Performance Weight and Balance Stability and balance control Longitudinal stability is maintained by ensuring the CG is slightly ahead of the center of lift.

. Aircraft Performance Weight and Balance Stability and balance control If the CG is too far aft. it will be too near the center of lift and the airplane will be unstable. and difficult to recover from a stall.

Aircraft Performance Weight and Balance Stability and balance control If the CG is too far forward: The downward tail load will have to be increased to maintain level flight. . and drag will increase. Same effect as carrying additional weight so the aircraft will have to fly at a higher angle of attack.

the elevator might not produce enough nose-up force to rotate and on landing there may not be enough elevator force to flare the airplane. . Both takeoff and landing runs will be lengthened. Aircraft Performance Weight and Balance Stability and balance control At slow takeoff speeds.

Aircraft Performance Weight and Balance Stability and balance control Lateral imbalance causes wing heaviness. . which may be corrected by deflecting the aileron. The additional lift causes additional drag and the airplane flies inefficiently.

the CG shifts forward. As fuel is used from an outboard tank. Aircraft Performance Weight and Balance Stability and balance control Fuel in the tanks of a sweptwing airplane affects both lateral and longitudinal balance. .

and those behind. it is positive (+). Aircraft Performance Weight and Balance Aircraft Arms. When weight is removed from an aircraft. Arms ahead of. or to the right of the datum are positive (+). or to the left of the datum are negative (-). and when added. refers to the distance between the center of gravity of an item or object and the datum. usually measured in inches. Weight and Moments The term arm. Weight is normally measured in pounds. . it is negative (-).

and is the product of the arm. Weight and Moments A moment is a force that tries to cause rotation. in inches. Positive moments about the CG cause an airplane to nose up. Aircraft Performance Weight and Balance Aircraft Arms. and the weight. . while negative moments cause it to nose down. in pounds.

. as measured in inches from the reference plane called the datum. Some manufacturers specify this range as measured in percentage of the mean aerodynamic chord (MAC). Aircraft Performance Weight and Balance Aircraft Arms. the leading edge of which is located a specified distance from the datum. Weight and Moments The manufacturer establishes the maximum weight and range allowed for the CG.

Aircraft Performance Weight and Balance The Law of Lever Compute the CG position .

Aircraft Performance Weight and Balance Determining the CG 1. Multiply each arm by its weight in pounds to determine the moment in pound-inches of each weight. Measure the arm of each weight in inches from the datum. Determine the total of all weights and of all the moments. 4. 2. Divide the total moment by the total weight to determine the CG in inches from the datum. . 3.

Aircraft Performance Weight and Balance Determining the CG Example 1 Find the CG position TotalMoment CG = TotalWeight .

. Aircraft Performance Weight and Balance Determining the CG Exercise 1 Solve the example using a new Datum Line at CG location.

Aircraft Performance Weight and Balance Determining the CG Exercise 2 Complete the chart and find the airplane CG position TotalMoment CG = TotalWeight .

Aircraft Performance Weight and Balance Shifting the CG Example 2 Complete the chart and find the CG position TotalMoment CG = TotalWeight .

Aircraft Performance Weight and Balance Shifting the CG Exercise 3 Move the weight B so the board will balance about its center .

Aircraft Performance Weight and Balance Basic Weight and Balance Equation It could be solved for each variable .

Aircraft Performance Weight and Balance Basic Weight and Balance Equation Exercise 4 Solve the previous exercise using equation method .

0 CG limits +35. Aircraft Performance Weight and Balance Shifting the Airplane CG Exercises 5 and 6 Consider this airplane: Airplane empty weight 1340 lb.) +92 .2 Front seats (2) +35 Rear seats (2) +72 Fuel (40 gal) +48 Baggage (maximum 60 lb. Empty Weight CG location +37.6 to +43.

Aircraft Performance Weight and Balance Shifting the Airplane CG Exercises 5 and 6 Consider this airplane: .

Aircraft Performance Weight and Balance Shifting the Airplane CG Exercises 5 and 6 The pilot has prepared a chart to estimate the CG location .

The will be 50 pounds of baggage. and the flight is going to have maximum range. Is the CG located within the limits? . and a 212 pound and a 97 pound passenger are in the rear seats.). so maximum fuel is carried (240 lb. Aircraft Performance Weight and Balance Shifting the Airplane CG Exercise 5 Find the CG location for the following situation: The 140 pound pilot and a 115 pound passenger are to occupy the front seats.

Aircraft Performance Weight and Balance Shifting the Airplane CG Exercise 5 Complete the chart and find the CG location .

Aircraft Performance Weight and Balance Shifting the Airplane CG Exercise 6 Because the CG is located too far aft of the rear limit. Is the plane allowable to flight? . change the position of the 212 pounds and 115 pounds passengers and find the new CG location using the basic weight and balance equation.