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AISC Design Guide 11: Floor Vibrations Due to Human Activity

**The following editorial corrections have been made in the
**

First Printing, 1997. To facilitate the incorporation of these

corrections, this booklet has been constructed using copies

of the revised pages, with corrections noted. The user may

find it convenient in some cases to hand-write a correction;

in others, a cut-and-paste approach may be more efficient.

the peak acceleration due to walking can matches the fundamental frequency of the floor: be estimated from Equation (2.29 kN (65 lb.5 −− 6-8.1. only the format is different.25 *dynamic coefficient = peak sinusoidal force/weight of person(s).1 Common Forcing Frequencies (f) and Dynamic Coefficients* Person Walking Aerobics Class Group Dancing Harmonic 2-2.3) is the same design criterion as that proposed by Allen reduction factor and Murray (1993).7 for footbridges and 0. can (2.2) can be simplified by person's weight.7 kN (157 pounds) approximating the step relationship between the dynamic for design coefficient. the fol- component lowing simplified design criterion is obtained: harmonic multiple of the step frequency step frequency (2. i. where son to the harmonic associated with resonance.3) represents an effective harmonic force due to walking which results in ratio of the floor acceleration to the acceleration resonance response at the natural floor frequency Inequal- of gravity ity (2.1. For design.3) Recommended values for are given in Table 2.1) is used since all other harmonic vibrations are small in compari. versus frequency. −− 3/1/03 4-5.) for floors and 0. • A time dependent harmonic force component which For evaluation. taken as 0.75 1. 2.2) by selecting the lowest harmonic.5-3 Rev. The peak where acceleration is then compared with the appropriate limit in Figure 2.2 Dynamic coefficient. the duration of vibration and the frequency of vibration taken as 0. modal damping ratio Motion due to quasi-static deflection (Figure 1.7) can become more critical than resonance if the fundamental frequency of a floor The reduction factor R takes into account the fact that full steady-state resonant motion is not achieved for is greater than about 8 Hz.) for footbridges where The numerator in Inequality (2. for which the forcing frequency. It is recommended that R be Table 2.5 for floor structures events. the acceleration limit is not annoyed are not simultaneously at the location of maxi. and frequency. 8 .) estimated peak acceleration (in units of g) • A resonance response function of the form: acceleration limit from Figure 2. Fig.2 by the dynamic coefficient for the ith harmonic force formula With this substitution. To account approximately for walking and that the walking person and the person footstep impulse vibration. increased with frequency above 8 Hz.1 natural frequency of floor structure (2.1) match a natural frequency of the floor structure. as it would be if mum modal displacement.2) constant force equal to 0. with two-way mode shape configurations.41 kN (92 lb.6) and effective weight of the floor footstep impulse vibration (Figure 1. shown in Figure 2. Equation (2. (Only one harmonic component of Equation (1. f.

the fundamental frequency is equal to the natural 1. then (3. exceeds the deflection of the backspan. This is important for tall buildings with large col- weight acts in the direction of modal displacement.11) If the opposite is true. due to the weight supported.7) The natural frequency of a fixed cantilever can be estimated using Equation (3. directions and. with the following used to calculate For uniformly distributed mass where (3. are rarely fully fixed at their supports. and up where it is up the flexural deflection of a girder or beam moment connected (opposite to gravity).e. for a continuous beam with equal spans.12) 0. Adjacent spans displace in opposite to columns in the configuration shown in Figure 3.10) Members Continuous with Columns The natural frequency of a girder or beam moment-connected Cantilevers.2 frequency of a single simply-supported span.2. i. to columns is increased because of the flexural restraint of the The following equations can be used to estimate the flexural deflection of a cantilever/backspan/column condition shown in Figure 3.3) through (3. of where the main (larger) span. down umns. for flexural deflection of a fixed cantilever.06 for mass concen- trated at the tip 2 if columns occur above and below. 3/1/03 Where the spans are not equal. 3.81 for distributed mass and 1. then (3.8) Rev. The following relationship can be used for estimating where the modal displacement is down.9) and for a mass concentrated at the tip (3. If the cantilever deflection. weight supported 13 .2 Modal flexural deflections. 1 if only above or below Fig. the following relations can 6 be used for estimating the flexural deflection of a continuous member from the simply supported flexural deflection.top and bottom chords) for the situation where the distributed columns.5). For two continuous spans: (3.6) For three continuous spans Cantilevers (3. c (3. however. due to the beams or girders continuous with columns. therefore.3.

tion to the walking excitation criterion.2 Estimation Of Required Parameters above 8 hz.Chapter 4 DESIGN FOR WALKING EXCITATION 4. based on Allen and Murray (1993). (4. With the advent of limit states design than 3 Hz should generally be avoided. and common Figure 2. due to walking excitation as a fraction of the acceleration of gravity. modal damping ratio.7 kips per in. usually taken as 17 . response of steel beam and joist supported floor systems to the fundamental natural frequency.2) does not exceed the acceleration limit. transformed slab moment of inertia per unit width Rev. For floors. The recommended criterion is based on the dynamic (3.1) or criteria. a girder panel.1) are obtained or estimated The design criterion for walking excitations recommended from Table 4. as applicable. beam provides guidance for estimating the required floor properties and girder spans have increased. 1. effective depth of the concrete slab.1 and Chapter 3 For simply in Section 2. The following section. Floor systems with fundamental frequencies less construction practice.1. supported weight per unit area fundamental natural frequency of a beam or joist member span panel. effective width cable.0 for joists or beams parallel to an interior edge If the natural frequency of a floor is greater than 9-10 Hz.1). and For the beam or joist panel mode. because they are liable and the more common use of lightweight concrete. or a combined panel.1 has broader applications than commonly used supported footbridges is estimated using Equation (3.0 for joists or beams in most areas from 3 Hz to 20 Hz as discussed in Section 2.2. systems have become lighter. To ensure satisfactory perform- were calibrated using floors constructed 20-30 years ago. ering the 'beam or joist panel' and 'girder panel' modes residences. resulting in higher natural fre. Experience indi. The criterion can be used to evaluate con. as appli. The parameters in Equation (4.1 can where also be used to evaluate a floor system if the original ISO plateau between 4 Hz and approximately 8 Hz is extended 2. quencies lower than 5 hz. than 9-10 Hz. W. where a constant force representing the excitation. this stiffness criterion should be used in addi- cies between 5 and 8 hz because of traditional design rules. Figure 2. determined from Effective Panel Weight. However. W The effective panel weights for the beam or joist and girder (4. the peak acceleration. or 12de3/ (12n) in4/ ft 3/1/03 but walking vibration can still be annoying. significant resonance with walking harmonics does not occur. for the appro- priate occupancy. quencies for the same structural steel layout. Equation (4. are given in Table 4. offices.1) panel modes are estimated from (4. separately and then combining them as explained in Chap- The criterion states that the floor system is satisfactory if ter 3. Most existing design criteria do not properly evaluate systems with frequencies below 5 hz and 4. the effective width is effective weight supported by the beam or joist panel. g. and effective panel walking forces.3a) Recommended values of as well as limits for but not greater than floor width several occupancies. ance of office or residential floors with frequencies greater Annoying floors of this vintage generally had natural frequen. and shopping malls. floor to be subjected to "rogue jumping" (see Chapter 5).1. weight.1. for application of the recommended criterion. girder panel or combined panel.) is required for office generally based on a reference impact such as a heel-drop and and residential occupancies.3) and W is equal to the weight of the footbridge. sometimes resulting in fre. In Equation (4.2. for a critical mode are estimated by first consid- crete/steel framed structural systems supporting footbridges.1) or such as live load deflection less than span/360.1 Recommended Criterion cates that a minimum stiffness of the floor to a concentrated Existing North American floor vibration design criteria are load of 1 kN per mm (5.

the depth of the concrete above the form deck plus For the combined mode. ity effects are not generally realized when girders frame Table 4. this liberalization does not apply to Recommended modal damping ratios range from 0.5 nor greater than 1. 0. See Sec- tions 3.4 and 3. is less than the joist panel width.1) and Limits Offices.g. due to the weight sup- = joist or beam spacing ported by the member = joist or beam span.2. 0. and occupants. 0. directly into columns. Churches Shopping Malls Footbridges — Indoor Footbridges — Outdoor * 0. the equivalent panel weight is one-half the depth of the form deck approximated using n = dynamic modular ratio = = modulus of elasticity of steel (4. used in Equation (4. partitions.3b) Composite action with the concrete deck is normally assumed when calculating provided there is sufficient shear but not greater than × floor length connection between the slab/deck and the member. Residences. 3. where If the girder span. = 2Ig /L j for edge girders where is taken as not less than 0. Table 4.03 for floors with non-structural components and furnishings. furnishings. the combined mode is restricted and the system is effectively = 1.0 3/1/03 = girder span.8 for girders supporting beams connected to the girder web = girder transformed moment of inertia per unit width (4-5) = for all but edge girders Rev. i. re- For the girder panel mode. ducts. If the beam or joist span is less than one-half the girder Where beams. This can be accounted for by reducing the deflec- girder flange (e.1 Recommended Values of Parameters in Equation (4.05 for full height partitions between floors. typical of many modular office areas.02 for floors with few non-structural components (ceilings. but with only small demountable partitions. but The damping associated with floor systems depends primarily not to joists connected only at their top chord.4) = modulus of elasticity of concrete = joist or beam transformed moment of inertia per unit where width = maximum deflections of the beam or joist and = effective moment of inertia of the tee-beam girder.2) for the beam or joist and girder panels. etc. joists or girders are continuous over their span.5 for more details.4) to = 1. the effective panel weight.e. The value 0.01 to such girders. on non-structural components.1 recommends values of the modal damping ratio.6 for girders supporting joists connected to the stiffened. or Damping can be increased by 50 percent. the effective width is spectively (4. span under consideration.) as can occur in open work areas and churches. joist seats) tion. respectively.05. for calculation purposes.01 is suitable for footbridges or floors with 18 .7 times the should be checked separately. the beam or joist panel mode and the combined mode supports and an adjacent span is greater than 0. This liberalization also applies to rolled sections shear-connected to girder webs. Since continu. = effective panel weights from Equation (4.

and found in shopping malls. This reduction is commonly used when evaluating floors for sensitive equip- tee-beam due to a 1 kN (0. such as floors joist or beam span. This support detail provides much less flexural continuity than shear con- nected beams. typical of many modular office areas.3 Application Of Criterion trated load is to be placed so as to produce the maximum possible deflection of the tee-beam. number of effective beams or joists. value 0. CSA S16. an open web joist is typically supported at the ends by a seat on the girder flange and the bottom chord is not connected to the girders. is then estimated using mended in previous criteria (Murray 1991. The Rev. The deflections ∆oj are usually estimated using 3/1/03 ness of a floor. The value 0.9) (4.7 kips per in. concentrated force of 1 kN per mm (5. non-structural components or furnishings. (4. These recommended modal damp- ray (1991). and 1/192 (for beams with built-in ends). As shown in Figure 4. The concrete slab may be located between the beams (because of clearance considerations). but is not generally used when evaluating floors for force calculated using the same effective moment of inertia as was used for the frequency calculation human comfort. 4. due to vibration transmission are included in earlier heel drop test data. following procedure is recommended for calculating the stiff. The value 0. one titions.225 kips) concentrated ment use. The transformed moment of inertia of the tee-beam.).7) was developed by Kittennan and Murray nents and furnishings. but with only small demountable par- (1994) and replaces two traditionally used equations.225 kips) concentrated load.6) which assumes simple span conditions. To account for rota- tional restraint provided by beam and girder web framing where connections. where Floor Stiffness maximum deflection of the more flexible girder due to a 1 kN (0. The General effective number of tee-beams can be estimated Application of the criterion requires careful consideration by from the structural engineer. effective slab depth. the floor should have a minimum stiffness under a frequency calculation.1-M89) because modal damping excludes vibration transmission. The concen. see Mur- partitions between floors. Designers of footbridges are cautioned to pay particular attention to the location of the concrete slab relative to the beam height. For example. the acceleration limit for outdoor footbridges is meant for traffic and not for quiet areas like crossovers in hotel or office building atria. reducing both the lateral stiffness of the girder panel and the participation of the mass of adjacent bays in resisting walker-induced vibration.02 is suitable for floors with very few joist or beam spacing. then the foot- bridge will vibrate at a much lower frequency and at a larger amplitude because of the reduced transformed moment of inertia. pants. ing ratios are approximately half the damping ratios recom- The total floor deflection. simply supported.no non-structural components or furnishings and few occu..8) whereas dispersion effects. The deflection of the joist panel under concen- trated force.05 developed for open web joist supported floor systems and the is suitable for offices and residences with full-height room other for hot-rolled beam supported floor systems. which is the geometric mean of 1/48 (for simple span beams) the static deflection of a single.03 is suitable for floors with non-structural compo- Equation (4. These effects are ac- counted for as follows: 19 . using For floor systems having a natural frequency greater than the same effective moment of inertia as used in the 9-10 Hz.1. the coefficient 1/48 may be reduced to 1/96. is first estimated using (4. open work areas or churches.

Beam Properties W530×66 A = 8.5 m.9 SI Mezzanine with Girder Edge Member 4. Using a dynamic modulus of elasticity of 1. only the joist or beam panel mode needs to be investigated. 4.5 3/1/03 4. COMBINED PANEL MODE Beam Mode Properties Since 0.1 SI Outdoor Footbridge trusses 4. GIRDER PANEL MODE Rev. C.6 USC Same as Example 4.8 USC Same as Example 4. CHECK STIFFNESS CRITERION IF F. JOIST PANEL MODE 4.2 USC Same as Example 4. 4.7 4. Base calculations on girder with larger smallerfrequency.7 SI Mezzanine with Beam Edge Member 4. the transformed moment of inertia is calculated as follows: E.370 mm2 = 350×l06 mm4 d = 525 mm Cross Section The weight per linear meter per beam is: and the corresponding deflection is 21 . the full width of the slab is effective.5 if continuous) Building — Open Web Joist Framing.10 USC Same as Example 4. A. FLOOR SLAB Table 4.4Lj = 0.3 2.4×12 m = 4.35EC.3 SI Typical Interior Bay of an Office Building—Hot Rolled Framing 4.8 m is greater than 1. calculate Note: USC means US Customary 1/4 Cg (Dj / Dg ) Lj Because the footbridge is not supported by girders.2 Summary of Walking Excitation Examples Example Units Description B.4 USC Same as Example 4.0 4.1 4. REDESIGN IF NECESSARY Fig.2 Floor evaluation calculation procedure.5 SI Typical Interior Bay of an Office (x 1.9 For interior panel. D.0 1. frequency.

can be estimated from Table 5. A more accurate procedure is first to estimate the maximum acceleration on the activity floor by = the elastic deflection of the floor joist or beam at using Equations (2. that a limit of 0.2) that which participants in activities are known to accept. and where each deflection results from the total weight sup.3 or 5. (5. beams. 3/1/03 ∆c = the elastic shortening of the column or wall (and the determined from computer analysis or estimated from the ground if it is soft) due to axial strain deflection parameters (see Example 5. as they do sometimes for upper floors. there is A more accurate estimate of natural frequency may be an increase in effective mass because much more mass is obtained by computer modeling of the total structural system. including the weight of people.1).6) and then to estimate the mid-span due to bending and shear accelerations in sensitive occupancy locations using the fun- = the elastic deflection of the girder supporting the damental mode shape. the distributed flexural stiffness of floor members should be based on com- weight of participants.2.1. by increasing the value of Similarly. The mode shapes can be Rev. when applying Equation (5. Guidance for determining deflection due to shear value of is reduced on the basis of equivalent effect is given in Sections 3. the floor plus participants. The effect of an additional concentrated Acceleration Limit: weight.2. this can be taken into account with the second harmonic of the jumping frequency (Alien. In the case of joists. the because of the increased length of the column "spring". significantly. attached to the columns than just the floor panel supporting the rhythmic activity.05 (equivalent to 5 percent of the acceleration of gravity) not be exceeded. and girder deflections for buildings with few (1-5) stories but becomes significant for buildings with many (> 6) stories For a simply-supported floor panel on rigid supports. Values of or girders continuous at supports. ing can be estimated using Section 3. Table 5.6. The contribution of column deflection. These estimated accelerations are then beams due to bending and shear compared to the limits in Table 5. can be approximated by an increase in of It is recommended. The For the area used by the rhythmic activity. is generally small compared to joist Effective Weight. the natural fre. Rhythmic Loading Parameters: and f ported by the member. the deflection due to bend- and f are recommended in Table 5. (moment or deflection) for a fully loaded span.4.5) and (2. as recommended in In cases where participants occupy only part of the span.05 limit is intended to protect vibration sensitive occupan- where cies of the building. For effective weight is simply equal to the distributed weight of a building with very many stories (> 15). the Section 3. For special events the density of participants can be greater.2.2 Estimated Loading During Rhythmic Events Activity Dancing: First Harmonic Lively concert or sports event: First Harmonic Second Harmonic Jumping exercises: First Harmonic Second Harmonic Third Harmonic * Based on maximum density of participants on the occupied area of the floor for commonly encountered conditions. If the floor supports an extra quency due to the column springs alone may be in resonance weight (such as a floor above). The 0. posite or partially composite action.5 and 3. if the columns vibrate 1990). although this value is considerably less than where 38 .4).

Note that only an mass dampers. Table 5. The second stage consists of hand calculations using appears in Equation (2. increasing complexity. which applies if resonance occurs. (2) 2nd and May be reduced if. (3) From Equation (5. The structural design solution involves three stages of tion (5. including shear deformation and continuity of beams and girders. identifying The designer initially should determine whether rhythmic the lowest critical ones.2). but the increase of the building or the use of mitigating devices such as tuned is unlikely to be greater than 50 percent.1). and if so. damping times mass is sufficient to reduce third 3rd harmonic harmonic 3/1/03 resonance to an acceptable level.5) and (2. approximate value of is needed for application of Equa. for Rhythmic Events Effective Weight of Minimum Required Total Participants Weight Fundamental Activity Forcing Natural (3) Acceleration Limit Frequency(1) Frequency Construction f. The third stage requires computer analyses to 5. Equation (5.2). where. or alternatively Equations (2.2 and the governing forcing frequency is shown.1). proximate minimum natural frequency from Table 5. (5. which is higher than shown recalculating the structure's natural frequency using Equation in Table 4. throughout the building in relation to the maximum accelera- At an early stage in the design process it is possible to locate tion on the activity floor.3 Application of the Criterion determine natural frequencies and mode shapes. a value of find the minimum natural frequency more accurately. and finally comparing these accel- 39 .1). Rev. Equation (5.1) but it (5.1).3: (1) Equation (5. It is also a good idea at this stage to consider B = effective width of the panel. y = ratio of modal displacement at the location of the both rhythmic activities and sensitive occupancies so as to weight to maximum modal displacement minimize potential vibration problems and the costs required L =span to avoid them.3 Application of Design Criterion.5a). Hz Dancing and Dining Lively Concert or Sports Event Aerobics only Jumping Exercises Shared with Weight Lifting Notes to Table 5. which can be approxi. estimating vibration accelerations activities are contemplated in the building.1 for walking vibration.1) is supplied to all harmonics listed in Table 5.06 may be used. The first stage is to establish an ap- Damping Ratio. alternative structural solutions to prevent vibration problems.3 and to estimate the natural frequency of the structure using Equation This parameter does not appear in Equation (5. mated as the width occupied by the participants Such structural solutions may include design of the structure to control the accelerations in the building and special ap- Continuity of members over supports into adjacent floor proaches.5a). according to Equation (2.6). to Because participants contribute to the damping. such as isolation of the activity floor from the rest panels can also increase the effective mass. and of approximately 0.

The floor layout is such that half the span composite moment of inertia of the joists. Using calculation procedures. Equation (5. lected based on strength. 5. = 0. The To investigate the floor design further.) joists supported on concrete block walls.3. with f = 3 Hz and = 0. Fig.5 psf (from Table 5. the floor is marginally unsatisfactory and further analysis is warranted.3—Second Floor of General Purpose Because = 5.3 Hz. is 2. 7. will be used for dancing and the other half for dining. ing 12 psf for people dancing and dining.2. From Table 5.1). The structural plan is shown in Figure 5.3 for dancing. the required fundamental natural frequency is As a first check to determine if the floor system is satisfactory. From Equation (2. The minimum required fundamental natural frequency is found to be 7. = 0.) Inequality (5.3 Hz. The effective that is = 0. The floor system consists of long Second Approximation span (45 ft.). which were se. from Equation (5. the expected maximum acceleration is Since there are no girders.02. includ.3 by interpolation between "light" and "heavy" floors. 3/1/03 Fig.4 (See Example 4.2 Layout of dance floor for Example 5.2.8 Hz is less than the required minimum natural Building Used for Aerobics—SI Units frequency. effective weight of the floor is estimated to be 75 psf.the dancing area shown. and since the axial defor- mation of the wall can be neglected.8 Hz.2 First Approximation and k = 1. the floor's fundamental natural frequency. is ap- proximately Since the recommended maximum acceleration for dancing combined with dining is 2 percent g and since the floor layout might change.3. the minimum required fundamental natural frequency is esti- mated from Table 5. health club. stiffer joists should be considered. 41 . the system appears to be unsatisfactory.3 Aerobics floor structural layout for Example 5.1. an acceleration limit of 2 percent g is selected. Thus. The deflection of a composite joist due to the supported 75 psf loading is Since = 5.600 in.2) to 6 psf. Thus.1) is used.5b). 5. Example 5.5 from Table 5.6 for is reduced from 12. Aerobics is to be considered for the second floor of a six story Rev.

unacceptable vibrations are to be expected. because 5.0 mm) to total deflec- tion at the midpoint of the activity floor (9. limit of 0. Second Approximation Conclusions Inequality (5. The weight of the floor is 3.2 for the second harmonic of jumping exercises and 0. The deflections due to the weight supported by each element (joists.600 × 106 mm4. large. i. For the first creased to at least 9 Hz. The natural frequency of the system is estimated by use of Equa- tion (5.7 Hz is very close to a forcing frequency for the second harmonic of the step frequency (5.10. as estimated from the mode shape.5 for calculation procedures. The required frequencies for each of the jumping exercise The floor framing shown in Figure 5. connected to the concrete with shear studs. Significant increases in the stiffness harmonic of the forcing frequency. An effective = 0. Further. Assuming an axial stress.2 kPa.06 is the recommended estimate of the damping ratio The total deflection is of a floor-people system. The floor construction consists of a concrete slab on open- web steel joists. the Rev. An acceleration of 42 percent of gravity implies that the vibrations will be unacceptable.05 applies to the activity floor.69 mm) is approxi- which is considerably less than the estimated required mini- mately 0. and of both the joists and the girders are required. but also for adjacent areas on the second floor. able for most occupancies. Equation (2. For an acceptable structural system.4 should not be used for hamonics are calculated using k = 2. where the values of the parameters are obtained from Table 5.3 indicates that the structural system should have a minimum natural frequency of approximately 9 Hz.2) is floor.05 (the accel. other areas of the building supported by the aerobics floor columns will be subjected to vertical accelerations of approxi- mately 4 percent of gravity.) First Approximation Table 5.5 Hz).0 for jumping.0 Hz.2. = aerobic activities.e. not only for the aerobics and the natural frequency from Equation (5. where the ratio of column deflection (1. method of stiffening to achieve a natural frequency of 9 Hz is to support the aerobics floor girders at mid-span on columns directly to the foundations and to increase the stiffness of the aerobics floor joists. an approximate estimate of the acceleration can be determined from the resonance response formula. girders and columns) are determined as fol- lows: Because the natural frequency (5. of 40 MPa and a column length of 5 m.1 kPa. Accelerations of this magnitude are unaccept- mum frequency of 9.2). supported on hot-rolled girders and steel columns.5a): The axial shortening of the columns is calculated from the axial stress due to the weight supported. Both the joists and the girders are simply supported and in the aerobics area the girders are composite. The effective composite moments of inertia of the joists and girders are 108 × 106 mm4 and 2. Also.7 Hz) is less than the re- The deflection of the joists due to the floor weight is quired frequency for all three harmonics. 0. respectively. areas) and values from Table 5.. not to natural frequency of the structural system needs to be in- 3/1/03 adj. 42 . (See Example 4.1) is now used to evaluate the system further.

The effective composite moments of inertia of 4 4 the joists and girders are 260 in. The floor construction consists of a concrete slab on open- web steel joists. of 6 ksi and a column length of 16 ft. The natural frequency of the system is estimated by use of Equa- tion (5. for the second harmonic with girders are composite.) First Approximation Table 5. respectively.1) is now used to evaluate the system further.4 Aerobics floor structural layout for Example 5. Equation (2.3 indicates that the structural system should have a And. Second Approximation Inequality (5. The total deflection is then and the natural frequency from Equation (5.e.310 in. limit of 0. not to 3/1/03 adj.05 applies to the activity floor. The required deflections due to the weight sup- ported by each element (joists. 43 .4. areas) and values from Table 5. For the first Fig.05 (the accel. Also. (See Example 4. girders and columns) are determined as follows: The deflection of the joists due to the floor weight is Because the natural frequency (5. Both the joists and the girders are simply supported and in the aerobics area the Similarly.2) is which is considerably less than the estimated required mini- mum frequency of 9. and 6. . The weight of the floor is 65 psf. supported on hot-rolled girders and steel columns.4 Hz is very close to a forcing frequency for the second harmonic of the step frequency (5. Building Used for Aerobics—USC Units Rev.2. 0. The structural plan is shown in Figure 5. 5.4—Second Floor of General Purpose harmonic of the forcing frequency.4. because 5. i.0 for jumping. Rev. unacceptable vibrations are expected.5 Hz)..4 Hz) is less than the re- quired frequency for all three harmonics.5a): The axial shortening of the columns is calculated from the axial stress due to the weight supported. for the third harmonic with minimum natural frequency of approximately 9 Hz. Assuming an axial stress. Example 5. connected to the concrete with shear studs. large. The required frequencies for each of the jumping exercise hamonics are calculated using k = 2.2).6 for calculation procedures.0 Hz. an The deflection of the girders due to the floor weight is approximate estimate of the acceleration can be determined from the resonance response formula. Aerobics is to be considered for the second floor of a six story 3/1/03 health club.

F(t) / Fm = 1/2 [1 . as well as on the natural frequency (and decay time). the maximum displace- The force pulse exerted on a floor when a person takes a step ment of the spring-supported mass due to action of a has been shown to have the idealized shape indicated in force pulse like that of Figure 6.3 depends on all of the Figure 6. Rev.000/M µ-in. The maximum force. In such a system. corresponds to the floor's fundamental mode. = 250/M µ-m.2 Estimation of Peak Vibration of Floor due may be analyzed by considering that mode as an equivalent to Walking spring-mass system. Fig.2 Suggested criteria for microscopes. 6. Rev. W. Figure 6.000/M µ-in/sec. = 50. 3/1/03 Vel. a simple and convenient upper bound to which Displ. 6. where is the displacement of the mass due The dominant footfall-induced motion of a floor typically to a statically applied force of magnitude (Ayre 1961).5). as shown in to the quasi-static displacement of the mass in Figure 6. = 1.cos(πt / to)] 3/1/03 Fig.4 (Galbraith and Barton 1970).6.3 Idealized footstep force pulse. = 1. and the pulse rise time parameters of the pulse. whose response However. have been found to depend on the of the spring-mass system. The same is true of the ratio walking speed and on the person's weight.3.250/M µ-m/sec. 47 .

The fundamental natural frequency of the floor may be 3/1/03 determined as described in Chapter 3 or by means of finite- element analysis. of footstep pulse on walking speed (from Galbraith and Barton. and then Equation (6.5 Maximum dynamic deflection due to footstep pulse. taking account Fig. e. 6. Am lated. In calculating this deflection. 48 . 6. and rise time. the floor's static displacement due to a point load at the load application point is calcu. and then determining the ratio of the deflection to the force. For design calculations it suffices to approxi- mate this upper bound curve by (Ungar and White 1979) (6.g. depends only on the product is indicated by the solid curve of Figure 6. calcu- lating the resulting deflection at the force application point.5.5. and the first part corresponds to the upper Am= ______ 2(fnto) left portion of the frame of that figure. 1970). Here denotes the floor's deflection under a unit concentrated load.2) is applied. The flexibility at the load application point may be obtained by means of standard static analysis methods.2) The second part of this equation is represented by the dashed 1 curve of Figure 6. To determine a floor's maximum displacement due to a footfall impulse. only the deflections of the beams and girders should be considered. Rev. the local deformations of the fnto slab and deck should be neglected. by assuming application of a point force at the location of concern. Fig.4 Dependence of maximum force. including finite-element techniques.

(3) compare the (6. from Equation (6.000 and = 1. the ratio should be less than the specified the floor framing as necessary to satisfy the criterion without velocity V for the equipment. could be permitted to be about 15 times greater./lb- displacement may be expressed as Hz).4 kN (315 lb). 3/1/03 75 (moderate) 50 (slow) 1.7 (9. For the common case where the the above fast walking condition and a limiting velocity of 25 floor fundamental natural frequency is greater than 5 Hz. that is.3 Application of Criterion of that for fast walking and for slow walking is about th of The recommended approach for obtaining a floor that is that for fast walking. speeds. Thus. or about m/kN-Hz (67 × (6. If an initial flexibility results in a velocity then the flexibility that will result in a velocity may be found from (6.4b) results in the following de- sign the floor for a static live loading somewhat greater than sign criterion the design live load.6) expected maximum velocity to the appropriate criteria.4b) of a given floor design needs to be changed to meet a given velocity criterion. for over-designing the structure. significant flexibility (or stiffness) changes can often be ac- complished with only minor changes in the structural system. (6.2 shows values of for other 84 kg (185 lb) walker and (4.) of composite action (see Section 3.3) load. (2) calculate the expected maximum velocity due to walking-induced vibrations. For slow walking.6) the velocity V is proportional to Since the floor vibrates at its natural frequency once it has This proportionality is useful for the approximate evalu- been deflected by a footfall impulse.2 Values of Footfall Impulse Parameters Walking Pace steps/minute kg 100 (fast) Rev.2) applies and the maximum m/kN-Hz (1. and and if the limiting velocity is 12 (500 Hz. where Since the natural frequency of a floor is inversely propor- tional to the square-root of the deflection." "moderate.5) The parameter has been introduced to facilitate estimation (6-7) and is a constant for a given walker weight and walking speed." and "slow" walking are expected are discussed later. the should be less than second form of Equation (6. the maximum velocity ation of the effects of minor design changes.3) in.81 × 84)= 1. for moderate walking speed is about th 6.000 × 25. appropriate for supporting sensitive equipment is to (1) de. Rearranging Equation (6. / W = 1. from Figure 6.7)./lb-Hz). due to a unit (see Figure 6. Table 6. For example.1 or Figure 6. the floor flexibility needs to be changed by a factor 49 .8) can be used to estimate for a unit load at mid-bay. enabling one to estimate how much the flexibility or stiffness (6. for a 84 kg (185 lb) person walking at a rapid pace of 100 steps minute (which represents a somewhat For example. because quite may be determined from.4 *For W= 84 kg (185 lb. Table 6.7 in a walker-induced vibrational velocity of 50 (2.4.6). Locations where "fast. Equations (4.2 or given by the manufacturer(s) of the equipment. to velocity limits indicated in Table 6. It is noted that and therefore the expected velocity for a particular floor. the change in the stiffness controls the change in the natural frequency. and (4) adjust That is.000 = 4 × in.4a) In absence of significant changes in the mass. if a particular design of a floor is found to result conservative design condition). (4.2). divided by For example.

is to 3/1/03 of 8. the maxi.000 The floor framing con- depth.2—USC Units be investigated for supporting sensitive equipment with a Rev. is is Since for all values of in Table 6. long W30×90 girders.2 for explanation of the use of 1/48 and 1/96 (See Section 4. Since for all values of in Table 6. using from Example 4. velocity limitation of 200 m/sec. shown in Figure 4.2. using from Example 4.) in the above calculations. the maximum expected velocity for vibration problems resulting from extremely flexible structures.32 Hz. The mid-span flexibilities of the joists and girders are Rev.5 m long 30K8 joists at 750 mm on center and supported be investigated for supporting sensitive equipment with a by 6 m long W760×l34 girders.6. As calculated in Example 4. The floor framing for Example 4.5. Thus. the floor would be acceptable for operating rooms and for bench microscopes with magnifications up to l00× in the Example 6.1. then this equipment should be provided with a pedestal that connects it rigidly to the structural floor and that it is not in direct and that at 50 steps per minute is contact with the part of the raised floor on which people can walk. it is important that sensitive equipment be connected rigidly to the structural floor.4b). the transformed moment supported by 20 ft. for example. It is usually not advisable to support such equipment on a raised "computer" floor. The floor slab is 65 mm total velocity limitation of 8.5 Example Calculations The following examples illustrate the application of the cri. The floor framing consists The floor framing for Example 4. in. As calculated in Example 4.2 for explanation of the use of 1/48 and 1/96 in the above calculations. total depth. is to Example 6. particularly where personnel that at 75 steps per minute is also can walk on that floor.29 Hz. If it is necessary that this equip- ment have its base at the level of a raised floor. a 84 kg person walking at 100 steps per minute is Unless isolation systems are used. The examples are presented first in the SI system of floor is acceptable for the intended use (limiting V = 200 units and then repeated in the US Customary (USC) system if only slow walking is expected. According to Table of units./lb 3/1/03 (See Section 4. on 25 mm deep metal sists of 28 ft long 30K8 joists at 30 inches on center and deck. the maxi- mum expected velocity is given by Equation (6. lightweight weight concrete.930 × The floor fundamental natural frequency metal deck. deep is 1. The mid-bay flexibility. Using 51 .560 The floor fundamental natural frequency is 9.) The mid-bay flexibility.4b). The floor slab is 2.5. 6. thus. so that vibrations transmitted to the equipment are not amplified by the flexibility of the intervening structure. Using mum expected velocity is given by Equation (6.5. on 1-in.2. the mid-bay location (and all other locations) of this terion.6.6. shown in Figure 4.2. 6.5 of inertia of the joists is 174 × and that of the girders in.6.1—SI Units presence of only slow walking.5. the transformed is 9. moment of inertia of the joists is 420 and that of the girders The mid-span flexibilities of the joists and girders are is 4. lightweight weight concrete. an isolation system should not be expected to overcome values from Table 6.

4 = 2. 2(2.3.057 Rev. The mid-span flexibilities of the beams and girders are Comparison of this value of the footfall-induced velocity to the criterion values in Table 6.057 3. presence of only slow walking. Equation (6. From Table 6. For a 84 kg person walking at 100 steps Example 6. As calculated in Example 4. values from Table 6.64 3.5.7) with 80 + 50/2 = 105 mm.1 from the solid curve in Figure 6.3 is to be evaluated for frequency is = 5 Hz. then = 4. 1. the corresponding pulse rise The floor system of Example 4.7) is applicable since that at 75 steps per minute is and that at 50 steps per minute is The mid-bay flexibility then is Thus. 9 m long.3 × (9. W530×74 girders. Then.2.5 for all values of in Table 6.5 calculations. / W = 1. indicates that the floor framing is unacceptable for any of the equipment listed in the presence of fast walking. Then = 4.lkN.8 for which sensitive equipment use.1.64 and from Equation (6.7 and = 1.15/5 0. According to Table 6.2).4b) cannot be used and the more general ap- proach is required.2.15/1.2.2 for explanation of the use of 1/96 in the above the equation in Figure 6. thus = 1. the floor would be acceptable for operating rooms and for bench microscopes with magnifications up to l00× in the Since is not 0. The floor framing consists of 10.850 concrete on 50 mm deep metal deck. then = 1. the 2 0. the mid-bay location (and all other locations) of this floor is acceptable for the intended use (limiting V = 8.000 (in. the transformed moment of inertia of the beams is 750 × and that of the girders is 1. from the m long W460×52 beams.348 × The floor fundamental frequency is 4. The floor slab is 130 mm total depth.81 × 84) =1. the maximum expected velocity for a 185 lb person walking at 100 steps per minute is Equation (4.5) 52 . 50 steps per minute.7 × (9. is considered.81 × 84) = l.96) 3/1/03 effective number of tee-beams is 0.1.4 kN. from Table 6.4 Hz and / W = 1.) From Equation (4.2.2.96 and from (See Section 4. If slow walking.3—SI Units per minute.15 Hz.3 from Table 6. spaced 3 m apart and supported on definition of in Equation (6./sec) if only slow walking is expected.5 = 1.

the effective number of tee-beams is Equation (4.2. the floor flexibility needs to be changed by the factor calculated using Equation (6. apart and supported on 30 ft long. The mid-bay flexibility then is 53 . the floor would be expected to be floor still is not acceptable for any of the equipment listed in unacceptable for precision balances.4. urn/sec. spaced 10 ft. 110 pcf concrete on 2 in. long W18×35 beams. is increased to 8.Rev. 3/1/03 (3.6): Example 6. the transformed moment of inertia of a considerably greater amount of steel or by using shorter the beams is 1.4 is to be evaluated for sensitive equipment use.5 for all values of in Table 6. the fundamental natural frequency.833 and that of the girders is 3. and (See Section 4. metrology laboratories that table if fast walking is considered. micro-surgery and the use of bench microscopes at magnifi- To reduce the mid-bay velocity for fast walking to 200 cations greater than 400× if only slow walking can occur.1.. with = 3.1 indicates that the mid-bay location of this with only slow walking.25 inches total That is. The floor slab is 5.5 m and the girder span The mid-span flexibilities of the beams and girders are to 6 m. the mid-bay position of this floor is acceptable for operating rooms and bench microscopes with Comparison of these mid-span velocities with the criterion magnification up to l00×. The floor fundamental frequency is 4.9 According to Table 6.1.64) 94.1. deep metal deck. W21×50 girders.) Using Equation (4. Using the value for 100 steps per minute from Table 6. The floor framing consists of 35 ft. Even values of Table 6.4b).25 + 2. the floor mid-bay stiffness needs to be increased by depth. but is acceptable for or equipment that is more sensitive than these items.285 spans.0/2 = 4.25 in. Such a stiffness increase is possible by use of lated in Example 4.8 Hz.2 for explanation of the use of 1/96 in the above calculations. If the beam span is decreased to 7. if only slow walking occurs.7). As calcu- a factor of 5.7) is applicable since Since is now much greater than 0. the maximum expected velocity is given by Equation (6.4—USC Units The floor system of Example 4.03 Hz.

88 and from the equation in Figure 6. If the beam span is decreased to 25 ft and girder span to 20 Since is not 0.2.6) the floor flexibility for fast values of Table 6.000 Comparison of these mid-span velocities with the criterion /sec. thus = 1.2. From Table 6. metrology laboratories or equipment that is more sensitive than these items.9 Equation (6. Comparison of this value of the footfall-induced velocity to the criterion values in Table 6. 150 (4. from the defini- tion of in Equation (6. 54 . Even with only slow walking. That is. 3/1/03 in Table 6. is considered. Such a stiffness increase is possible by use of a considerably greater amount of steel or by using shorter spans. the floor mid-bay stiffness needs to be increased by a factor of 5. Hz.1). then = 4. the corresponding pulse rise fre- quency is =5 Hz.1.1.4 Hz and / W = 1. 50 steps per minute. the maximum expected velocity is given by Equation (6. if only slow walking occurs. / W = 1.8 for which = 1. the fundamental natural frequency.3 × 185 = 240 lb.6): that table if fast walking is considered.7 × 185 = 315 lb. from Table 6.3 from Table 6. If slow walking. To reduce the mid-bay velocity for fast walking to 8.88)2 Since is now much greater than 0.1.1 indicates that the mid-bay location of this walking needs to be changed by the factor calculated using floor still is not acceptable for any of the equipment listed in Equation (6.2.4 = 2.1.5 for all values of in Table 6. and proach is required. ft.5 0.5.5 for all values of Rev. Using the value for 100 steps per minute 0.03/5 0.03)(150) 3.2 .060 150 from Table 6.03/1. from Equation (6. the mid-bay position of this floor is acceptable for operating rooms and bench microscopes with magnification up to l00×.7 and = 1.4b). the floor would be expected to be unacceptable for precision balances. For a 185 lb person walking at 100 steps per minute.800 According to Table 6. is increased to 8.1 from the solid curve in Figure 6.2. Then. then = 1. but is acceptable for micro-surgery and the use of bench microscopes at magnifi- cations greater than 400× if only slow walking can occur.060 2(2.4b) cannot be used and the more general ap. indicates that the floor framing is unacceptable for any of the equipment listed in the presence of fast walking. Then = 4.

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