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2015 Published in the United States by DK Publishing China’s Great Wall 34 345 Hudson Street. Susan contact: DK Publishing Special Markets. mechanical. Fleur Star US editor Margaret Parrish Designers David Ball. Chris Hawkes. A catalog record for this book is available from the Bison carved Library of Congress. The ancient Spencer “Lion Man” ivory figurine . Arran Lewis world Creative retouching Steve Willis Cartography Simon Mumford. or transmitted. New York 10014 or SpecialSale@dk. New York 10014 Rome and Hannibal 36 A Penguin Random House Company The Roman Empire 38 15 16 17 18 19 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Bible stories 40 001–193419–April/15 Pacific settlers 42 Copyright © 2015 Dorling Kindersley Limited All rights reserved Ancient wonders 44 Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above. or educational use. or by any means (electronic. Published in Great Britain by Dorling Kindersley Limited. 345 Hudson Street. premiums. photocopying. Stuart Jackson-Carter. without the prior written permission of both the copyright owner and the above publisher of this book. pre-production Lucy Sims Senior producer Mandy Inness Megaliths 16 Managing editor Gareth Jones The first cities 18 Managing art editor Philip Letsu The origins of writing 20 Publisher Andrew Macintyre Publishing director Jonathan Metcalf Land of the Pharaohs 22 Associate publishing director Liz Wheeler Art director Phil Ormerod The Bronze Age 24 DK Delhi Ancient Americas 26 Senior art editor Anis Sayyed Assistant art editor Tanvi Sahu Ancient Greece 28 Managing editor Kingshuk Ghoshal The Persian Empire 30 Managing art editor Govind Mittal Alexander the Great 32 First American Edition. Mik Gates. CONTENTS DK London Senior editor Rob Houston Senior art editor Rachael Grady Editors Suhel Ahmed. For details. stored in or introduced into a retrieval system. Joanna Edwards. Printed and bound in Hong Kong www. in any form. Anna Limerick. recording. New York. Encompass Graphics Ancient times 6 Consultants Reg Grant. Carol Davis. fund-raising. from mammoth ISBN: 978-1-4654-2940-7 ivory DK books are available at special discounts when purchased in bulk for sales promotions. Philip Parker Out of Africa 8 Jacket editor Claire Gell The Ice Age 10 Jacket designer Mark Cavanagh Jacket design development manager Sophia MTT Cave art 12 Picture research Sakshi Saluja The first farmers 14 Producer. New York. or otherwise). Steve Woosnam-Savage Illustrators Adam no part Ancient inventions 46 of this publication may be reproduced.

The medieval The modern The 20th and 21st world world centuries Medieval times 50 Modern times 76 Beyond 1900 124 The Silk Road 52 The age of exploration 78 The race to The Vikings 54 Conquistadors 80 the South Pole 126 China’s golden age 56 The great World War I 128 Castles 58 food exchange 82 The Russian Revolution 130 The Crusades 60 The Reformation 84 The story of flight 132 The age of the Mongols 62 Caribbean Pirates 86 The Great Depression 134 The Black Death 64 Colonial America 88 China’s Long March 136 The Chinese Slavery 90 World War II 138 treasure fleet 66 The American The Eastern Front 140 Great African kingdoms 68 Revolutionary War 92 D-Day 142 15th-century Americas 70 Exiled to Australia 94 Gandhi and Indian Medieval inventions 72 The French Revolution 96 Independence 144 Napoleon 98 The Cold War 146 Free South America 100 The Space Age 148 Darwin’s voyage 102 Moon landings 150 The Industrial The internet 152 Revolution 104 The rise of China 154 A year of revolutions 106 The American frontier 108 Index 156 Gold Rushes 110 Acknowledgments 160 The US Civil War 112 Japan faces the future 114 The age of steam 116 Europe’s empires 118 Modern inventions 120 Space Shuttle Montgolfier’s hot-air balloon Chinese monk Xuanzang Kissing bug captured by Charles Darwin .


They are thought to show the emperor’s bodyguards.” The guards seemed immortal because if one died. known as “the Immortals. he was replaced before anyone noticed. The ancient world The Immortals These figures are from the palace of the emperor of Persia. .

6 bsilaligoon year UPRIGHT MAN (1. spending their time looking for food and 600 CE SPREADING CHRISTIANITY defending themselves from wild animals. ANCIENT EGYPT BRONZE (3200 BCE) (3100 BCE) The civilization People in Egypt and of ancient Egypt begins Mesopotamia learn to grow around the to make the durable Nile River. »pp46–47 Egypt. of settlers moving to islands while the Chavín culture »pp22–23. Homo habilis (“able man”) shorter arms. For many textiles.5 mya) Homo erectus. »pp42–43 dominates Peru.6 BILLION YEARS OF EARTH’S HISTORY IS REPRESENTED AS . »pp24–25 SOAP (2800 BCE) WHEELED TRANSPORTATION WRITING (3400 BCE) The first soap. »pp40–41 and discoveries—the wheel. upright. irrigation. Then. completed in Giza. »pp20–21 The Great Pyramid at Giza THE GREAT PYRAMID PACIFIC SETTLERS OLMECS AND CHAVÍN (2500 BCE) The pyramid tomb (2000 BCE) Lapita people (1200 BCE) The Olmecs are of the pharaoh Khufu is become the first of five waves the first civilization in Mexico. ancestor of modern (4. civilizations grew. not vehicles—are made in what is (in Mesopotamia) and people. »pp22–23 metal bronze. is used for carts—the earliest wheeled are created in Sumer washing fabric. allowing it to use Most are made of stone. »pp26–27 thousands of years. It is the first human ancestor that is similar to modern humans. 44–45 in the Pacific. with (60 CE) Paul the Apostle sets up churches across the the advent of farming.5 million years ago (mya). developed longer legs and planet Earth forms. people lived simple lives as hunter- gatherers. but progress has sped up ever since. »pp28–29 Greek vase showing a temple MOCHE CULTURE (100 CE) The Moche people of Humans have come a long way since their ancestors northern Peru create sophisticated art and walked the planet 2. 4. finely crafted tools to catch food. »pp26–27 ANCIENT GREECE (700–400 BCE) The ancient Greek civilization becomes the most influential power Ancient times in the Mediterranean region. Egypt. and writing— were slow at first.8 mya) Homo erectus (“upright man”) appears. made of (3200 BCE) Two-wheeled The first forms of writing oil and salt. helping it to walk make tools for the first time. »pp46–47 now Slovenia. Inventions Roman Empire. Its brains and intelligence grew.6 billion years ago) Early human ancestors called humans. 6 IF THE 4.Upright man BIRTH OF EARTH STONE TOOLS (2.

000 years ago) The first The earliest known paintings humans. HANGING GARDENS OF PERSIAN EMPIRE BABYLON (600 BCE) (550–330 BCE) Cyrus the Great The spectacular stepped establishes an Asian empire gardens in Babylonia are centered in Persia (modern- one of the wonders of the day Iran). »pp30–31 ancient world. the first glass. »pp32–33 old Greek temple to Artemis. France.000 years ago) Modern (100.000 years ago) (195. »pp36–37 ONE YEAR.000 years ago) Modern using controlled fire dates humans leave Africa. THE FIRST HUMANS APPEAR AT 11:35 P. »pp8–9 Cave art of fish from GLASS (3500 BCE) MEGALITHIC EUROPE ICE AGE (20. »pp46–47 temples. »pp16–17 CITY LIVING (4500 BCE) NEOLITHIC REVOLUTION EARLY MUSIC (40. »pp8–9 not survive long. They to this time. Homo sapiens modern humans leave Africa are made in Spain. »pp40–41 northern Africa. »pp40–41 into one Great Wall.M. The ancient world FIRE! (790. stand in modern-day Selçuk. in places and start to farm. his followers call the states of China and joins him Christ and establish the their small defensive walls Christian religion. Australia People in Mesopotamia (5000–2000 BCE) Now settled. tombs. »pp34–35 ROMAN EMPIRE (27 BCE) PUNIC WARS (264–146 BCE) Octavian declares himself The Roman Republic expands “Emperor Augustus” and the after destroying the powerful Roman Republic becomes state of Carthage during the an empire.000 years ago) THE SECOND MIGRATION The first evidence of humans (65. the Jews from the kingdom empire through Asia and The remains of this 2.000 years ago) Ubirr. evolve for the Middle East. »pp38–39 Punic Wars. Turkey. the goddess of hunting. (“thinking man”). »pp44–45 DEATH OF JESUS CHRIST GREAT WALL OF CHINA (c.30 CE) After Jesus is killed by (221 BCE) Qin Shi Huangdi unites the Romans. The most recent of Earth’s (modern-day Iraq) make people build huge stone ice ages reaches its peak.000 years later. »pp46–47 reach Asia and Australia 15. ON DECEMBER 31! 7 . »pp18–19 to a change also known as the from animal bones—are made in Agricultural Revolution. but do and Australia. »pp12–13 in Africa.000-year- »pp46–47 of Judah to Babylon.000 years ago) The world’s first cities (9000 BCE) People begin to settle in The earliest known musical are established. and »pp10–11 ceremonial sites. »pp46–47 COINS (610 BCE) EXILE FROM ISRAEL ALEXANDER THE GREAT The first coins are made (597–539 BCE) The Babylonian (334–323 BCE) Alexander III of in the kingdom of Lydia king Nebuchadnezzar exiles Macedonia expands his Greek Temple of Artemis (in modern-day Turkey). leading instruments—flutes crafted Mesopotamia. »pp8–9 MODERN HUMANS THE FIRST MIGRATION CAVE ART (40. »pp14–15 what is now Germany.

dated to 195.000-year-old Niah Caves. another human species.000 years ago. have years ago been found here. Sri Lanka Ethiopia Bones from this cave show The human bones AFRICA that humans had arrived discovered here in Stone tool. including a skull or “robust.000–110.000 years ago years ago Herto. Mugharet es-Skhul and Qafzeh. Klasies River.000 that humans were living in the AUSTRALASIA years ago protection of this rock shelter Blombos Cave.000 years ago. SPREAD AROUND THE WORLD. Malakunanja.000-year.000 195. 40.000 Lake Mungo them the earliest Archeologists have discovered years ago known in the world. ancestors. Ethiopia The 160. all up to how closely related they are. Scientists study the DNA of modern shell beads. Europe.000–42.000 years ago.000 skull.000 years ago on both archeological and that humans were living DNA evidence here 125. archeological finds 8 AS OUR SPECIES. Romania Lagar Velho. Omo Kibish. greatly They belonged to a single person and this rock shelter outnumbered Homo sapiens. are dated to 37. They suggest that a first wave of Homo sapiens migration happened earlier EUROPE than 100. dating to 40. Fa Hien Cave. This data found in Australia (around 100.000 years old. making years ago Bone tools. 120.000 years ago. Pestera cu Oase.000 1. at 30. Australia fine tools of stone people from around the world to show The oldest human remains and bone. such as heavy. Australia 50. bone fragments found in this cave.000 years ago Homo sapiens MIDDLE 60. Israel Human remains that are 90. and Lake Mungo. across the globe.000 years ago. South Africa This cave contains The story told by DNA engraved objects.000 years old. have made the cave famous. Herto years ago 125.000 EAST 50. a child found in called Neanderthals.” facial bones. 40. skulls found here show Malaysia some features of human Human remains. The order of chemicals along the rungs of the ladder Site of major forms the unique DNA code of every human. These caves yielded some of the Tianyuan Cave.000 years old. based site have revealed 65. discovered in eastern Asia are 37 old remains of At this time.000 years ago ASIA 40.000–34. in Sri Lanka around 1967–74 have been Klasies River 33.500 years old.000 years old have been found here. HOMO SAPIENS.000 years old) were ancestors might have spread discovered here in 1974. DNA is a complex molecule shaped like a spiral ladder. KEY South Africa Spread of humans The caves at this Date of first arrival. China Portugal oldest remains of Homo sapiens in The oldest Homo sapiens remains The 24. can shed light on how their remote 40. OLDER .

Louis. that human hunters were here up to 14. Tools. and spearheads years ago has been found here.000 years ago Spearheads such as those from were discovered on Santa Rosa Island. At that time. Homo sapiens. 16.000 years ago The first members of our species.000 years ago. the first Americans. including discovered here may be blades and bones marked by butchering. Their journey—made over many generations— Monte Verde. Evidence of horse hunting from 11. they could have walked across the dry land here.000–9. there were only Venezuela Spearheads and 1 million people the cut bones of mastodons (extinct elephants) showed on the Earth.000 years ago in east Africa. MIssouris. Louis oldest inhabited site Wally’s Beach.000 years.000 years old. US This is possibly the Clovis spearheads.000 years ago.000–19. Pennsylvania. Excavations at this site in northern Patagonia have eventually.000– 15. and. Canada in the Americas. SOUTH AMERICA 195. years ago. US St. St. but most humans seem to have stayed in Africa for the next 85. Humans left Africa more permanently 65. SPECIES. widespread in North explored North America along its coast.000 years ago. The ancient world Beringia land route Scientists think that humans crossed into North America when the sea level was lower during the Ice Age. revealed bones and charcoal thought to be 14.000 blades.800 years old. 9 . 20–16.000 years ag o Out of Africa 1. Chile took humans to Asia.000 Clovis people were not Taima Taima. emerged around 195. California. off the St. America 13. SUCH AS NEANDERTHALS AND HOMO ERECTUS. US The remains of a man from 13. Arlington Springs. DIED OUT. Australia. Europe. Louis belong to the Clovis coast of California.000 years ago One population ventured into the Middle East more than 100.000 NORTH years ago AMERICA Meadowcroft Rockshelter. to the Americas. Most experts now think that the Experts think that 50. 15.000 years ago. They suggest that humans culture.

000 years ago. Glyptodon at its height. sea o ice extended farther from th the Antarctic continent than it does today. ice covered SO TH one-third of the U AM Gia ER Sea ice Earth’s surface. mastodon covered by ice. and northern of Canada was covered by a Smilodon England. bear Laurentide Ice Bering Land Sheet Bridge Cordilleran ice sheet NORTH AMERICA British Isles The British Isles Cordilleran Ice Sheet were joined to the rest The Rocky Mountains region of Europe. nt g rou nd sl ICA During the Ice Age. Since water is trapped in the ice sheets.2 km) thick at its center.00 0 The Ice Age than a few yards thick. When it melted. reached its peak 20. Today. turning areas of seabed into land. called simply the Ice Age. the ice began to melt. It scraped huge hollows as it crept over the land. is never more 20. The last ice age. After this. onian Ice ages happen when global temperatures Patag drop a few degrees and ice builds up in great sheets. the oceans shrink. so Ice Sh ago years it is insignificant compared to the great sheets of ice covering the land. Bridge to Europe Lower sea levels meant that Europe and Africa were When the Ice Age was joined. Laurentide Ice Sheet This ice sheet was 2 miles (3. and all giant glacier called the American of Scotland were Cordilleran Ice Sheet. Sea ice. ANTARCTICA 10 THE WORLD’S SEA LEVELS FELL SOME 400 FT (120 M) DURING THE ICE . the largest remaining ice sheets are over Antarctica and Greenland. Greenland the hollows became Ice Sheet Short-faced the Great Lakes. Wales. eet however.

coastline during Ice Age (orange line) Ice sheet at its Antarctic Ice Sheet greatest size Sea ice (20. monkeys live on land that Moa was once Sunda. AFRICA Giant wombat Sunda The Malay Peninsula and Indonesia formed a landmass known as Sunda. KEY creating long. narrow inlets called fjords. The ancient world Woolly mammoth Siberian Ice Bering Scandinavian Sheets Land Ice Sheet SIBERIA Bridge A L A S K A EUROPE Irish elk Woolly rhinoceros ASIA Bering Land Bridge Siberia and Alaska were Ice on the Tibetan connected. and wildlife in each place did not mix. 11 . Northern Europe An enormous Sahul ice sheet covered Reduced sea levels created Scandinavia and a landmass known as Sahul. Persian Gulf day Australia and the island The Persian Gulf (today. AUSTRALASIA It was separated from Sahul by deep water. a shallow sea) was dry land during the Ice Age. creating a Plateau land bridge over which early humans migrated from Asia to North America. When the ice melted.000 years ago) AGE. the valleys were flooded by the sea. while marsupials live only on former Sahul. large parts of It was made up of modern- Northern Europe. New Zealand ice sheet New Zealand’s ice sheet carved deep valleys as it flowed slowly from its center to the coast. of New Guinea. WHICH BECAME DRY LAND. Alaska. and Chile. Fjords Present-day Animal present also formed in Norway. Today. UNCOVERING PARTS OF THE SEABED.

is possibly the world’s oldest realistic image of a human face.000–10. the oldest More than known works of art that depict Cueva de las 20.000 years ago (end of the Ice Age) People have been making decoration. (after the Ice Age) patterns.000 years.000 years ago or painted in caves in Europe Australia—places at the height of the Ice Age. including SPAIN some made from the world’s first known ceramics (pottery). Newspaper Rock SOUTH AMERICA KEY 100.000 years in paintings of hands. Petroglyphs. Argentina people and animals (rather than Cave with walls covered 20. hyenas.r0s 0 yea 0 ago Cave art Cave paintings More than 20.000–10.000–10. FRANCE. . that could never have Earliest pots been in contact.000 years ago paintings. and Woolly rhino. Southern Germany and the Czech ITALY Republic have abundant ancient carvings and other art objects. Utah A rock covered in NORTH petroglyphs—images Brassempouy. Stenciled 10. The Venus of Brassempouy.000 years. paintings are the Dordogne (in FRANCE Chauvet discovered southwest France) and Cantabria in 1994. France Cave filled with CZECH Cave art hot spots REPUBLIC magnificent Among the richest places GERMANY paintings of lions. figurine was found.000 years ago patterns) are up to 40. Newspaper Rock.000 years AFRICA old.000 –5. However. woolly rhinos.000 years ago Manos.000 years ago 12 VISITORS TO LASCAUX. these are Earliest jewelry old. scratched into the AMERICA France surface—made by Venus of Cave where artists during the Brassempouy a tiny ivory last 2. TOUR A MODERN COPY OF THE CAVES. Chauvet. in the world for Ice Age cave bears. Strangely.000 years ago (height of the Ice Age) 20. They were carved from bone identical to others More than found in Spain and 20. (in northern Spain). and jewelry for more than Cueva de las Manos Carved objects 100.000–5. at 25. 20.

Hohlenstein. Deer. rhinos. Swimmers.” which. Blombos Cave Spitting image Blombos Cave. Lion Man.000 years. Russia The ancient world Site where archeologists have found many figurines finely carved from mammoth ivory. ASIA pottery vessels. paintings are so old they record a time when mammoths AUSTRALASIA Shell beads. and deer. years old. Rock shelters containing 30. 13 . Experts think this an amazing technique was used around the 70. Ubirr Egypt Cave in the Ubirr. Bhimbetka Cave of swimmers.000 years old.000 world thousands of years ago. could be the earliest known art that pictures an animal. COMPLETE WITH PAINTINGS. The Cave of Egypt Fish. BECAUSE THE ORIGINALS ARE SO FRAGILE. at 41.000-year-old have painted and repainted paintings of people during the last 40. India. Japan EUROPE Japan Several sites bearing traces of some of the world’s earliest Bison carving. At the time. some more Zaraysk than 16.000–100. Jomon pot. Zaraysk. this region Many cave lay beside a huge lake. Aboriginal artists in Australia are South Africa still adding to paintings in some Cave containing ancient rock-art sites. Germany Hohlenstein Site where archeologists found an ivory carving of a “Lion Man. Bhimbetka. roamed Europe.000-year-old paintings of bison. Australia Sahara with Rock faces that artists 10.000 years old. Some paint shell beads and decorated the pictures by spitting paint from stones that are their mouths. Jomon pottery sites. swimming.

and to live in permanent farming villages.500 years Africa Agriculture developed independently in three areas of Africa: the farmers ago. Starting around 9000 BCE. KEY Main crops being farmed Animals domesticated The spread by 4000 BCE by 4000 BCE of agriculture 9000 BCE Bactrian Llama Corn Barley camel 8500 BCE Pig 8000 BCE Buffalo 7000 BCE Cattle Sheep 6000 BCE Rice Millet 5000 BCE Chicken Turkey 4750 BCE Goat Yak 4500 BCE Wheat 4000 BCE Guinea pig Direction of spread 4500 B CE North America Corn reached North America from Central America around 2100 BCE. measles all spread from In the end. and the Ethiopian Highlands—all in the 4000s BCE. produced greater amounts of food. and started Smallpox. the Neolithic Farming had some (also called the Agricultural) Revolution transformed the way humans lived. influenza. west Africa. farming led to people living in towns and cities. Southern Europe Farming spread to southern Europe in the 7000s BCE from the Fertile Crescent Central America in the Middle East. drawbacks. 14 THE FIRST PLANTS THAT FARMERS GREW AS CROPS WERE TALL. animals to humans. Agriculture started around 4750 BCE. for the first time. WILD . Sahel Corn became the 3000 BCE staple crop. 3000 BC E The first 9000– 4000 BCE South America Farming began in the Andes around 5. Guinea pigs were Sahel. It led to an People grew crops and kept animals increase in disease. domesticated for food.

er Egypt including the Tigris. INCLUDING PRIMITIVE VARIETIES OF BARLEY AND WHEAT. and the Nile. This process is called around 9000 BCE. People would sow The Middle East independently in only the seeds of plants that Northern Europe The Neolithic northern China produced the largest grains Farming began in Revolution started around 8000 BCE. and breed only from animals northern Europe in an area known as that were both strong and around 4500 BCE. Stretching from ia the Persian Gulf in the east Ti g J o rd a n R i v e r Eu Mediterranean Sea ph ris to Egypt in the west. the Fertile Crescent tame. The ancient world Domestication All crops and farm animals are descended from wild plants and animals. CE Early cattle might have looked like this ancient breed. 15 . “domestication. the Sinai Persian Euphrates. which people have changed through Northern China selective breeding over many Agriculture developed generations. the heck cow. East Asia Domesticated rice was grown Ethiopian as early as 8500 BCE in China’s Highlands Yangtze Valley. CE The Fertile Crescent Caspian 0B Sea Anatolia 100 Farming is thought to have started around 9000 BCE Me in an arc-shaped area so po of land known as the Fertile ta m Crescent. the soil ra Ri in the region was watered es t ve Riv r by several important rivers.” Central Asia The Bactrian camel was first domesticated (tamed) in central Asia 5000 B around 2500 BCE. Gulf N i le R i v er Arabian Desert KEY Red The Fertile Crescent Sea GRASSES. Indus Valley Agriculture was well 100 0B established in the Indus 2500 BC E CE Valley by around 6000 BCE.

Moon. Temples of Malta 11 complex and spectacular temples built as long ago as 3000 BCE on the islands of Malta and Gozo.000 years ago. ceremonial sites. Atlit Yam dating back to 9000 BCE. Bulls of Stones built from 3100 to Guisando 1600 BCE. but later megalithic traditions began in east Asia 3. people in many places built structures (megaliths) from huge stone blocks. Island EUROPE Grand Menhir d’Er Grah Stonehenge. Göbleki Tepe. Its gates align with sunrise and sunset on the summer and winter solstice (the longest and Vera shortest days of the year). and stars. Turkey Almendres Ancient ruins in Turkey Cromlech that may be remains of Mzoura the world’s oldest temple. Germany 5. Tiya Bouar 9000 BCE –1300 CE Megaliths During the megalithic (“giant stone”) period. Stones as a Sun observatory.000 years ago.Newgrange. built Goseck Circle. No one Giants’ Graves knows exactly what Antequera it was used for. England The world’s most Hot famous stone circle. Ireland Burial chamber at the Stoplesteinan end of a narrow passage of giant stone slabs. These structures included tombs. Nabta Playa Stone circles of Senegambia (The Gambia and Senegal) 93 stone circles and many burial AFRICA mounds in a wide area of sacred land along the Gambia River. 16 MANY OF THE STONES USED TO BUILD STONEHENGE WERE TRANSPORTED . temples. and observatories—used to measure the position of the Sun.200 years ago and buried Ales Circular enclosure built in 4800 BCE in an earth mound. The megalithic period in Europe started 7.000 years ago. and in west Africa 1.

and Bolivia. They date from 3000 BCE to 1300 CE. too. Central America. Other important megalithic sites Deer stones. Mongolia More than 550 granite stones carved with pictures of deer. The Sumba giant stone blocks (right) Lore Lindu. dating Burzahom from 500 BCE to 200 CE. Laos Kochang Several hundred Hwasun huge stone jars. 17 . including those in eastern Canada. FROM 150 MILES (240 KM) AWAY. of megaliths. spread over more than 90 separate sites.400 years old. Japan Largest megalithic tomb in Japan. Birbir Chokahatu Chang Kuang Ishibutai Kofun. Nias Megaliths in the Americas The Americas are home to megaliths. Dolmens of Kerala. of the island of Ganghwa. The ancient world KEY This map shows the global pattern Ganghwa Dolmens. Built in 1000–800 BCE. Indonesia of the Pumapunku temple Over 400 megaliths. ASIA Mozu Kofungun Furuichi Kofungun Plain of Jars. THE LARGEST WEIGH OVER 40 TONS. Areas of megalithic culture these are some of the Major megalithic monuments oldest dolmens in Korea. India Marayoor Dong Nai Mushroom- shaped burial Ibbankatuwa monuments dating from 300 BCE to 200 CE. Megalithic cultures South Korea developed where people settled in More than 120 dolmens communities that were big enough (tombs) in the mountains to organize grand building projects. Peru. Some are up Gunung Padang to 3. 592–710 CE. built in the Asuka Period. of humans. complex in Bolivia date some carved in the shape to around 600 CE. dating to 1000 BCE.

THE CITY OF URUK . By 4500 BCE. but cities also emerged early on in the Nile and Indus valleys.000 inhabitants. it Va Temple precinct. people moved from villages into towns—the first in about 7000 BCE. with nearly le the world. due to silting up of Trade route the river mouths) Nineveh E u p h r at eM Tell Brak s es Tigris op Nuzi ot Ri am ve Riv r ia er Nile River Mari The Nile River flooded at the same ant time every year. Eridu Memphis Iunu (Heliopolis) Saqqara in around 4500 BCE. Kish Eridu SUMER Uruk Eridu was possibly Memphis Ur the first city to be The city of Memphis built in Mesopotamia. called a Naqada The 4500– ziggurat. some towns had become the first cities. y Abydos A great temple. N i le R i v first appeared around 3100 BCE and became the City of Ur The Sumerian city of Ur was er largest in Egypt— established around 4000 BCE Ni and possibly. 100. Nekhen 1000 BCE first cities Ziggurat of Ur Arabian Desert As farmers started to produce more food. Early city is dry land. Egyptian statue from Saqqara 18 ARCHEOLOGISTS THINK THAT BY 2800 BCE. This meant the land Lev next to the river was fertile and ideal Sippar for growing crops. this area for farming. Mesopotamia KEY The fertile land between the Tigris and Euphrates Area of early Former sea rivers was perfect city-based civilizations (today. This started in Mesopotamia. rivaled Memphis as the lle Memphis biggest city in the world. sat at its heart. EGYPT and by 2000 BCE. These three city-building regions were in contact with each other through trade.

and abandoned. cities started to spring up ASIA River Valley independently in other parts of the Olmec civilization Chinese world. 19 . were Lothal common in Mesopotamia by 2900 BCE. such as system was based on 10s. math. Egyptians Sumerians developed the but by 1700 BCE. The idea soon The mighty Indus spread to Mesopotamia and River gave rise to the Egypt and became a vital first cities in Asia.” Sumerian statue from Mari Priest-king from Mohenjo-Daro IN MESOPOTAMIA HAD A POPULATION OF AROUND 80. Their number were the first people to some artifacts. the earliest The Indus Valley civilization became part of the Old cities were built in Sumer. in Asia. used had been mysteriously astronomy. Like plumbing to carry away waste. other Indus cities. Rojadi Nile Valley Mesopotamia Indus Valley The cities of the Nile Valley In Mesopotamia.000 PEOPLE. people living together. ai population of more than 50. Kingdom of Egypt. most cities developed medicine. built for defense. The ancient world Early cities worldwide NORTH Yellow EUROPE AMERICA In time. The people left year calendar. and a 365-day-a. Rakhigarhi part of the city-based River Za civilizations there. around civilization 1800 BCE. and other cities of Peru’s Mesoamerica AFRICA Norte Chico civilization. the Olmec civilization KEY had taken root by 1000 BCE. and in AMERICA Mesoamerica. Mohenjo-Daro Harappa had a ns As in Harappa. world’s first writing. In South America. appeared Norte Chico in 2600–2000 BCE. Dholavira City walls. appeared around 2600 BCE. Sites of Chinese and American city-based civilizations.000 people. as the “priest-king. accurate calendars. which is known just as ours is today. the city civilization of Caral. gr Harappa Indus os y lle M Mohenjo-Daro Va Harappa ou Mohenjo-Daro existed from dus At its height In nt around 2500 BCE and had a in 2500–1900 BCE. create laws to govern many this statue. 3000–1000 BCE Harappa street layout Zagros Mountains Irrigation (controlling the flow of water to grow crops) was invented in the Zagros Indus River Mountains. city-based kingdoms grew Peru SOUTH around China’s Yellow River. Chanhu-Daro it was laid out on a precise grid pattern of streets.000. every house population of up to had both running water and 40.

000 years ago. Writing in North America AMERICA may have begun with the Olmecs. 150 CE Runes were the writing EUROPE symbols used in Germany and Scandinavia. were originally an idea of people (below) living in Canaan and Egypt’s Sinai Desert around 1800 BCE. used today to write many languages. Each time. after the Olmec glyphs. in Sumer (in symbols were born modern-day Iraq). also known as “talking knots. 900 BCE NORTH sounds of the first six symbols in the runic alphabet (above). It was AFRICA covered in Olmec picture symbols. and then the Romans. The first alphabet Alphabets. then the Greeks. 650 CE People used this method of record keeping. Later.” The 3400 BCE in the Inca Empire and older civilizations in ancient Peru. They adapted Egyptian hieroglyphs and Sumerian cuneiform writing to stand for the sounds in their language. Germanic runes. People began recording things the day the first writing by writing them down more than 5. 20 SOME ANCIENT SCRIPTS WERE WRITTEN LEFT-TO-RIGHT. different systems of writing. people changed slightly the shape and order of the symbols. marked the second in China and the Americas. They were also called futhark. The alphabet idea was passed on to the Phoenicians. inventing the Proto-Canaanite script. Their writing was first found when road builders discovered the Cascajal Block in the 1990s. and Egypt. or glyphs. origins SOUTH AMERICA of writing In Chinese legend. –650 CE Information was coded by the color and pattern of knots in threads of llama or alpaca wool. Quipu knots. WHILE OTHERS . other groups of people invented totally beginning of the world.

Sumerian pictographs. They recorded quantities of goods by scratching pictographs (picture symbols. This disk from Crete. but others acted as words. 3400 BCE Merchants in Sumer (southern Mesopotamia) developed the earliest known writing. but it is the ancestor of dozens of writing systems in India and Southeast Asia. 1800 BCE Colors show Indus Valley civilization. or hieroglyphs. and Egyptian hieroglyphs. 1500 BCE an na The earliest recognizable Ca ASIA Chinese writing was carved Sinai Desert on bones and turtle shells by oracles (fortune-tellers). People The Rosetta Stone now write modern Ethiopian Egyptian hieroglyphs might be languages with this script. demotic (another form of Egyptian writing). Indian Brahmi script. from the 200s BCE) throughout India. OR EVEN IN A ZIGZAG! 21 . carries a unique writing had arrived. It bears an inscription in three scripts— hieroglyphics. 3100 BCE ancient Greek. Since experts A unique type of picture writing called could read the Greek. Phaistos disk written by people of the long-lost KEY script. above) on clay tablets. meaningless to us if it weren’t for the Rosetta Stone. or parts of words. 300s CE When writing arrived in Ethiopia. 500 CE Location of a key form of writing Chinese Shang Dynasty oracle bone script. hieroglyphic script that 3000 BCE has not been decoded. WERE WRITTEN RIGHT-TO-LEFT. the symbols evolved into simple “cuneiform” (wedge-shaped) marks pressed into the clay. provided the key to breaking Some of the pictures. 2000 BCE Phoenician alphabet. 500 BCE which they passed on to the Greeks. 500 BCE Brahmi appeared on announcements of the emperor Ashoka (left. Over centuries. called 1250 BCE the Phoenicians. 2600 BCE Experts have not yet cracked the code of these mysterious symbols. scribes adapted it to write the Ge’ez language used in church. the code of the hieroglyphs. 1100 BCE Traders of the eastern Mediterranean. the stone hieroglyphics developed in Egypt. The ancient world Indus Valley script. DOWNWARD. Its origins are unknown. the date by which Greece. had their own alphabet. AUSTRALASIA Ethiopic script. stood for sounds.

13th century BCE 3100– 30 BCE Land of the pharaohs Egypt was a narrow strip of fertile land along the Nile River. colossal temples. Great statue of a Sobek the Tutankhamun's lion with a human head. the golden mask of his mummy. which provided One of two great the key to deciphering statues of Pharaoh hieroglyphs in the Amenhotep III.500 years ago. carved worshiped statues Colossus with three different Sinai of her at Bubastis. of Memnon scripts. Egypt to Amarna. Avans Rosetta Bubastis Heliopolis Great Pyramid Memphis Nefertiti Giza One of the Seven Queen of Egypt in 1353–36 Saqqara Wonders of the World. pharaoh who first united Egypt. pharaohs of the Sphinx which shows New Kingdom. god of rivers untouched. “If anyone would know Narmer Palette how great I am. from around 3100 BCE until the country became a province of Rome in 30 BCE. Pharaohs were the rulers of Egypt for more than 3. containing mummies of their dead. Bastet Karnak Temple Mediterranean Sea Cat goddess who Largest temple represented the complex in Egypt. surrounded by desert. Tanis about 1350 BCE. built 4. and secret tombs. the cult center was at the ancient surpass one of my works. cut deep into hillsides. Crocodile. It was in the Nile Valley that the Egyptians built their immense pyramids.000 years. the Ramesseum. when her husband this is the largest and Low er Akhenaten moved the capital oldest pyramid at Giza. let him Thoth Baboon god of wisdom whose Decorated stone that depicts the victories of King Narmer. tomb was found. People Middle Kingdom. built 19th century. BCE. containing and lakes. Pharaoh Ramesses II. 22 THE GREAT SPHINX IS ONE OF THE WORLD'S LARGEST STATUES: . where people prayed to statues like this. Stone slab. Valley of the Kings people prayed to Burial ground of statues like this. in 1922. inscription in his memorial temple.” city of Hermopolis. Nefertiti is famous Cr for a beautiful sculpture of her. Upper oc now in a museum in Berlin. od ilo o li Egypt p s Amarna Hermopolis Thebes Sobek Nekhen In Crocodilopolis. power of the Sun to dating from the Rosetta Stone ripen crops.

NEW KINGDOM Era of wealth and good relations with other countries. o r K ush Meroë Gebel Barkal Meroë Nuri Ancient city that was Kerma capital of Nubia during Ni rru the Greek period of le Ku Kawa El. and the Assyrians. ending 3. installed by 332 Alexander the Great. Egypt and Nubia. Philae R Island in the Nile River. near 1550 E SECOND INTERMEDIATE PERIOD Aswan. or Kush (in every major city in both YEARS BCE ROMAN CONQUEST modern Sudan). OLD KINGDOM Amada All-powerful pharaohs ruled and Abu Simbel were buried in vast pyramids. Ramesses II. Period following the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt.000 years of rule by pharaohs. bringing stability and wealth. Egypt became a province of the 30 Roman Empire. Sacred monuments dedicated Pyramids of the Old Kingdom sit to the gods and goddesses of many invasions but ended when the near Memphis. ruled Egypt. It is the site of Riv er over 200 pyramids built as burial chambers. GREEK PERIOD Greek pharaohs.000 years of history Major city Ancient Egypt was one of the great Pyramid Temple civilizations of the world. IT IS LONGER THAN SIX SCHOOL BUSES AND TALLER THAN A HOUSE. such as the Libyans. King Taharqa Pharaoh of both Egypt and Nubia. worshiping an Egyptian falcon-god. 2055 r ndu FIRST INTERMEDIATE PERIOD De 2181 First of three periods of instability and power struggles between different rulers. Temples were built in Romans conquered it in 30 BCE. Two huge temples carved out of 2686 Abu Simbel a mountainside in 1264–44 BCE in honor of the reigning EARLY DYNASTIC pharaoh. 3100 N i le Rive r Nubia. shown in this statue. Period are in Nubia. that houses a complex D 1650 Period when Egypt was again split of temples built in Greek and into Upper and Lower parts. LATE PERIOD Period when Egypt was controlled alternately by native rulers and 747 the rulers of foreign powers. 1069 the Nubians. It survived Built as tombs for the pharaohs. R ed S e a THIRD INTERMEDIATE PERIOD Egypt conquered by various civilizations. L Roman times to worship O Aswan MIDDLE KINGDOM Return to rule by pharaohs. those of the Late Egypt. 23 . Egypt. He made Nuri his capital and his pyramid was the first to be built there. the goddess Isis. The ancient world KEY 3.

but they created beautiful objects from the people who lived in Greece belonged to what Mediterranean bronze. on toward markets in the Middle East. civilization. This new metal could make tools. people in Egypt and Mesopotamia (now Iraq) first added tin to copper at high temperatures to form a durable metal called bronze. Its main city was Mycenae. weapons. cities and civilizations grew. Britain Brittany U r n f i e l d c u l t u r a l a re Brittany (in today’s a France) had some tin of its own. through Ore Mountains middlemen. AFRICA NEW 3200– The Bronze Age OF EG 1200 BCE KINGDOM YPT In around 3200 BCE. armor. GREECE. or Bronze Age cities “Ore Mountains” of the eastern were mined for tin Mediterranean. as well as Cornish EUROPE tin. The cities’ hunger for rare tin reserves increased. cities. 24 IN AROUND 1200 BCE. and by 1250 BCE. and bronze working spread widely. Modern-day Austria was the center of a bronze-working culture called the Urnfield culture. is called the Mycenaean S ea because their dead were buried in pottery urns. Cornwall Cornwall in Britain supplied tin. In Mesopotamia and the Middle East. and merchants here may have passed this. ore (the source of tin) on a large scale even before 2000 BCE. HITTITE GREECE Central Europe Mycenaean Greece People in central Europe did not build In the Bronze Age. to the The Erzgebirge. the world’s biggest powers needed a long trade network to maintain the tin supply. AND . and beautiful jewelry. THE BRONZE AGE POWERS OF EGYPT.

but the main sources were found nowhere near the city- based civilizations of the Middle East. 25 . Shang Dynasty Chinese bronze blades (c.700 BCE) Se a BABYLONIA ALL COLLAPSED. such as Egypt and Babylonia. had to import tin from as far away as Britain. The ancient world KEY Chinese bronze This map shows Bronze Age Europe Both China and Southeast and western Asia in 1250 BCE. Great powers. Asia had thriving bronze industries too—as early as Great Middle Eastern city-based civilizations based on bronze working 2000 BCE. the Bronze Age world. but B la ck S e a experts cannot be certain that the tin reached the cities of the Middle East.” I N D I A N Re Hesiod. or may have gained the Areas without bronze technology technology from the Source of copper West via the steppes Copper was widespread across of northern Asia. ASIA Afghanistan Afghanistan was rich in tin. EMPIRE ASSYRIA Me so po BA t a BY MIDDLE m LO NI ia A ELAM EAST “Death claimed them for all their fierceness. People in these Other areas with settlements that regions may have invented had developed bronze working bronze separately.1500 BCE) Source of tin Tin is the other metal needed to make bronze. ancient Greek poet writing about the O C E A N d Bronze Age in Works and Days (c. LEAVING LITTLE RECORD OF WHAT HAPPENED. and they left the bright sunlight behind them.

city-based writing system. were centered on temples in the shape of flat-topped pyramids. and a complex More than 3. now in southern The Olmecs built several cities Mexico. Americas Mayan writing The Maya developed advanced astronomy. At its center was a hilltop a calendar. dominated the region for 1. a family of gods. math. At the same time. too. ceremonial platform shaped like and pyramid-shaped temples. They were civilizations were developing in two arranged in glyph blocks organized in different areas of the Americas.000 years ago. They grew wealthy and began to build great ceremonial centers with pyramid temples. Guatemala. Zapotec culture emerged in the 1200–400 BCE Oaxaca valley. and medicine.126 years. 500 BCE–900 CE Olmec culture.000 They invented a writing system. 400 BCE–900 CE Maya civilization was made up of many separate cities in what is now Mexico. The capital. but parts of their culture live on even today. pairs. all of which they passed on to the Zapotecs and Maya. Their cities. You had to read the glyphs in a zigzag pattern down each pair of columns. In what is now southern Mexico. MEXICO Giant Olmec stone head Dzibilchaltún Chichén Itzá Laguna de los Cerros San Lorenzo La Venta Calakmul Cuello El Mirador Zapotec clay Palenque Tikal urn showing the Tres Zapotes Xunantunich Chiapa de rain god Cocijo Corzo Tonina Yaxchilan Monte Seibal Caracol Altar de Quirigua Albán Santa Cruz Sacrificios Aquiles Sardán Altamira Copán CENTRAL Kaminaljuyú Las Victorias La Victoria La Blanca AMERICA Zapotec culture. Maya culture. Belize. The intricate Maya calendar includes the Long Count dating system. Ancient 1200 BCE –900 CE which lasts 5. in what is now southern Mexico. the Olmecs became experts in growing corn. It was made up of 500 or so symbols called glyphs. years. 26 WEALTHY MAYAN PEOPLE TIED BOARDS TO CHILDREN’S HEADS TO . the base of a pyramid. The classic Maya Maya calendar cities declined after 800 CE. and Honduras. fishing and farming people in Peru developed a civilization called the Chavín. Monte Albán.

but the reason most were built is still unknown. and created are famous for their painted pottery in many shapes and pottery and the Nazca Lines— designs. 27 . They were skilled weavers The Nazca people of Peru and goldsmiths. Serpent Mound. so the artists could never have admired O C E A N their work. on the northern desert coast of 350 BCE–450 CE Peru. they are visible only from P A C I F I C an airplane. CONTROL THEIR SHAPE AS THEY GREW——TO ENHANCE THEIR BEAUTY. Ancón civilization Mayan site 1000 BCE–200 BCE Garagay Area of Chavin The Chavín culture of Peru Chavín site may have evolved slowly from PE civilization RU Area of Nazca the earlier Norte Chico civilization. Cerro Vicús KEY Sipán Pacatnamú “Nazca Lines” Area of Olmec Olmec site civilization Huaca del Brujo monkey figure Moche Area of Zapotec Shillacoto civilization Zapotec site Tornaval Chavín de Pañamarca Huántar Area of Maya Chavín culture. KEY Hopewell and Together. but they belonged to several different cultures. 100–800 CE Moche earring The Moche people flourished Nazca culture. The pictures are so large. sometimes as portraits Chavín tenon head incredible carvings in the and often with stirrup spouts. these peoples are called Adena mound sites Mound Builders. Chavín buildings had tenon Nazca Area of Moche Moche site Pampa Ingenio civilization heads—stone carvings of jaguar faces Cahuachi Tambo Viejo with long canine teeth—projecting from the tops of the walls. desert soil of the region. Ohio—a Hopewell culture monument Mounds of the Hopewell and Adena cultures. Nazca site which built the first cities in the civilization Paracas Americas. Some were burial mounds. The ancient world The Mound Builders At the same time as the Maya were building their pyramid temples. 700 BCE–400 CE A T L A N T I C O C E A N SOUTH AMERICA Moche culture. people in North America were NORTH building mysterious monuments— mounds of various shapes and AMERICA patterns—in the Mississippi and Ohio river valleys.

including triremes throwing. Athens gained territory and built up a strong Ancient Greece was a collection of city-states. but Sparta had many including Athens and Sparta. such as Persia. Syracuse was the the Greek world Syracuse target of an attack by Athens competed in in 415 BCE. Sea “I am not Athens and allies Warship Athenian or Sparta and allies Neutral states and colonies Greek. and Tyrrhenian also which states supported Athens or Sparta. and (ships powered by both sails other games at and three banks of oars). and soldiers trained from the age of seven. whose people allies. and Athens. 469–399 BCE Sicily Ionian Sea Olympia Syracuse From 776 BCE. Athens had the best running. the sanctuary (holy but their expedition ended place) of Zeus in spectacular defeat. and poetry. but they also fought each other. One of the most influential athletes from across Greek cities. The shared the same language. The states sometimes united to fight against a common enemy. discus- warships. the discus 700– 400 BCE Ancient Greece Athens versus Sparta Athens and Sparta fought each other in the Peloponnesian War. 431–404 BCE. navy. the birthplace of democracy and the home of great scientists and politicians.” Attributed to Socrates. 28 EVERY GREEK TOWN HAD A POTTERS’ QUARTER WHERE BEAUTIFUL . ancient Greek philosopher. ITALY Adriatic Sea Temple Poseidonia The Greeks built grand temples in all their colonies to honor their many gods. believed in the war ended in Spartan victory. but a citizen of the world. the goddess of marriage and women. and enjoyed sports. The oldest temple in Poseidonia was dedicated to Hera. The fiercest rivals were Sparta. same gods. a proud warrior nation. theater. Throwing in Olympia. Poseidonia KEY This map shows ancient Greece and its colonies (areas under Greek control) in 431 BCE.

29 . Rhodes Sparta and the arts. The Phoenicians. Aegean Sea Olympia se e Ephesus Marathon n n Argos po Miletus o P el Sparta CARIA Athens Athenians worshiped Athena. and other Spartan children were famous Greek thinkers lived here. Boys hoped to join their mighty army. skilled KEY comedies could in bronze working and sculpture. trained to be strong and healthy. Modern marathons a Chios C Marathon are named after the legend E Corinth Athens of the heroic runner. dominated northern Italy until Rome Phoenicians AFRICA Masks worn in took over around 280 BCE. it was the runner E Thebes Pheidippides who took the Euboe IONIA message. allowing Athenian troops to regroup and take on the mighty Persian Empire. France. where away as Spain and along the North CARTHAGE Medite rranean S ea PHOE tragedies and African coast. had colonies as far GREECE theaters. AND VASES WERE MADE IN THE LATEST STYLES. All of the time. According Delphi to legend. warning R them to take up arms against Lesbos the Persian fleet sailing Phocaea E Thermopylae around the coast. founding colonies center. goddess of wisdom. and ET Black S ea RU also had an Egypt. Thermopylae The ancient world Spartans fought to the death against the Persians here in 480 BCE. Mediterranean superpowers Apollonia Ancient Greece started expanding in EUROPE An important trade the 8th century BCE. the Greek army quickly G marched to Athens. but girls Crete Mediterranean Sea were not allowed. Spain. energetic NICIA Greek cities had sailors and traders. Socrates. this city in Turkey. The Etruscans. Plato. war. Libya. But Greece was not the only power ONIA RI outdoor theater ED M AC A near the sea. Italy. Etruscans EGYPT last for hours. POTS. Greeks Apollonia the theater CUPS. Byzantium THRACE N IA DO ACE M Spartan warriors IAN EMPIR PERS E Running from Marathon Marathon Lemnos After defeating Persia at the battle of Marathon in 490 BCE.

His empire had become the largest the The 550– 330 BCE Thebes world had ever seen. Ionian Revolt Cyrus repelled an Cyrus conquered The Persians crushed invasion by Croesus. at Pteria. Battle of Pelusium Cambyses II conquered Egypt after victory at 6. Babylon 6 Mediterranean Sea Nippur 8 525 BCE PELUSIUM Battle of Opis 8. It was part of A 13. the Lydians. THRA states in Ionia. the Greeks ended when the Persian 539 BCE OPIS fleet was sunk at the battle of Mycale. Capture of Babylon the battle of Pelusium. Persian Empire Arabian Desert The Persian Empire expanded quickly and brought together many nations. The Persian war against by Darius I’s son. Battle of Mycale a second invasion of Greece. Cyrus took Babylon in 539 BCE. 30 PERSIAN EMPEROR CYRUS THE GREAT IS FAMOUS FOR CREATING THE . Re the empire spanned three continents and contained more than d Se two-fifths of the world’s population. it entered into years of war that ended with defeat. At its height in the 5th century BCE. Pella 4 547 BCE THERMOPYLAE PTERIA 12 480 BCE SARDIS 5 547 BCE 490 BCE 479 BCE Sardis PLATEA MARATHON Ephesus ION GR 480 BCE SALAMIS Athens IA EE CE 479 BCE Cavalryman of the Sparta 11 Persian Empire 12. stretching from present-day Greece to Pakistan. 5. Fall of Lydia After a two-week siege at Sardis in the 4. after defeating the EGYPT Babylonians at the battle of Opis. at the battle of Lade. a however. a revolt by rebellious king of Lydia. Battle of MYCALE 13 494 BCE Nineveh Thermopylae ME MILETUS The Persians Aleppo SO PO achieved their only Crete s TA victory over the Greeks C ypru MI in this battle. Battle of Pteria Caucasus winter of 547 BCE. who DO NIA CE were supported by the M ACE Greeks. When it invaded Greece. the port of Miletus. Xerxes. 11.

700 km) from Susa to Sardis. 1. Empire at its greatest Royal messengers could travel the Cyrus the Great was more than extent. king of the Medes. and generosity 480 BCE Greek victory (with date) toward those he defeated. His conquest of piece of earth that the Medes made him emperor of the first Persian Empire. Building of palace at Susa at the battle of Pasargadae. 480 BCE Persian victory (with date) He was the first king in history to be called “great. Emperor Darius I made Susa Pasargadae later became another important capital and Cyrus’s capital. 31 .” Merv Epitaph of Cyrus the Great.700 miles Cyrus the Great Land gained by 525 BCE (2. His son. KEY 1 Key location Growth of the Persian Empire (550–480 BCE) Persian homeland 525 BCE Battle (with date) before 550 BCE Persian Royal Road Land gained by 549 BCE Built by Darius I. built a palace there in the Babylonian style. cultures. a great conqueror. Defeat of the Medes Cyrus captured Ecbatana. 480 BCE length of the road in nine days. Battle of Pasargadae Cyrus defeated King Astyages Kandahar PERSIS 10. is famous for Persis in 559 BCE. tried again in 480 BCE. Death of Cyrus sp Cyrus was defeated and 7 530 BCE AXARTES “I am Cyrus who ia killed in battle against n Se the Massagetae people of central Asia in 530 BCE. His lands ordered work to start its images of the people were part of the huge territory on a new capital of the empire. in 549 BCE. city at Persepolis around 520 BCE. Cyrus crowned 1 550 BCE 2 9. known BACTRIA as the “Immortals. Building of Persepolis The eastern Cyrus became leader PASARGADAE Darius I. of Astyages. Do not Cambyses I. won the Persians a His son became emperor Cambyses II (named after their empire. Xerxes.” Persian campaign against Greece WORLD’S FIRST POSTAL SYSTEM AND THE FIRST CODE OF HUMAN RIGHTS. He became the standard for the qualities Greek Wars (490–479 BCE) expected of a ruler: tolerance Darius I launched a doomed invasion of the Greek mainland toward other religions and in 492 BCE. successor staircase at Persepolis of the Parsa tribe of 9 Persepolis to Cambyses II. it ran 1. the capital of Media. SOGDIANA begrudge me this 3. covers my bones. died 530 CE D IA ME Glazed bricks from the palace of Susa 3 Ecbatana show Darius I’s bodyguards. Cyrus’s father). TAE The ancient world S AGE Ca S MA 7.” GANDHARA 10 Susa 2.

customs. Taking Babylon 332 BCE The great city of Babylon Paraetonium Alexandria 5 surrendered in 331 BCE. The Persian army was outmaneuvered and suffered heavy losses. (in modern-day Afghanistan). Cutting the knot Pella 1 Alexander reached GRANICUS A ONI 334 BCE Gordium where he cut CED 2 the Gordian Knot (the MA 3 ASIA impossible puzzle) with KEY Gordium his sword. Consulting the Oracle Alexander visited the oracle customs. GAZA 8. The oracle with him. 3. Heliopolis 6 Memphis Siwa 5. Siege of Gaza Changing the world In 332 BCE. Cities surrender By spring 333 BCE. Invasion Alexander launched 1 Key event his invasion of the 4. According MINOR GREECE to legend. took Greek language. over 30 cities in Asia Minor had surrendered to Alexander. Greek-style (a person thought to be able to portraiture has been found predict the future) told him he from Turkey in the east to was the son of Ammon-Zeus. Alexander the Great single-handedly united far-flung lands by conquering them and imposing on them Greek ideas. the young king defeated the mighty Persian Empire and established a huge kingdom that stretched from India in the east to Egypt in the west. EUROPE Alexander the Great 2. 32 MANY OF THE COUNTRIES AND REGIONS THAT ALEXANDER CONQUERED . and culture of Ammon at Siwa. he the Siege of Gaza. 334– 323 BCE Alexander the Great One of the greatest military leaders in history. Alexander met TYRE 334 BCE Date of event Persian emperor Darius III in battle 334 BCE. Dependent regions ISSUS GAUGAMELA 7 331 BCE Alexander’s route 333 BCE 4 Significant battles Nineveh Mountain pass Thapsacus Key town or city 1. 6. and culture. it was a sign Alexander’s empire Sardis Athens he would rule Asia. Enemies meet Persian Empire in In November 333 BCE. Greek-style coin from Bactria central Asia in the west. 332 BCE Damascus for the first time. Alexander entered the gates in triumph. Alexander EGYPT was wounded by a As Alexander the Great catapult bolt during conquered empires. the ruler of the Greek gods. Darius fled. In little more than a decade.

His troops sacked the city. had conquered. flees BACTRIA Alexander defeated 330 BCE PARTHIA Ecbatana CASPIAN GATES King Porus at the Battle of Hydaspes. Alexander’s father.” Philip II of Macedonia. 12. Later he torched 15. Marriage 12 328 BCE Alexander captured SOGDIAN ROCK Sogdian Rock. Philip II of Macedonia. Death in the desert the Royal Palace. However. the capital of Pattala INDIA Persia. 346 BCE 7. The Victory for Alexander signalled towards the Jaxartes River. Many died. then married Roxanne. Just 21 when he became king. 323 BCE. dying. “My son. 10. The ancient world Battle of Alexander III of Macedonia Gaugamela Alexander spent his childhood watching his father. Makran Desert 15 MAKRAN DESERT 9. Sacking the capital Gwadar 325 BCE Alexander reached Persepolis. while exploring the empire he fighting. the Greek troops October 331 BCE at Gaugamela. Alexander made raids north refused to go farther. Alexander led his troops through the Makran Desert. Hydaspes Darius III. Death 9 sR 330 BCE of Alexander du PERSEPOLIS Alexander died In of unknown causes PERSIA in Babylon on June Trek across the 10. he is also remembered as a leader who displayed great diplomacy and compassion to those he conquered. Battle of Gaugamela 14. Battle of Bactra Persian emperor. he soon showed his qualities as a fearsome fighter and military genius who never lost a battle. Alexander passed 11 Maracanda through the Caspian Gates in pursuit (Samarkand) of Darius. He found Darius on the SOGDIANA far side. unify Greece. HYDASPES 331 BCE 13 326 BCE 14 BABYLON Susa 8 Sangela 16 323 BCE PERSIAN Pasargadae iver GATES 16. Exploring the far north after nine years of for the second time—in In 329 BCE. 10 baron Oxyartes. Darius fled again. Mutiny At the Hyphasis River. REMAINED UNDER GREEK CONTROL FOR THE NEXT 200—300 YEARS. 33 . at just 32. before turning back. Death of Darius The next summer. the end of the Persian Empire. army turned back. you must find a kingdom big enough for your ambitions. Alexander faced Darius ASIA 11. the AORNOS Meshed daughter of Sogdian 327 BCE 13.

After two he was buried there in a vast centuries of fighting. near today’s Xi’an. Qin emerged as tomb. but a stone wall that was Wall. built much later. o Zha Jinyang Yellow River Yuezhi Zhon The Yuezhi were an Luoyang Indo-European people (they spoke a language Qin Xinzheng more closely related to Han European. today is not the wall shown on this When Shi Huangdi united the Great map. 259–210 BCE 34 NO ONE KNOWS HOW LONG THE WALL WAS.000 other six to form a united China. supplying them with war horses. was state was one of seven states during the capital of the Qin Empire. BUT ESTIMATES RANGE FROM . will never Expansion of Qin state Border of Qin Empire in 221 BCE bring about stability!” State capital city Attributed to Qin Shi Huangdi. They were meant to protect the emperor from evil spirits in the afterlife. The original time of the Han Dynasty.475–221 BCE). but traded with the Chinese during the Qin Dynasty. which was guarded by the the strongest state and defeated the “Terra-cotta Army”—around 8. life-sized clay soldiers carrying bronze weapons. Indian. it slowed the fierce warriors. They were frequently at war with the Xiongnu. during the Ming but their raids continued into the Dynasty (1368–1644). the time known as the Warring States When Shi Huangdi died in 210 BCE. followed the Qin Dynasty in 202 BCE... and Qin Xianyang Iranian languages than Chinese). “The revival of KEY Qin state in around 260 BCE states . Terra-cotta figures buried with Qin state Qin Shi Huangdi Xianyang The original Qin (pronounced “chin”) in Xianyang Xianyang. period (c. Xiongnu The modern Wall The Xiongnu were expert horsemen and The Great Wall of China that exists archers who had repeatedly invaded China since the 3rd century BCE. Qin First Emperor. which Qin earth wall no longer exists.

The ancient world Beacon tower There were beacon towers at intervals along the Great Wall. or ongshan Yan “Eastern Barbarians. began joining up the shorter walls into one great wall. He renamed himself Qin Shi Huangdi (First Sovereign Emperor of Qin) and ruled over his empire until he died in 210 BCE. just Ji before the start of the Han Dynasty. It was made Shangqin by joining many smaller walls. which were always at war with each other.500—13. Many workers Shouchun died during the construction.200 KM) AT ITS GREATEST EXTENT. 5. which had been built previously by the Warring States. Qi Korea Linzi Ye l l o w S e a Lu CHINA Qufu The northern wall In 215 BCE. In 221 BCE. Some of these states built walls to stop nomadic tribes from invading from the north. layer by layer. r ve Ri e tz Chu ng East China Sea Ya 221– 206 BCE China’s Great Wall The first parts of China’s Great Wall were built when the country was split into many states. having conquered the other states and unified China. Shi Huangdi sent 300. Dong-hu The Dong-hu.200 MILES (8.850 TO 21.000 citizens to build a wall across the Daliang Song north of the country. The original wall was built of rammed earth—soil that was poured into a wooden frame then compacted. They were conquered by the Xiongnu in 206 BCE. 35 .” Zh were the ancestors of the Mongols. king of Qin state. Ying Zheng.

signed a Roman land at the start treaty with Rome. Hannibal After fighting his way laid siege to Saguntum. Hannibal led his army over the Pyrenees and entered Gaul. Iberi 219 BCE n i n s ula 2 Pe Carthago Nova 3 2. Hasdrubal the Fair. The Romans called these conflicts the Punic Wars. This led to through Roman-occupied the second Punic War between land in what is now Spain. In 219 BCE. Saguntum The people of Saguntum feared the Carthaginians. Scipio’s route Key town P E Hannibal’s route Capital city R O 202 BCE Roman victory 1 Key event EU 202 BCE Carthaginian 12 Key event in victory a capital city Py Gaul Eb re ro ne Riv es er 3.” OR “TRADERS IN PURPLE. so they asked Rome to be their ally. River Ebro Campaigns of the Second Punic War. Hannibal of Carthage renewed a war between Rome and its greatest rival. Hannibal and his forces Tarraco departed from Carthago Nova (where SAGUNTUM he had withdrawn after the Siege of an Saguntum) in the spring of 218 BCE. Carthago Nova Determined to take the war to the 1 4 heart of Italy. 36 THE CARTHAGINIANS WERE CALLED “PUNICI. their name for the Phoenician people who founded Carthage. Hannibal led his army over the mountains and on into central Italy. Rome and Carthage. The war finally ended when he was defeated near Carthage. he inflicted a string of victories that came close to toppling the entire Roman Republic. In 226 BCE. Pyrenees attempt to provoke Rome. It set down in of the Second Punic War writing that the River Ebro was Carthaginian land at the start the border between Carthaginian of the Second Punic War and Roman territory. Rome 219– 202 BCE AFR ICA and Hannibal In 219 BCE. after the Punici. in an 4. KEY 1.” . Hannibal’s brother-in- law. the Carthaginian Empire.

8. Scipio CANNAE In 204 BCE. 14 202 BCE Lilybaeum Tarentum Hadrumentum Thurii Agrigentium Ecnomus Croton Rhegium 13 Messana Syracuse 14. so 7 218 BCE TREBIA around Italy before being thrown over the wall of Hannibal’s camp. He left from Croton. and 38 war Alps and into northern Italy. the most ingenious and September 218 BCE. elephants) crossed of his war elephants. Journey through Italy 11. Metaurus Hannibal traveled through Hannibal’s brother and Narbo central and southern Italy general. was defeated at Rhodae In December 218 BCE.000 In June 217 BCE.000 led his massive army across the One of the great military cavalry.000–70. 202 BCE. Croton The Romans. His head was the battle of Trebia.” Cannae in 216 ROME BCE. BECAUSE THEY SOLD A PURPLE DYE USED TO COLOR ROYAL CLOTHES. 5. Lake Trasimene army captured or Hannibal’s oath to killed 50. Roman forces ZAMA CARTHAGE 12 led by Scipio invaded Africa. Hannibal of Zama on October 19.000 Hannibal military strategy in history. Rhône River The ancient world Hannibal and 6. after nearly Hannibal and the Carthaginians at the battle 15 years in Italy. Zama 13. he would almost certainly 5 have defeated Rome. Trebia in an attempt to stir up a Barca. Hannibal‘s 8. It was one Hannibal ambushed and when he was a child of the worst defeats defeated the Romans on the shores of Lake Trasimene. r ve Ri ne Rh ô Alps 6 9. under Scipio. Romans. If he had received the support from Carthage he needed. general Scipio. Defeat for returned to Carthage to face Roman Carthage marked the end of the Second Punic War. Hannibal infantry. defeated In 203 BCE. soon as age will permit … I will use fire I TA L 9 and steel to arrest Y LAKE TRASIMENE 11 the destiny 8 217 BCE Perusia 207 BCE METAURUS 10. Hasdrubal 7. Rome because he lacked Capua the equipment to do so. Cannae At the battle of of Rome. in 207 BCE. survived Hannibal of Carthage was the Rhône River in the journey. however. Hamilcar. the Romans ever He decided against attacking suffered. Hannibal general revolt against the battle of Metaurus defeated Roman forces at the Roman Republic. Few leaders of ancient times. his father. 37 . 10 216 BCE Utica 12. formidable opponent the Romans ever faced. Placentia cut off and paraded “I swear. The Alps his forces (now In one of the most brilliant feats of numbering 38.

Julius Caesar BEL Agrippina defeated Vercingetorix. Building IA began in 122 CE. the Romans besieged and destroyed HISPANIA the city that Carthago had been their Corduba Nova bitter rival. Carthaginian warriors general Hannibal BRITANNIA GE massacred the RM Roman army. and made Gaul A a Roman province. Londinium ANIA Colonia Alesia In 52 CE. Cannae HIBERNIA Sicambri In 216 CE. stretching across Europe and North Africa. THE ROMAN EMPIRE RULED OVER 65—88 MILLION . the Roman Empire was at its largest. Teutoburg Forest Hadrian’s Wall In 9 CE. northern frontier of ED breaching Hadrian’s Wall. leader GI C of the Gauls. SICILIA Carthage Syracuse Gades Caesarea NUMIDIA ANIA Sufetula Tingis URET MA (M Mare ed Nos ite trum rra nean Se a) A F R Leptis Magna I C A 27 BCE– 476 CE The Roman Empire At the end of the reign of Emperor Trajan in 117 CE. legions. Augusta Vindelicorum ILL YR Lugdunum Mediolanum Cantabrians Burdigala ICU Fought for control GAUL Ravenna DA M of northwest Spain Nemausus Massilia LM in 29–19 BCE AT ITALIA IA Rome Carthage Ostia Tarraco Pompeii In 146 BCE. the Roman Empire ON in Britain. from Britain at its farthest northwest frontier to the Middle East in the far southeast. 38 AT ITS HEIGHT. the Sicambri Emperor Hadrian and other Germanic Caledonians tribes destroyed ordered the building Raided Roman-held of a wall across the CA three Roman L lands to the south.

had survived. I saw.” Border of Roman Empire at its largest. into eastern ton s ns province in 106 CE. Octavian. THRACE MACEDON Thessalonica IA Byzantium Nicopolis ARMENIA Corinth Athens ASIA MINOR Ephesus GREECE OTAMIA AS P ESO SY M RI A SYRIA PA MP CYPRUS RT IR Palmyra E HI E Jerusalem AN Roman forces ruined the city and IA EA Cyrene JUD AB its temple after the Great Revolt AR by the Jews of Judea in 70 CE. Assyria. and Cleopatra. Vandals. The ombards Persian Empire Bas que s Alps map shows Europe in 500 CE. Constantinople. but it had on Kingdom of the Visigoths Ang who made their Br it Slavs kingdom a Roman Thuringia Kingdom of the Vandals broken in two. Bre Alemanni L Eastern Roman Empire and western halves. 117 CE Julius Caesar. and Mesopotamia to Emperor Trajan in 114–117 CE. Franks. and Burgundians. after victory over Pharnaces II of Pontus in Asia Minor. Ravenna Actium The eastern Roman Empire Rome In 31 BCE. ruled from Constantinople soon to become its capital. despite the famous DACIA skill of their horsemen. Alexandria Petra KEY Major battle during the empire’s expansion EGYPTUS Major Roman city “I came. Napoca Parthian forces Lost Armenia. 47 BCE PEOPLE——MORE THAN 20 PERCENT OF THE WORLD’S POPULATION. Roman provinces I conquered. The ancient world KEY Kingdom of the Franks The end of the empire Pic s By the 5th century CE. Rome’s first Carthage The western half had been emperor. the t Kingdom of the Ostrogoths Dacians BRITAIN Conquered by Trajan. beat overrun by peoples from his rivals Antony the north—Goths. Iris h Danes Kingdom of the Burgundians Roman Empire was nearly ns Saxolo- s 500 years old. 39 .

but the location of his one another. Paul the Apostle. Plagues of Egypt. Most also accept 3 that he was born in Bethlehem. as described in the Iconium such as Paul the Apostle. the KEY birthplace described in the Bible. that Bible’s Book of Acts.5 . where Moses received the r EGYPT Ten Commandments. nor of the Journey of Paul the Apostle Jews fleeing Egypt. as natural phenomena. After he wrote to the people Antioch in Pisidia his death. or “epistles. Place visited by Paul the Apostle Red S ea 40 THE BIBLE IS THE WORLD’S BEST-SELLING BOOK——MORE THAN 2. between 7 and 2 BCE. Jesus’s followers he had visited. ISRAEL Mediterranean Sea Historians cannot confirm that it happened on the road from The Plagues of Egypt Jerusalem to Damascus. He said God revealed his Son to him. N i le R i Sinai Mountain in a Bible story No other evidence survives of 4 Journey of the exiled Jews the event. Pictured 9 called him “Christ” (savior) and here is his first journey. JUDAH Nile Delta The Nativity story Most historians agree that Jesus was born in Judah. it was through these followers. but to love Paphos around 30 CE. may have been caused by red Bethlehem 6 microbes called blood algae. This map shows where scientists. however. could be ve 1 Location in a Bible story Mount this mountain of the same name. also known as Judea. in the Catacombs Derbe (tunnels) of Rome Attalia Perga GALATIA Antioch Seleucia Rezeph Salamis “Owe no man any CYPRUS The Crucifixion Historians agree that Jesus was crucified thing. Letter to the Romans 13:8 Damascus Christianity in his Epistle to the 8 Galatians in the Bible. which included livestock disease and boils. outside Jerusalem— Paul described his conversion to is not confirmed. although established and the many of their beliefs differed letters. but they J o rd a n River Some scientists explain the Biblical agree on a date of 33–36 CE. historians. which turned the Nile 7 Jerusalem River red. Sinai. the Christian faith was born and Lystra Early Christian painting spread throughout the world.” The Conversion of Paul death—Calvary. The plague of blood.” that from traditional Judaism. Paul the Apostle The origin of Christianity Paul left lots of evidence Jesus and his early followers of where he went— the churches that he were Jewish by faith. and archeologists have The Ten Commandments found independent evidence connected The site of the biblical Mount with the events described in the Bible.

The Tower of Babel 5 Babylon Ziggurats (temples) in Babylonia. The Babylonians conquered Judah—kingdom of the Jews— Some experts think that and took many Jews into captivity in Babylon for 70 years. Yet of Jesus. 3 The Plagues of Egypt God sent 10 plagues. Eu ph M 7 The Crucifixion e ra so Jewish and Roman authorities saw Jesus as a dangerous s te Ri rebel. event celebrated by Christians with the Christmas festival. God gave to Moses. It settled on Mount Ararat. and of his early followers. and gave each a language. called a savior. such as locusts and darkness. What is more. Mount Ararat in Turkey may be the mountain 6 The Nativity story described in the Jesus (the Son of God) was born in a stable in Bethlehem—an Bible story. The New Testament (a Christian text) tells the life of Jesus Christ. They arrested him and put him to death by crucifixion. split them up. IN A TOTAL OF 491 LANGUAGES. The ancient world Mount Ararat 1 What the Bible says 1 Noah’s Ark An ark. 41 . Documents found in the ruins of Babylon show that the 9 Journeys of Paul the Apostle Jewish people were exiled Paul traveled through the Roman Empire preaching the word here in 597–539 BCE. God stopped them. 1800 BCE –60 CE Bible stories The Bible is a sacred text in two parts. survived God’s great flood. or vessel. On the top of Mount Sinai. and many animals.60 CE. little is known about their lives in Babylonia. will come to Earth. claims the Jews as God’s chosen people and says that a holy leader. have BABYLONIA been linked with the Bible’s idea of people trying to build a tower to heaven. p ve o r ta 8 The Conversion of Paul m Paul. leader Ri a Babylonian tablet from of the freed Jews. a man against Jesus. The Old Testament (a Jewish and Christian text). Some Persian Gulf historians have compared the Bible with separate historical and archeological evidence to build the history of the Jews. of Jesus. saving the man Noah. his family. Tig Evidence of an epic r flood has been found in 4 The Ten Commandments is Mesopotamia. to force the Noah’s Ark Egyptian king to free the Jews from their slavery in Egypt. whom Christians believe to be that savior. had a vision of him on the road ia The exile of the Jews to Damascus and immediately became a devoted follower. PERSIA 2 which were built on a series of levels up toward the sky. ASSYRIA ve 1800 BCE describes an ark r 5 The exile of the Jews surviving such a flood. BILLION COPIES HAVE BEEN SOLD. 2 The Tower of Babel Noah’s descendants built a tower to reach heaven. He was arrested and executed in Rome in c. a set of 10 rules for peaceful living.

seafarers from either the Zealand They watched the direction and size Society Islands or the of ocean waves. 2000–1000 BCE The people belonged Marshall Marshall Islands. by Polynesian New ways to navigate the vast Pacific Ocean. (New Zealand) Stick map 42 THE PACIFIC IS THE WORLD’S LARGEST OCEAN. because archeologists Captain James Cook. Final landfall. have found distinctive Lapita on arriving in Hawaii in 1778 pottery in these places. and Tonga. 2000 BCE Settling of the The Pacific islands were settled The people who settled Marshall Islands. the Pacific islands came from 1–500 CE a group of islands now called Seafarers from Fiji or Origin of the Pacific settlers Mariana Samoa discovered the Islands the Bismarck Archipelago. Guam to a group known as Islands 1000 BCE–1 CE the Lapita culture. and followed the flight of birds that fished at sea. on Islands a map made of sticks. KEY Departure. studied the movement Cook Islands. COVERING ONE-THIRD . They then placed all this information. Samoa. 2000–1000 BCE vast ocean?” The Lapita people spread as far east as Fiji. 1000 CE The islands of New Innovative navigators Zealand were the last of The Pacific settlers found amazing the Pacific islands to be discovered. Chatham plus the location of islands. of stars and clouds. We know this. 1–500 CE Palau 1000–1400 CE Caroline Islands Gilbert Islands Indonesia New Bismarck Guinea Archipelago Tuvalu Solomon Islands Samoa Vanuatu Australia Coral Sea Islands “How shall we account Fiji New for this nation spreading Caledonia Tonga itself so far over this Lapita migration. in several waves of migration.

the world’s first deep-sea sailors and of the most remote islands on Earth.000—30. crossed the vast Pacific Ocean in simple. double- hulled boats called “outriggers.000 ISLANDS.000 BCE –1400 CE Pacific settlers Arrival at humans’ most distant outpost. Marquesas Polynesian rat Islands Rats were not taken as supplies—they were stowaways. Society Islands Cook Tuamotu Islands Islands Austral Islands Gambier Islands Rapa Nui 2. or Easter Island—one explorers. 43 . the Marquesas Pig Phoenix Islands. OF THE EARTH’S SURFACE AND CONTAINING 20. Taro The taro plant. was grown in 200 BCE freshwater marshes Seafarers from Tonga and man-made pits. 500 CE Polynesians from the Tuamotus or the Gambier Islands The discovery and settling of the Pacific islands discovered and is a dramatic story of human migration. 400 CE Polynesian voyagers from the Plants and animals Marquesas Islands or the Cook Pacific settlers took supplies with Hawaii Islands discovered Hawaii. Daring settled Rapa Nui. navigators. They PA C I F I C settled in every island colonized OCEAN by humans. Exploration of which has an edible eastern Polynesia. The ancient world Discovery of Hawaii. them to survive the journey and to help them establish settlements on the islands they found. and the Tuamotus. and Samoa discovered and Tuber Line settled what we now know Islands as eastern Polynesia—Tahiti (in the Society Islands). the Cook Islands. The pigs of Islands Polynesia were descendants of wild boars native to Eurasia. tuber.” They did so at a time when Europeans were still afraid to sail out of sight of dry land.

the 2 million stone blocks and took more than 20 years Red S ea others were placed to build. each time bigger and Built in 537 CE in Istanbul.5 M).140 BCE 44 AT 481 FT (146. The third the magnificent domed temple had 127 columns. ivory. c. the light wonders around the from the furnace on top of the Mediterranean. ebony. in the shade. and precious stones. was a wealthy Arab trade hub in what is now Jordan. It an epic temple called Stately tombs are known stood for just 54 years the Parthenon. colossal) statue of Acropolis the Greek god Helios Built around the 5th was built to thank him century BCE. Greek sculptor Phidias made a statue of the god Zeus from gold. this gated Mausoleum at for saving the city of citadel in Athens included Halicarnassus Rhodes from attack. building is a museum. Other ancient which was hewn wonders out of rock between AFRICA 100 BCE and 100 CE. Petra of the World This ornate city. lighthouse could be seen from 30 miles (50 km) away. “When I saw the sacred Great Pyramid at Giza house of Artemis that The Great Pyramid is the tomb of the pharaoh Khufu. THE GREAT PYRAMID AT GIZA WAS THE TALLEST . It was Seven Wonders damaged by three earthquakes and finally destroyed in 1323 CE. It was destroyed by fire Colossus of Rhodes The enormous (indeed in the 5th century CE. KEY Lighthouse of Alexandria This map shows the Lighting up the island of locations of ancient Pharos from 283 BCE. ancient Greek writer. around 2500 BCE. better than the last. but church was converted to a it didn’t survive a fourth mosque in 1453.” E GY P T Antipater of Sidon. built around 350 BCE. MAC EDO NIA GR EE CE Statue of Zeus in Olympia In 430 BCE. Today the destruction in 401 CE. as mausoleums after before an earthquake this tomb of the Persian destroyed it in 226 BCE. It contains towers to the clouds. governor Mausolus. EUROPE Temple of Artemis This temple was rebuilt three Hagia Sophia times.

where the Greeks traveled. Here are nine of them.000 life-sized clay warriors were etched into the desert built in 80 CE. No one knows Sea of Pharaoh Ramesses II and mound. It stands 165 ft 495 CE. emperor of China in 210 BCE. animals. ARTIFICIAL STRUCTURE IN THE WORLD FOR NEARLY 4. They were destroyed in the 1st century CE and no evidence remains today. 2 Nazca Lines These extraordinary carvings 5 Colosseum This 50. The “Seven Wonders BY LO of the World” were especially famous. 45 . rra ne ite Med ASIA Hanging Gardens of Babylon In around 600 BCE. gateway shaped like a lion. aqueduct (water-carrying palace was carved into a this is the largest pyramid bridge) in France dates back massive column of rock in in the world by volume. Seen from above.000 YEARS.000. King Nebuchadnezzar built a 2500 BCE –650 CE Ancient wonders series of beautiful stepped gardens for his wife. The ancient world 3 EUROPE 4 5 NORTH ASIA AMERICA 9 Area of 8 enlarged map 6 1 B l ack S ea AFRICA 7 SOUTH AMERICA AUSTRALASIA 2 Worldwide wonders Other marvels of engineering from ancient times can be found across the world today. gathered to watch gladiators. Amytis. N IA The ancient Greeks considered this group of buildings and statues to be more spectacular than any other. 3 Stonehenge The arches 6 Temples of Abu Simbel 9 Daisen Kofun Built in the 5th made of 4-ton stones Twin temples made of rock century. when crowds that was buried with the first in Peru in 350 BCE–650 CE. A N ATO L I A 1 Great Pyramid of Cholula 4 Pont-du-Gard This Roman 7 Sigiriya This Sri Lankan Built in Mexico in 300 BCE. Only one—the Great Pyramid at Giza—survives today. has the shape of a keyhole. a n his wife Nefertari. 8 Terra-cotta Army An army of patterns. to 19 BCE. All seven were located around the Mediterranean region. There were some incredible feats of engineering BA in the ancient world. this Japanese tomb were erected in Britain in in 1264–44 BCE mark the reign is the world’s largest burial 3100–1600 BCE. and plants seater stadium in Italy was 8. It is guarded by a (50 m) high. it what they were used for.

3200 BCE first used in to clean wool The first coin Archeological findings Mesopotamia and cotton. which shows that hearths existed. 43. in 1993 contains the in Iraq). 3200 BCE The oldest known wheel used for transportation was unearthed in Slovenia in 2002 and is believed to have belonged to a Aqueduct.000 years ago people to make perfectly round AFRICA (See box below) pots. believe they originated Aqueducts were first built in Anatolia (Turkey). earliest known map. The potter’s wheel allowed cast indicated the time of day. Glass.000 Lydia. Experts wherever people needed it. The length of the shadow it Fire. Wheeled vehicle. 2000 BCE two-wheeled cart. Spain. Germany. Aqueducts were channels running along the ground. 3500 BCE simple pillar. They discovered that burning happened in specific spots. It was marked with a roaring lion. ornamental beads. believe that used in Babylon 610–600 BCE glass was (modern-day Iraq) Bronze. in the ancient city of Map. drive away dangerous predators. 790. 13. 1500 BCE The ancient Egyptian shadow clock was a Potter’s wheel. EUROPE found in the Swabian Alps. 7500 BCE underground. such as Homo erectus. Brick. in modern-day tools and weapons. 46 THE WHEEL WAS ACTUALLY INVENTED FOR USE IN MAKING POTTERY . Musical instruments. Soap. and cook food. Experts believe that it was invented in Mesopotamia.000–40. The control of fire meant that Homo erectus was able to spread to colder regions.000 years ago A stone tablet found in Abauntz Nineveh (Mosul Cave. 2800 BCE 3500 BCE Soap made of oils Archeologists and salts was first Coin.000 years ago The oldest known musical instruments are flutes made of mammoth bone. years ago to make Turkey. Shadow clock. which is of the surrounding area. that supplied bricks were made of fresh spring or river water to mud and straw. was used in the suggest that bronze was first (modern-day Iraq) ancient kingdom of used in ancient Egypt to make more than 5. or above ground The earliest known on bridges. Mastery of fire Archeologists have found evidence in Israel of the earliest known use of fire—by ancestors of humans.

historians have had to rely on archeological discoveries to trace the earliest known appearance of many of these inventions. It came in a solid block. 100 BCE Invented in China. such the cities of Harappa as bamboo and silk. Therefore. It day Pakistan). “Necessity is the Blast furnace. blast furnaces mother of invention. The stirrup gave of the earliest riders greater control known pots in of their horses. 2600 BCE Made of soot and glue. Stirrup. suggest that stirrups archeologists were first used in found shards India. The ancient world 790rs. the first ink was used in China for shading artwork. They was cheap to produce and directed rainwater into replaced more expensive drains and stopped writing materials. Pottery. 500–200 BCE 18. 47 . 1st century BCE were found in the Paper was invented during Indus Valley (modern. helped them to fight on horseback. Ink.000 BCE Ancient sculptures In 2012. China’s Han Dynasty. China. water was added before use. and Mohenjo-Daro from flooding. which Jiangxi. 2600 BCE Remains of the earliest known drainage systems Paper.” were used to make cast iron—an important metal that was used for making tools and cooking pots. English proverb ASIA Plumbing.0ag0o0– yea 50 BCE Ancient inventions It is impossible to know the origin of most of the great inventions of the ancient world because they occurred before people recorded things in writing. AND WAS ONLY ADAPTED FOR TRANSPORTATION 300 YEARS LATER.


The medieval world Aztec calendar One of the most advanced civilizations of medieval times. at the center. The “Sun Stone” represents this calendar and shows Tonatiuh. . the Sun god. the Aztecs developed their own calendar.

»pp68–69 SILK ROAD (1200s) SECOND CRUSADE KINGDOM OF ZIMBABWE The trade route from (1147–48) The Crusader (1100s–1450) Zimbabwe China to India and Europe armies are defeated in controls trade in ivory and is at its busiest in the Anatolia (modern-day gold from the African coast 13th century. known as the Chinese empire expands Byzantine Empire. Empire. Sultan Mehmet II 50 THE OLDEST SURVIVING COMPLETE PRINTED BOOK IN THE WORLD TODAY . Saudi Arabia. forming the first Mongol Ukraine to eastern authority of the Yuan dynasty khanate (empire). west. Meanwhile. At the start of the Middle Ages in 500 CE. Glasses Medieval times END OF THE BYZANTINES (1453) Ottoman sultan (ruler) Mehmet II conquers Constantinople. a new power—the Islamic Caliphate—spread quickly from the Middle East. They are all attacks claim Jerusalem for under the rule of the Zagwe on non-Catholics. China. but clung on in the eastern 1500 CE Mediterranean. »pp62–63 in Beijing. »pp60–61 Christianity. »pp62–63 EYEGLASSES (1286) OTTOMAN EMPIRE (1301–1922) The first glasses are Ruler Osman I founds the Ottoman invented in Italy. »pp62–63 China. ending the Byzantine Empire. »pp60–61 to the interior. »pp70–71 Islam in Medina. »pp52–53 Turkey). Viking longship Advanced sail power enabled the Vikings to cross oceans to trade and settle in new lands. BYZANTINE EMPIRE TANG DYNASTY RULES (555) The eastern Roman CHINA (618–907) The empire. »pp68–69 Mongol MONGOLS UNITED (1206) PEAK OF THE MONGOL MONGOL KHANATES (1294) warrior Genghis Khan stops the Mongol EMPIRE (1279) The Mongol The Mongol Empire splits tribes from fighting and unites Empire stretches from into four khanates under the them. FOURTH TO EIGHTH THIRD CRUSADE ETHIOPIAN EMPIRE CRUSADES (1202–70) Five (1189–92) Another (1137–1974) The Ethiopian more major Crusades take attempt fails to Empire of east Africa begins place. In the 600s. It later expands to »pp72–73 become a major Islamic power in the eastern Mediterranean. »pp56–57 500 CE CLASSIC MAYA MOHAMMAD’S FLIGHT PERIOD (500s) The Maya TO MEDINA (622) The Prophet civilization of Central Mohammad flees from Mecca and America is at the height establishes the new religion of of its powers. »pp60–61 dynasty. the Roman Empire was crumbling. state in Turkey. becoming the Byzantine Empire. China was Ottoman the world’s most advanced and prosperous country. meeting the Persian reaches its greatest size.

PRODUCED IN 868. »pp64–65 Spanish Conquistadors. The medieval world SPREAD OF ISLAM MOORISH SPAIN VIKINGS ARRIVE (793) PAPER MONEY (900) (632–750) Islam spreads quickly (711–1492) North African The first Viking raid outside The world’s first paper after the death of Mohammad. live and farm in places with Ireland. 51 . Caliphate (Islamic state) stretches over Spain. Christians across Europe is the first to use the Eriksson becomes the rockets. Greenland. »pp72–73 dense. Spanish conquerors and so escaped destruction. slaughter. Hernán Cortés. »pp60–61 Berbers. »pp54–55 in this period. »pp56–57 THE HUNDRED YEARS’ WAR BLACK DEATH INCA EMPIRE (1400s–1531) (1337–1453) Battles between (1347–51) The plague sweeps The largest empire in South America France and England—which across Europe.650) THE VIKING AGE (840s–900s) Windmills are invented in The invention of the heavy Viking seafarers spread from Persia for grinding grain plow allows people to Scandinavia into England. carried by rats spreads from Peru throughout the last 116 years in total—are from central Asia. the Crusaders African kingdom of Ghana Fortified residences are Syria. A Moors invade and rule Scandinavia destroys the money is used in China. »pp72–73 and France. »pp68–69 the Middle East. the hourglass Yuan Dynasty of China spectacular mountaintop is the first accurate way of is overthrown by the Inca site was unknown to the counting one hour. of Lindisfarne. »pp72–73 Chinese Ming Dynasty. bringing it abbey on the British island »pp72–73 from Morocco to India. END OF THE ROAD (1450s) The Ottoman AZTEC EMPIRE (1428–1519) Empire stops trade The Aztec Empire rules the along the Silk Road Valley of Mexico until it is in protest against the conquered by Spaniard West and the Crusades. »pp58–59 CRUSADER CALL (1095) COMPASS (1040–44) FINDING AMERICA SONG DYNASTY RULES Pope Urban II calls for The Chinese military (1001) Viking Leif CHINA (960–1279) Guns. Andes before being destroyed by mostly won by the English. »pp66–67 Europe. and pumping water. »pp72–73 IS A COPY OF THE BUDDHIST DIAMOND SUTRA. but lose it is conquered by Moroccan built across Europe and in the 12th century 50 years later. built by Crusaders take Jerusalem. »pp54–55 FIRST CRUSADE END OF ANCIENT HEIGHT OF CASTLE (1096–99) After much GHANA (1076) The west BUILDING (1000s) Krak des Chevaliers castle. clay soil. »pp70–71 PRINTING PRESS ZHENG HE’S VOYAGES (1440) The invention (1405–33) Chinese admiral of the printing press Zheng He sails to Africa causes a revolution to encourage trade with in communication in the West. Iceland. »pp72–73 the Americas. this use at sea. »pp70–71 HOURGLASS (1338) END OF THE MONGOLS Machu Picchu Possibly invented for (1368) The Mongol Built around 1450. »pp68–69 under Islamic rule. and printing with to reclaim Jerusalem from magnetic compass for first European to land in movable type are invented Muslim rule. »pp54–55 WINDMILL (644) HEAVY PLOW (c. »pp60–61 navigation.

the Silk Road was one of the world’s longest lasting and most important trade networks. major ports on the Indian the exchange of goods and Ocean. 200 BCE – 1400 CE The Silk Road Stretching 4. and geography Goods passed through Delhi was a major center for of the East. 52 SO MUCH GOLD WAS SHIPPED OUT OF ROME IN EXCHANGE FOR SILK IN . ea Sea Cairo n Constantinople A Sea xa Lying at the end of sea lend and overland routes. such as Bharuch. Glassware Gold coins Olives Venice EUROPE Nothern route An alternative trade route Wine Rome ran north of the Caspian AFRICA Mediter Black Sea on the way to ports on ran the Black Sea. PERSIA Sandalwood Delhi Bharuch Marco Polo Marco Polo was the Silk Road’s most Spices famous traveler. ideas between India and China. ria Cairo and Alexandria Cairo Metalwork p ian s became major centers Ca ea of global commerce. on their way to Islamic countries to the west. beliefs. Salt S Baghdad Baghdad Dates Bukhara The capital of the Wool rugs Islamic world was a hub of commerce and trade along Brassware the Silk Road. and cultures.500 miles (7. INDIA The account of his 24-year Asian journey in the 13th century CE helped introduce Europe Delhi to the customs Indian ports In the 1200s and 1300s CE. It led not only to the exchange of goods but also of ideas.000 km) from China to the Mediterranean Sea.

Ceramics Exotic goods Ivory was moved along the “I have not told Silk Road from China to the West as early as the half of what 1st century BCE. I saw. called the Southwest Ivory Silk Road. Sea routes This map shows the Silk Road in 1200 CE. Chang’an The capital of Tibet was CHINA Lanzhou was a major link a major stop-off point on the northern branch of on what is commonly the Silk Road. Gunpowder Figs Almonds Porcelain Walnuts Oranges Kashgar Lapis lazuli Camel Ta k l a m a k Gaochang a n Desert Chang’an China’s capital had the Jade Dunhuang Textiles biggest population of any city on Earth. Lhasa A S I A Lanzhou Cotton Lanzhou An important crossing Lhasa point over the Yellow River.” Marco Polo. Goods traded THE FIRST CENTURY CE. Dunhuang Dunhuang was an important Woolen goods oasis town near the junction Paper of the Silk Road’s northern Grapes and southern branches. 53 . WEST Kashgar EAST Kashgar lay at a junction Glass Horses at the western end of the Silk Taklamakan Desert. THE EMPEROR BANNED THE EXOTIC FABRIC. on his deathbed in 1324 KEY Town or city The Silk Road was one of the Major routes world’s major trade routes from the 3rd century BCE Alternative routes until the 14th century CE. The medieval world New products The Silk Road saw the import and export of certain goods from the East and West for the first time in history.

983–986 CE 10th century CE Vinland voyages. France. 11th century CE c. 54 THE WORD “VIKING” COMES FROM THE OLD NORSE LANGUAGE AND . From their base in Scandinavia. arrival of Christopher Columbus. they established outposts in the British North America Isles. traders. Iceland. the The Greenland Vikings had no wood for building Mediterranean. and settlers of medieval Europe. ICELAND GREENLAND Iceland Vikings began to settle on AT L A N T I C Iceland around 870 CE. Erik the Red became the first to make a permanent settlement HELLULAND in Greenland. Leif Eriksson. KEY Scandinavian homeland Viking exploration Viking settlement by: Erik the Red’s voyage 9th century CE to Greenland. the son of Erik OCEAN the Red. 793– NORTH VINLAND 1001 CE The Vikings AMERICA The Vikings were the great raiders. They were probably or fuel.1000–1015 CE Areas the Vikings Hunting and trading raided but did not settle routes. in 841 CE. D Markland—thought to be Meadows here on the Labrador coast. and Russia. Ireland. L’Anse aux Meadows Dublin M became the first European Archeologists have found a Viking AR Vikings founded a to land in North America. place the Vikings named L’Anse aux may have called Vinland. Expeditions also the first people from Europe to set foot in south along the North American coast were North America—almost 500 years before the mainly to get lumber. settlement at L’Anse aux Meadows in KL permanent settlement in Newfoundland—a place the Vikings AN It may have been in a Dublin. Ireland. 1050–1350 CE Major Viking raids Greenland In 986 CE. Markland In 1001 CE. Greenland. explorers.

in a letter to King Ethelred of Denmark in light enough to drag over land Northumberland (northeast England). Novgorod The Vikings Faeroe expanded to the Islands east and became SCANDINAVIA rulers of Novgorod. Scandinavia. n Sea raids followed.” 55 . 793 CE modern-day to another lake or river. They had Alcuin of York. on the Viking raid on Sweden. in what is now Norwegians Russia. The medieval world Viking longships “Never before The Vikings used superbly designed boats called “longships” to raid and has such terror explore. and could be sailed far inland on rivers and lakes. Vikings raided the abbey at Lindisfarne. and the added advantage of being Lindisfarne. a center of learning famous throughout Europe. TRANSLATES AS “SOMEONE WHO GOES ON AN OVERSEAS EXPEDITION. who became king of England in 1066 CE. the Vikings launched Sicily their first assault on Constantinople (which the Vikings Noirmoutier Me called Miklegard). Vikings attacked a dit err Further failed monastery on the French anea island of Noirmoutier in 799 CE. Orkney Islands Shetland Swedes Kievan Russia Islands A Scandinavian Novgorod tribe known as “Rus” appeared for the first Lindisfarne Danes time in what is now Russia. Rollo’s great-great-great grandson was William the Conqueror. FRANCE BYZANTINE EMPIRE CALIPHATE OF Constantinople Constantinople CORDOBA In 860 CE. Powered by oar or sail. Scandinavia these boats had shallow bottoms appeared in Britain.” The Vikings came from Norway. L AND KIEVAN RUSSIA IRE York Dublin BRITAIN EUROPE Normandy France’s Charles the Simple gave land Kiev in northern France to a band of Vikings led by Rollo. in 862 CE. It was the first recorded attack on mainland Europe. Lindisfarne In 793 CE. around 880 CE.

Tang Dynasty. AND . Song Dynasty. is by far Chinese captives passed the secret of making paper to the West. WAS A FOCUS OF WORLD TRADE. Technology and art flourished. The oldest surviving Chengdu printed book comes from Tang China. rivaled Baghdad as the world’s largest city. CHANG’AN. KHMER EMPIRE Angkor MPA Andaman CHA Sea Illustration in ink on silk. they Brahma expanded Chinese rule into central Asia. 12th century CE 56 THE TANG CAPITAL. Leshan Rocket arrows and guns Gunpowder was introduced to warfare in the 10th or 11th century. putra River Chang’an. Chinese craftspeople used porcelain techniques. According to legend. vases. They moved the capital to Kaifeng. which became the new world’s largest city. unique DZUNGARIA The journey of Xuanzang to China. WESTERN FERGHANA TURKESTAN Dunhuang Talas The Tang Empire stopped expanding Leshan giant buddha west when it met the forces of the Arab er Buddhism spread from India in the Abbasid Caliphate at the battle of Talas low Ri v River in 751 CE. to create pots. 618–907 CE When Tang rulers siezed power. Porcelain SOGDIANA In Tang times. This buddha. ended. to get sacred Buddhist writings. Yel carved into a cliff in 713–803 CE. Tang Dynasty and flourished. 868 CE for gunpowder was printed for troops in Song Dynasty. 960–1279 CE 1044 CE. TIBET the largest ancient or medieval statue in the world at 233 ft (71 m) tall. The formula Page from the Diamond Sutra. The Song period was a high point of poetry and painting. Rocket arrows Song rulers took charge after a period of and guns were in use upheaval in China after the Tang Dynasty by the 13th century. oldest printed book. their capital. Talas His adventures inspired the classic novel Record of a Journey to the West. and The monk Xuanzang traveled to ornaments that were then exported India in 627–645 CE on a mission elsewhere in Asia and to Africa.

during the Han dynasty. 626–649 CE Important city Champa kingdom. and gunpowder. which still stands today. Kyongju The capital of the Korean kingdom Kor of Silla was modeled on Chang’an. Chinese ideas. 1000 CE Khmer Empire. were the first to use a magnetic compass to find their way at sea. China—a world first. including printing. 750 CE depends on its people. spread to Korea and Japan. 750 CE Silla kingdom. Compass Song Dynasty sailors. Champa. South China 618– 1279 CE China’s golden age Sea China under the Tang and Song dynasties was the wealthiest state in the world and the state with the biggest population. 750 CE State capital Wild Goose Pagoda This pagoda. and the Khmer Empire. Japan. and China also led in the world in many technologies.” China under Song Dynasty control. 750 CE Taizong. ITS 1 MILLION INHABITANTS INCLUDED 20. Luoyang ea It was laid out in a grid pattern of enclosed. ruler of Tang China.000—50. The medieval world “The ruler depends on KEY the state. 57 . Warship The Song government established China’s Wuzhou Guangzhou first permanent navy to protect merchant ships sailing to the ports of Korea. such as their writing system and their grid-pattern city layouts. gated blocks. Chang΄an Kaifeng SILLA S ea of Japan Ye l l o w Kyonju (E a s t S ea) Yangtz CHINA eR JAPAN iv Yangzhou Sea Kyoto er Nara Lin΄an Nara Movable type Fuzhou The Japanese capitals Printing with movable of Nara and Kyoto were type was invented in Song modeled on Chang’an. at some time before 1117 CE.000 FOREIGNERS. Compasses had been invented more than 1. and the state China under Tang Dynasty control. to store the Buddhist writings brought back from India by Xuanzang. porcelain.000 years earlier. was built in 652 CE in Chang’an (modern Xi’an).

Mexico Europe Spain The earliest AÏt Benhaddou.870 FT (570 M) LONG AND 420 FT (128 M) WIDE. 58 AT 1. PRAGUE . NORTH Trim Castle. several times. this castle is the oldest surviving colonial building in South Africa. Castle of Good Hope Built in 1666–79 by the Dutch East India Company. AMERICA Chateau St. Ireland Louis. it has royalty from the 9th been occupied ever century. Rulers and local lords alike had to keep order. Windsor Castle Prague Castle Built by William I of The largest medieval England in the 1070s castle in the world. Canada Castle of São Jorge. Its fortifications since by English and have been renovated British monarchs. Peru Sacsayhuaman. medieval castles were built Morrocco in Europe. Ulúa. EUROPE Portugal San Juan de Alhambra. built this castle in Mexico as his home in 1526. to protect him from the Aztec people Chan Chan. against neighbours Burkina Faso Palace of Cortés Conquistador Hernán Cortés and invaders. raise armies. and AFRICA defend their homes Ruins of Loropéni. Peru SOUTH AMERICA Harlech Castle in Wales once Krak des Chevaliers withstood a siege lasting 7 years. this as a fortress to control was the home of Czech his new territory. he had conquered. This 11th-century castle in Syria was built as a fortress by Christian Crusaders who fought to conquer Jerusalem.

Zimbabwe Australia Castles did not develop here. Matsumoto Castle Built in Japan in 1593. which led rulers. and Sri Lanka fortified cities Great Zimbabwe. they were not homes for important people. Mogul emperors. India Bangladesh Featured castle India or fortification Fasil Chandragiri Ghebbi. and other rich and powerful people to build their homes as impregnable fortresses. Altit Fort. Beijing. but unlike medieval castles. Here. they are called ASIA forts. 59 . Ethiopia Galle Fort. There were frequent breakdowns in law and order. defenses survived It was once ringed two major attacks by a wide moat. to keep raiders at bay. and later. Fort. during the 1800s. Iran India Potala Palace. China Iraq Kunamoto Castle. this was the stronghold of a series of powerful daimyo (lords) for 300 years. British AUSTRALASIA settlers built forts to defend harbors in the 1800s. Other selected castles. China Inuyama Castle. Tibet. The medieval world Moscow Kremlin The Summer Palace This vast fortress Built in the 12th contained several century as a fortified palaces for Russian home for the Chinese royalty inside its emperor. forts. Forbidden City and Afghanistan Pakistan Summer Palace. KEY Gwalia Fort. citadels. Pakistan and northwest India This is a region rich in castles. CASTLE COVERS AN AREA LARGER THAN SEVEN SOCCER FIELDS. Japan Citadel. built many of them. nobles. Bala Hissar Castle. this castle’s defensive walls. 800s– 1600s Castles The Middle Ages were the highpoint of castle building. Pakistan Nawar Fort. The sultans of Delhi. Kirkuk Arg-e Bam Qila Murbarak. India Ghondar. Ranikot Fort. It was also known as Crow Castle. India Japan Mehrangarh Lalbagh Fort. Castle. Fort.

What followed was a series of wars between Christians and Muslims that lasted for over 200 years. these wars are known as the Crusades. Y BULGARIA Marseille Rome BYZA NTIN E EM PIRE Messina GREE CE SICILY Medit erra nea n S ea 1095– 1204 The Crusades In 1095. Together.” Pope Urban II. HE . the Crusader army 1. ENGLAND Crusader knights God wills it. Clermont was destroyed by Greeks and 1 Venice Pope Urban II Bulgars and did not delivered a Belgrade reach Jerusalem. powerful call to Genoa Zara arms to Christians IT at the Council of AL Clermont in 1095. Constantinople GERMANY In April 1204. “Let none hesitate. had become an FRANCE Metz Vienna enemy of some groups of Crusaders. however. 10. 60 AFTER MUSLIM LEADER SALADIN’S VICTORY IN BATTLE IN 1187. which although Christian. forces of the Fourth Crusade ransacked the Byzantine Speyer capital of Constantinople. to form the main army of the Third Crusade. In it. they must march next summer . at the Council of Clermont in France. he urged French barons and knights to take up arms to recapture the holy city of Jerusalem. Vezelay 10 Without the support of the Byzantine Clermont Empire. which had been in Muslim hands since 673 CE. Pope Urban II delivered one of the most influential speeches of the Middle Ages. during his speech London at the Council of Clermont Mainz 12. Vezelay English and French troops assembled at Vezelay.. France..

Crusader States in 1135 Key town (these were Muslim in 1096) ORDERED DOCTORS TO HELP ALL THE WOUNDED——INCLUDING CHRISTIANS. of Egypt and Syria. Saracen horsemen KEY Muslim lands in 1096. and retook Jerusalem. 2 forces following the eight-month the Crusaders established four Crusader Nicaea siege of Antioch (1097–1098). living their lives according to honor. This marked the Major battles 1 Key location end of the First Crusade. Nicaea in which Crusaders. Tripoli Damascus 8 8. because the Third Crusade did not at the battle of Hattin in 1187 retake Jerusalem. Second Crusade Tyre The Second Crusade ended in humiliation in July 1148. Crusader States 12 The Crusaders defeated Muslim Following the end of the First Crusade. 61 . 11. The Crusader States were preserved. after Jaffa 11 9 Crusader forces under Louis VII of France failed to take Damascus. 1202–04 massacred. sultan city of Nicaea in May 1097. and the Kingdom of Jerusalem. Battle of Hattin peace treaty on September 2. courage. leading to the loss 3 of one of the Crusader States. such as King The first official Crusaders Richard the Lionheart of England attacked the important fortress (right). United under a new leader. Jerusalem apart from those that In 1099. Antioch Pope Eugenius III called for the Second Crusade. and his rival Saladin. Dorylaeum At the start of the Second Crusade in October 1147. Edessa 6 Muslims retook Edessa Edessa in 1144. Muslims crushed King Conrad of Germany’s forces at the battle of Dorylaeum. the Principality of Antioch. Antioch 5. it was a failure. 2. Jaffa King Richard I of England (Richard 4 Jerusalem the Lionheart) and Saladin signed a 9. were thought of The city surrendered in June. 7 Dorylaeum 5 6. The medieval world Knightly virtues Chivalry is a code of conduct followed by knights. and pride. 1147–49 became Crusader States the Crusaders. as the perfect knights. The Crusades introduced a golden age of chivalry. 1187–92 of Muslims and Jews were Christian lands in 1096 Fourth Crusade. Muslim forces defeated the Christians but. valor. 3. the County of Tripoli. 1095–99 4. This sparked the Third Crusade. States: the County of Edessa. First Crusade. Thousands Third Crusade. 7. Jerusalem fell to Second Crusade. Saladin. 1192.

11 Bukhara Kose Dag Kashgar Tabriz 5 Samarkand SELJUK Balkh SULTANATE Aleppo Alamut Mosul Nishapur Homs Qum Damascus Baghdad Kabul us River 12 Ghazni 13 Ain Jalut 5.000 km). but city in the Islamic world. Genghis defeated across 5. son of the Khwarizm Shah. Teutonic Knights at Outnumbered Liegnitz in 1241. four to one. Samarkand 13. 62 FIVE TIMES THE SIZE OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE AT ITS GREATEST. KEY Genghis Khan’s homeland Campaigns under Mongol raids Mongol territory by 1207 Genghis Khan Mongol victory Mongol territory by 1227 Mongol defeat Mongolian Empire at its Campaigns from Merkits Tribe name greatest extent in 1279 1228–94 1 Key event 4.000 men. Liegnitz Khwarizm Shah between 1219 and 1221 The Mongols defeated with an army of 200. Legends tell Genghis Khan was both a brilliant that 800. the Mongols defeated the Russians Vladimir at the battle of Ryazan Kalka in 1223. but he also brought peace 7. the greatest Revered in his homeland. using captives from Ind the Mongols at the battle of Ain Jalut Bukhara as human shields. INDIA 12. Empire of the Khwarizm Shah The Mongols invaded the Empire of the 9.000 miles (8. Kalka much of the civilian population. Jalal-ud-Din.000 people leader and a brutal warrior. Kose Dag The Mongols defeated Otrar 4 the army of the Seljuk Balasaghun Dynasty at the battle of Tashkent Kose Dag in 1243. They a combined army of devastated the empire and massacred Poles. Templars. feared among those he conquered. Pest Following their 9 victory at Liegnitz. Defeat saw the end of the Mongols’ western campaign. 7 in 1260. Ain Jalut Genghis took Samarkand in The Mamluk Dynasty of Egypt defeated 1220. at the Battle of the Indus. He were killed. Yanikant KHWARIZM Soldaia SHAH 11. THE . was responsible for millions of deaths. in 1259. 10. Liegnitz Cracow the Mongols sacked Kiev Pest in modern-day EMPIRE Hungary later that 10 Pest Kalka OF THE same year. and 7. Baghdad The Mongols occupied Genghis Khan Baghdad. Battle of the Indus to a vast empire that stretched In 1221.

The medieval world

1294 The age of the Mongols
During the 13th century, the Mongols were the most feared
warriors on Earth. United under Genghis Khan in 1206, they
terrorized people from Russia and Poland in the west to China and
Korea in the east, and established the largest empire the world had ever seen.

1. Mongolia
Temujin completed his conquest
of rival Mongol tribes in 1206 and
received the title Genghis Khan,
meaning “universal ruler.”
6. Karakorum
established Buryats
Mongol 1
headquarters Mongols
at Karakorum Merkits
in 1220. 3. Zhongdu
6 RE
In 1215, Genghis starved

Naimans the city of Zhongdu into

submission. The city
KARA was sacked and burned.
EMPIRE 3 14. Japan
The Mongols made
XIA EMPIRE two attempts to invade
Ningxia KOREA Japan (in 1274 and
2 Ningbo Kaesong
Ye l l o w

1281). Both failed due
14 JAPAN to bad weather. These
were the only attacks
2. Ningxia River on Japan in its history,
During the siege of Ningxia, in Feng
until World War II.
his first campaign against the
Xia Empire in 1210, Genghis 8
dammed the Yellow River. Xianyang 15 15. Hangzhou
Hangzhou The Mongols marched into
Hangzhou in 1276 and replaced
8. Xianyang SOUTHERN SONG the Chinese Song Dynasty with
General Meng of the the Mongol-led Yuan Dynasty.
Southern Song Dynasty DYNASTY OF CHINA
(the remnants of China’s
Song Dynasty) retook
Xianyang in 1239. The 16
“The Mongol army
Mongols had captured the
city three years earlier. ANNAM swarmed in like ants
and locusts from
16. Annam
In 1288, the Mongol’s all directions.”
four-year campaign against
Annam was halted by a Rashid-ad-Din, Persian politician and historian,
combination of guerilla on the Mongol attack on Baghdad in 1258
warfare, heat, and disease.


1351 The Black Death
The Black Death was the greatest natural disaster
in European history. It killed an estimated
75–200 million people (30–60 percent of
Europe’s population) between 1347 and 1351. It began
in central Asia, was carried along
the Silk Road by fleas living
on rats, and was then passed
from person to person.

4. Weymouth, England
A ship from Gascony, France,
carrying infected sailors docked
in Weymouth, England, on July 7,
1348. The Black Death spread
across the British Isles in a year.
Weymouth Gascony
Area reached by the
Black Death by 1351

Major outbreaks
of Black Death Genoa

1 Key location in the
story of the spread
of the Black Death

Percentage of population known
to have died in major cities:
Bremen, Germany: 60% Messina

Hamburg, Germany: 60%
Venice, Italy: 60%
Florence, Italy: 55%
Paris, France: 50% 3. Messina, Italy
Galleys from Caffa carrying the
Avignon, France: 50% plague arrived in Messina, Sicily,
Cairo, Egypt: 40% in October 1347. The Black Death
soon spread into mainland Italy.
London, England: 40%
Damascus, Syria: 38% “And so many died that
Baghdad, Iraq: 33%
Isfahan, Iran: 33% all believed it was the end
Other key town
of the world.” AFRICA
Agnolo di Tura, in The Plague in Siena:
An Italian Chronicle, 1351


The medieval world

Plague’s progress
The Black Death arrived
in Messina, Sicily, in EUROPE
September 1347, on ships London
arriving from the Black Paris Tana Sarai ASIA
Sea. The key below Genoa Venice Caffa Astrakhan
Bordeaux Constantinople
shows how, by 1351, it Valencia Trabzon
had spread throughout Seville Messina Mosul
western Europe. Baghdad
2. Caffa KEY
Traders from Genoa 1347 1350
contracted the 1348 1351
plague during the
Siege of Caffa in 1349 Town
1346, during which Route of plague spread
corpses were
catapulted over
the city walls.
1. Lake Issyk Kul
The first record of the
Black Death can be traced
to Lake Issyk Kul in central
Asia in 1339.

Caffa ASIA


5. India
European history
records that the plague
ravaged India. However,
Indian history does not
record the event at all.


After the emperor’s da death. exchanging gifts. Pilgrimmage to Mecca PERSIA Zheng He was a Muslim Presents from Hormuz On Zheng He’s fifth voyage KEY and he wanted to make a pilgrimmage to Mecca. Calicut Arabian Cochin Tribute from Mogadishu Quilon The gifts from this port Sea CE included zebras and lions. Zheng He’s vessels reached as far starting in 1405.” crew members Battle on his behalf. He sent his that a number of admiral. but were a pardoned by the emperor. the sultan gave Jeddah Mecca Zheng He giraffes and long-horned oryx. The t king and his family were captured s and taken to Nanjing. Zheng (1417–19). Mozambique. the foreign missions ended. he sent and “large western horses. INDIA Arabia Dhofar Al Mukalla Spices of Calicut Aden The final destination of Zheng He’s first three voyages AFRICA was the major spice center of Calicut. but on his final Hormuz “leopards with gold spots. and punishing anyone ga who opposed China’s wishes. transporting diplomats. the ruler of Hormuz Major trade center did not manage to make the presented him with lions. on seven incredible voyages.” Other city voyage (1431–33). YL Conquest of Kotte ON King Alekeshvara of Kotte in Ceylon Galle was hostile to the Chinese. Malindi w Mombasa S The Yongle Emperor—the third ruler of China’s Ming Dynasty—wanted to connect his country with the wider Trade with Sofala Some records show world in order to spread its influence. Gifts from Aden In Aden. Zheng He. trip himself. India. Ma Sofala 66 ZHENG HE’S FIRST FLEET WAS A FLOATING CITY OF OVER 200 SHIPS . Zheng He’s enormous fleet of r south as Sofala sca in modern-day ships toured Asia and Africa. o Offerings C Mogadishu from Barawa Barawa The Chinese 1405– i Barawa offered 1433 il Zheng He camels and Lamu h “camel-birds” treasure fleet a (ostriches).

day He’s fleet defeated and executed a pirate who was terrorizing the strait and night continued between Sumatra and Malacca. inscription left in Changle. A Such was the impact of foreign language institute the vast Chinese fleet in was established here to Malacca that people built train linguists for the trips. Nanjing The medieval world First voyage Fifth voyage MING Second voyage Sixth voyage EMPIRE OF Third voyage Seventh voyage CHINA Changle Fourth voyage Side journeys Quanzhou China’s capital. According to traditional SIAM accounts. AND A CREW OF MORE THAN 30. 67 . ra a “false king” who had taken the throne of Palembang Semudera without Chinese permission. Aceh Samudera Malacca Battle with Sekandar Su On the fourth voyage Bor n eo m (1413–15). 1431 AUSTRALASIA CARRYING SILKS. Fujian. PORCELAIN. This would KINGDOM make them the largest China ships ever built until iron hulls were Sea invented in the 19th century. China. a temple to Zheng He and worshiped Treasure ship him there.” Zheng He. Zheng He’s at fleet punished Sekandar. Nanjing China’s capital was the Chittagong starting point for all seven Temple to Zheng He of Zheng He’s voyages. Java INDIAN OCEAN Surabaya “Our sails.000. loftily Battle with pirate Chen Zuyi On its first voyage (1405–07) Zheng unfurled like clouds. the largest vessels were “treasure Ayutthaya Bay of Qui Nhon ships” 440 ft (134 m) long with nine masts and Bengal CHAMPA South four decks. their course with starry speed.

gold and expanded from exporting gold to Asia. by walls 36 ft (11 m) high. who Queen Trans-Saharan created renowned camel caravan NIger R Mother bronzes using the iv er bronze “lost wax” method developed by earlier Timbuktu cultures in this region. 661–750 collars of gold This northern empire was a vast Nil Muslim state that spread from Arabia. WAS A . court. THE TRADING TOWN OF TIMBUKTU. IN MODERN MALI. the largest and most I powerful west African states in the 18th century. After raids on Mali. it did r not have African roots. the Main power. 68 BY 1200. Al-Bakri. Mali Empire. Mansa The Asante empire Musa. for the king. houses for the ruler and his along the trans-Saharan trade routes. The kingdom of Ghana grew rich on jewelry. Asante craftsmen. many battles in the 1464–1591 16th century. 1380s–1800s Kanem was founded by nomads. 11th-century Spanish Muslim geographer. Benin. 500s–1076 produced daggers. traveled to Mecca in as the kingdom grew rich grew wealthy from 1325 loaded with gold. Kanem Empire. eR iv e and silver. conical tower. The royal city of Great became famous as far away as 1670–1902 Zimbabwe was constructed Europe when its ruler. 1400–1895 A F power in west Africa until they Oyo became one of R themselves were invaded. later breaking up and re-forming as Kanem-Bornu. including all-female units. and lots of short It was conquered by Berbers in 1076. Its armored Kanem-Bornu horses and riders won rider Songhay Empire. Great Zimbabwe’s 1230–1660s Main Enclosure The vast trading empire of Mali Asante Empire. the Songhay became the leading Oyo Empire.” selling captives to European slave traders. Its goldsmiths Enclosure was surrounded Ancient Ghana.” Unlike the others pictured. the Dahomey Empire warred with the Oyo for control of the “Slave Coast. 1600s–1894 Known for its military. through military In the city center. columns topped by birds carved in soapstone rock. 1300s–1897 This empire was famous for its skilled Golden eagle. and animal. Arabia “Round their necks are Ummayad Caliphate. It contained round thatched gold mined from its valley and exported shaped ornaments. Dahomey Empire. a solid. describing the dogs owned by the king of Ghana 700–1380.

1500s–1671 be zi R Zulu shield Ndongo broke away from Zam and spears Kongo in the 1560s. The later ones were C Luba Kingdom. It sold people as slaves to Portugal. Their South Africa—until the king was baptized as British took over at the João Nzinga. Some kingdoms lasted best known for building tall stone stelae (columns). the ruling Zagwe dynasty of this Christian empire The lost kingdoms and empires carved churches directly into the rocky of Africa acquired power through Church in Lalibela ground in the town of Lalibela. CENTER OF LEARNING WITH THOUSANDS OF STUDENTS AND SCHOLARS. kingdom kept good relations with Portugal for hundreds of years. hundreds of years Zulu Kingdom. reaching Warrior chief Shaka cloth and pottery when its peak in the founded what was the the Portuguese first early 15th century. 1660s–1884 This kingdom conquered its neighbors through its military might. trade and natural resources. them. most powerful nation in arrived in 1483. 69 . 100 BCE–600s CE were also known for their crafts. leading to war grew wealthy over 1390–1857 with Ndongo. Nzinga Soapstone bird carving Lunda Kingdom. took some slaves by force 1100s–1450 Kingdom and refused to return Medieval Zimbabwe of Kongo. and the end of the 19th century. Kingdom of but in 1623 the Portuguese Zimbabwe. Great Zimbabwe ive r Ndongo. headrest present day. Carved wooden objects celebrated Con King João their divine status. They Kingdom of Aksum. Kongo was the center by trading cattle 1816–97 of a trade network in and gold. The medieval world Stone stele in Aksum 100 BCE– Great African 1902 CE Ethiopian Empire. 1137–1974 kingdoms In around 1200. g o Ri v a mythical hunter. swallowed up in the colonization 1580s–1889 A Luba was ruled by of Africa by European powers kings who claimed in the late 19th and early er to be descended from 20th centuries. created to This trading kingdom is honor rulers and gods. expanding significantly in the 1740s. but none survive to the which were probably used wooden as burial markers. Carved hundreds of years.

farmers. with a population America. some of whom lived in large Their capital. The largest settlments. 1400s 15th-century Americas Before Christopher Columbus’s arrival in 1492. or prairies. 14th century. 70 HISTORIANS DO NOT KNOW HOW MANY PEOPLE LIVED IN THE AMERICAS . In the North. and they controlled an empire of roughly 10 million people. Inuit Dogrib Kut Blackfeet chi Sioux n Chin Crow Cheyenne ook Navajo A p a c h Shoshone e “We do not inherit N Hopi Com anch e the Earth from our ancestors. the Valley of Mexico in the early American Indians were a mix of hunter. region. were in Central and South in the world. the American Aztec Empire continents had been settled Originally desert people. O R T H we borrow it from Sioux The Sioux were great AME our children. At their peak. the Aztecs took control of the for thousands of years. Peoples of the region such as fishing through Kutchin carved totem poles. who lived in Alaska and did not make contact with Europeans until 1789. right).” bison hunters and RICA warriors who lived in the North American American Indian proverb Plains. the greatest empires of the time. Tenochtitlan settlements. was one of the largest cities however. who were nomadic.000 people. gatherers. but all holes in the ice. where developed some of of roughly 300. Chinook Inuit The Chinook lived in permanent The Inuit adapted to the extreme villages in the Pacific Northwest Arctic climate where they lived. (artist’s reconstruction. The Kutchin were those carved before 1800 hunter-gatherers have since rotted away.

Many varied groups of people eastern Mexico. and by the 15th century. For example. Cuzco Tu Inca Chiquito By 1492. nomadic.” inhabited a vast Ona 18. The The Mapuche. These varied environments affected the peoples’ culture and lifestyle. Portuguese villages to kill animals for food. whose Tehuelche territory was connected name means “Earth with a road system that was People. these warriors of lived in the Amazon Rain Forest. Arctic California Subarctic Southwest Northeast woods Mesoamerican Montagnais Southeast Caribbean Abenaki Plains Andean ois qu Great Basin Amazonian I ro Plateau Cono/Southern Shawnee Pacific Northwest Maya By 1492. the Inuit KEY of Greenland hunted Experts group the peoples of the Americas seals by kayak. AM am Charrúa ER a IC Northern Inca Empire Tehuelche A The Inca Empire was the largest empire in the Americas in 1492. according to the climate and terrain (shown by the different colors on the map).000 km) long. the Maya people lived in rival cities in Mundurucú Rain-forest hunters what is now south. while farming villages dominated the Southeast. the Amazon raided Some used blowpipes and Honduras. Guatemala. It arose from the highlands of Peru in the 13th century. Aztec Maya Arawak Tenochtitlan Ter em em bé Central Amer ica Aztec The Aztecs dominated Mundurucú large parts of Central Inca Macchu Pichu m bá America between the p ina 14th and 16th centuries. tepee-dwelling bison-hunters lived on the Plains. controlled Mapuche an area almost as large Mapuche Southern as the Roman Empire. Belize. and the population TH ac could have been as high as 15 million. 71 . Inuit hunting The medieval world Like Inuit in Canada and Alaska. After European contact. along the river. territory in what is now Chile and Argentina. BEFORE 1492: ESTIMATES VARY FROM 10 TO 100 MILLION PEOPLE.000 miles (29. the Inca Empire stretched from what is now Colombia to Chile and SOU Qulla At Guaraní northwest Argentina.

Italian monk the hourglass was ideal at Giordano da Pisa sea because its accuracy was wrote a description unaffected by bobbing waves.” largest suspension bridges. Despite collecting the water had its name. nailed to horses’ Keeping time hooves. Horseshoe. allowed farmers to farm on dense s clay soil. in Thoughts on Various Subjects. appeared in western The first mechanical clock Europe by about 450 CE. 1286 CE Invented by the Venetians. of eyeglasses— the first mention Heavy plow. Printing press Printing press. 1440 CE Invented by Johannes Gutenberg in Germany. The earliest known well was dug in Artois. Artesian well. 400–450 CE Metal shoes. appeared in Europe more than Stern-mounted rudder. Jonathan Swift. Plow SOUTH AMERICA “ The greatest inventions Rope bridge. the printing press could print text quickly. 1126 CE The first clock to use a An Artesian well allowed access to underground clockwork mechanism water without the need for it to be pumped. The earliest known evidence of a rudder was found in Belgian art. 1180 CE The rudder enabled ships to steer through 200 years later. Hourglass. 1727 72 CHINESE ALCHEMISTS (EXPERIMENTERS) DISCOVERED GUNPOWDER BY . France. (powered by a wound-up spring). The design has since inspired some of the world’s times of ignorance. 1338 CE Spectacles. It was powered The English longbow was much more powerful by the energy of falling than the ordinary bow and helped the English water and the bucket win many battles against the French. which lasse helped to increase Eyeg food production throughout northern Europe. 600 CE The earliest known rope bridge were produced in the was built in Peru. Britsh author. In 1286. which had to be done by hand. it originated in Wales. 1200 CE Su Sung. was invented by China’s Longbow. unlike block printing. 650 CE of them anywhere The heavy plow in the world. water more easily. EUROPE to be emptied regularly.

900 CE Paper money first appeared in the great trading city of Chengdu in China. block printing (See box on allowed scrolls and books opposite page). Spinning wheel. Compass. 644 CE Evidence of its earliest known animal or plant The first windmills appeared in use has been found in the fiber into threads Persia and were used to grind Mogao Caves in China. The medieval world 450– 1500 CE Medieval inventions The medieval era—between around 450 and 1500 CE—was a time of great technological advancements across Europe and the Far East. 1150 CE Horse collar. grain and pump water. for making clothes. Chinese sailors had Later. Windmill The horse collar enabled a horse the spinning wheel to pull three times more weight. During this period. 1088 CE Tang Dynasty. European explorers also swapped many ideas with people from the Islamic world and China. 650 CE Mechanical Invented in China during the clock. they believed were evil spirits. ASIA 1040–44 CE The Chinese military was the Gunpowder. 470–500 CE Invented in China. ney r mo Pape ACCIDENT WHEN THEY WERE LOOKING FOR A POTION FOR IMMORTALITY! 73 . to be produced quickly. was used to turn Windmill. it became a key part of adapted it for sea explosives and flamethrowers. AFRICA Paper money. Spinning wheel use by 1117 CE. Wood block printing. 850 CE first to employ the Gunpowder was first used by magnetic compass the Chinese to scare away what for navigation.


. it represents an era of exploration and technology. one of the greatest engineers of the 1800s. The modern world Modern technology Isambard Kingdom Brunel. Able to sail from Britain to Australia without refueling. oversees the building of his steamship Great Eastern in 1857.

»pp116–17 of exploration. »pp80–81 Sextant at sea The sextant. and slavery. across Europe before being immigrants from Britain most colonies in South America defeated at Waterloo. »pp98–99 move to Australia. flagship of the first transportation to Australia NAPOLEONIC WARS (1792– FIRST FREE SETTLERS SOUTH AMERICAN 1815) French leader Napoleon IN AUSTRALIA (1793) REVOLUTIONS (1808–26) Bonaparte extends his control The first voluntary After 300 years of European rule. known as to Botany Bay. but instead enslaved and transported Aztec Empire of Central discovers the Americas. equality. »pp78–79 Catholic Church. Blackbeard. »pp86–87 HMS Sirius. »pp78–79 to Asia. terrorizes the up a penal colony at Port Jackson making and transporting goods Caribbean and southeast (modern-day Sydney). »pp120–21 CONVICTS IN AUSTRALIA (1788) THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION BLACKBEARD (1716–18) Britain transports 1. »pp104–05 American coast.500 convicts (1770s–1870s) Machines begin to do Pirate Edward Teach. (1789–94) With the motto INDEPENDENCE (1775–81) French explorer Charles- or stars above “liberty. Moon. the human body to fight in northern England. »pp94–95 quickly and efficiently. Australia. »pp94–95 become independent. »pp84–85 1488 NEW WORLD DISCOVERY (1492) ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE END OF THE AZTECS (1521) Italian explorer Christopher (1500s–1800s) More than Spanish Conquistador Columbus sails from Spain to find 12. and sets the jobs previously done by people. Christopher Columbus’s discovery of SOUTH AFRICAN GOLD RUSH (1886) the Americas—the New World—brought goods to trade. AGE OF EXPLORATION VASCO DA GAMA (1497) THE REFORMATION (1517) (1488–1597) European The Portuguese explorer Martin Luther begins the explorers discover new trade creates a new direct Protestant movement with routes and countries across trade route from Europe his complaints against the the Atlantic. . wealth. TODAY. »pp92–93 from Ecuador. fraternity. »pp78–79 to the Americas. Johannesburg becomes a large and wealthy city following a gold rush new foods. protestors revolt against the country with 13 states. »pp120–21 »pp116–17 Modern times TRANS-SIBERIAN RAILROAD (1891–1916) The world’s longest The end of the 15th century signaled the start of the age railroad is built across Russia. could tell sailors where they were at sea. invented around 1730. It measured the FRENCH REVOLUTION AMERICAN WAR OF RUBBER (1735) angle of the Sun.5 million Africans are Hernán Cortés conquers the a trade route to Asia. »pp100–01 VACCINE (1796) STEAM RAILROADS (1825) Edward Jenner invents the The world’s first public vaccine—a way of triggering steam railroad opens. 76 THE WORLD’S POPULATION REACHED 1 BILLION IN 1804. it also led to the in Witwatersrand. free from brings rubber to Europe monarchy and church. »pp110–111 colonization of New World countries. Europeans possessed new technology to sail and navigate long distances and wanted to find 1900 new trade routes. However. smallpox. »pp90–91 America. piracy. »pp96–97 British control.” The US becomes an independent Marie de la Condamine the horizon. and gold.

The modern world
MAGNIFICENT (1520–66) On his third expedition to The English privateer (1585) The Spanish establish
Suleiman expands the Peru, Conquistador Francisco Sir Francis Drake carries the first European colony in
Ottoman Empire through Pizarro conquers the Inca out sea raids all over the what is now the US.
Europe. »pp118–19 Empire. »pp80–81 Caribbean. »pp78–79; 86–87 »pp88–89

(1521–22) Ferdinand (1550–1720) British, French, and Potatoes first arrive
Magellan’s ship completes Dutch ships try to sieze gold being in Europe, brought
the first circumnavigation exported from the Americas by from Mexico by Spanish
of the globe. »pp78–79 the Spanish. »pp86–87 ships. »pp82–83

Gold is discovered at Mina (1615–1868) A military leader The first French colony
Gerais, Brazil. By 1720, 400,000 called a shogun rules Japan. in the Americas is set
Portuguese prospectors have No foreigners are allowed up in Québec—now in
Gold nugget
moved to Brazil. »pp110–11 into the country. »pp114–15 Canada. »pp88–89

(1644–1912) Manchu people West India Company establishes (1607) Settlers arrive to
from the north of China replace a new city in North America. In set up the first successful
China’s Ming ruler and begin 1664, the English claim it and English colony in North
the Qing Dynasty. »pp118–19 rename it New York. »pp88–89 America. »pp88–89

(1831–36) Charles Darwin People take to the streets (1853) Japan is forced by The first steam-powered railroad
develops his theory of across Europe to fight for the US into its first trade engine ran in 1804 and steam
evolution while traveling better working conditions agreement with a foreign engines continued to pull trains
the world. »pp102–03 and voting rights. »pp106–07 country. »pp114–15 well into the 1900s. The King
Edward II was built in 1930.

(1848–55) More than The British take direct
300,000 people flock control of India after the Indian
to California to search Rebellion of 1857. British rule
for gold. »pp110–11 was called the Raj. »pp118–19

protestors in 1848

(1880s–1914) European powers Forces opposing Japan’s shogun
enter Africa to end the slave trade, restore the emperor to power,
but invade and colonize countries beginning the Meiji Period.
as they do so. »pp118–19 »pp114–15

Thomas Edison invents BIGHORN (1876) (1861–65) The deadliest
a lightbulb that is safe American Indians defeat war in US history leads to
for use in people’s the US Army in a territory the abolition of slavery.
homes. »pp120–21 war. »pp108–109 »pp112–13



The Treaty of Tordesillas Martin

In 1494, Spain and Portugal made a treaty so they would not Frobisher
fight over new territories. From Europe to the east of the line GREENLAND Tried a route
shown was Portugal’s, while Spain had the rest. The treaty to the Pacific

failed as more lands were discovered. but got only
as far as

Gaspar and Miguel
Corte Real Frobisher 1576
Explored Greenland and
Newfoundland. ENGLAND

Cartier 1534

Jacques Cartier

Traveled inland in North Cabo
t 149
America and claimed LANDS


Canada for France.

Magellan’s route

Other Spanish missions John Cabot AT L A N T I C
Portuguese expeditions Crossed the Atlantic to
North America.
English expeditions OCEAN 1492
French expeditions Columbus
Dutch expeditions Caribbean
s 150

80 Christopher
Drake Columbus
His last
voyage left
PAC I F I C him stranded
in Jamaica
OCEAN for a year.
Pedro Alvares Cabral
Francis Drake Discovered Brazil, BRAZIL
Raided Spanish then headed east
colonies along the to round the Cape
coast of America. He of Good Hope.

the globe during
this expedition. SOUTH



A new discovery
Lo 77–




In 1492, Columbus thought

he had landed in Asia, but it Cab
was the Caribbean. He had 0

discovered a new continent—

known as “the New World.”

Strait of

Ferdinand Magellan Cape Horn
Garcia Jofre de Loaisa
Found a route through Led his fleet through the Strait
South America via straits of Magellan having been sent
that link the Atlantic by Charles I of Spain to colonize
and Pacific oceans. the Spice Islands.


The modern world
nts 1594–97 SIBERIA

“For the voyage
Hugh Willoughby
and William
to the Indies, I did not
Both sailed north
make use of intelligence,
mathematics, or maps.”
of Siberia, but
failed to find routes
to the Pacific.
Christopher Columbus, Italian explorer, c.1502
Fernão Pires de Andrade
Visited Canton and opened
up trade with China. CHINA
Juan Sebastian del Cano
Took the helm after Magellan died in
Canton the Philippines. The ship completed
the first round-the-world voyage,
which lasted just over 3 years.
de 1517
50 Drake 1577–80


a 14 Spice Is
m land s
da Vasco da Gama isa
Reached India via
INDIAN Africa, returning
to Portugal with
n 15
cinnamon and pepper.

lan) 15
Cape l
of M
of Good er death
Hope del C

Del Cano’s ship was a
carrack: a large, heavy sailing
vessel developed by Portuguese
shipbuilders for crossing the Atlantic.

1597 The age of exploration
By the mid-15th century, European powers began to seek alternative trade routes
from the West to the East, since the main routes were under the control of various
Muslim rulers. This led them to explore parts of the world they had never seen before.


VI CE Page from an Aztec book. Historians believe that Narváez. All were seeking fame and fortune. He amassed a vast army. 1540 AMERICA Led an expedition into modern- people who wanted to rebel day Arizona. Yucatán Peninsula in 1527. in which only four of 600 men survived. and Kansas. completed the conquest in 1545. marched on the Aztec capital. but customs of American Indian life. but Hispaniola while some triumphed. On Cortés’s return he was the first in 1521. 1539–42 but the Aztecs recaptured it Coronado’s became the Head of the first European while Cortés was diverted at first Europeans to see trek deep into the territory of the coast. but American Indians captured Hernán Cortés. Conquistador. 1513– 1570 Conquistadors Francisco Vásquez de Coronado Juan Ponce de León Francisco de Montejo Vasco Núñez de Balboa Hernando de Soto Hernán Cortés Francisco Pizarro Pedro de Alvarado Alvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca Columbus’s discovery of the New World NORTH AMERICA F lo in 1492 brought a wave of ambitious rid M e x ico a Spaniards. 90 PERCENT OF THE . Hernán Cortés built a huge army made of native Francisco Vásquez de Coronado. conquering empires and amassing great personal wealth. Tenochtitlan. known as Conquistadors. Conquest of the Aztecs NORTH In 1519. and conquered the Aztec Empire. He tried to find a land-based route back to New Mexico. They seized Oklahoma. the city surrendered. confronting a rival the Colorado River and the modern-day United States. against the Aztecs. SOUTH AMERICA 80 A CENTURY AFTER THE CONQUISTADORS ARRIVED. 1519 Francisco de Montejo. His son. made RO in 1552–85 to tell the story of the conquest YA LT Y OF Penins Yu c a t á NE WS PAIN ula n Tenochtitlan Alvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca. 1528 A member of the disastrous 1528 Navárez expedition to colonize Florida. also named Francisco. One the Aztec capital. European to cross the Mississippi River. in Cub a his wake. New Mexico. scouting party of de Hernando de Soto. Tenochtitlan. or codex. Pánfilo de the Grand Canyon. Texas. He Mounted an expedition to mainland Tried to conquer the east of the wrote the first European book on the Central America. was driven back by the Maya. others failed Panama and sometimes died in the process. 1527 him and held him for eight years.

Atahualpa. He returned and conquered landfall in the New World. Pizarro led two failed RU OCEAN and where they first made expeditions there in 1524 and 1526. the Pacific Ocean from the New World. an expedition across Inca Empire had fallen. Pizarro kidnapped Atahualpa and demanded a huge ransom for OCEAN his release. 1524–33 OF Conquistadors crossed the Tantalized by reports of Peru’s PE AFRICA ATLANTIC Atlantic Ocean from Spain riches. he Panama. 1513 Balboa. and his army at a camp in northern AT L A N T I C Peru. control by 1570 They met the Inca leader.” Hernán Cortés. This map Y shows how the principal Francisco Pizarro. the mighty the island of Hispaniola. The modern world KEY The last Inca emperor Key city Francisco Pizarro and his 180 men Area under Spanish arrived in the Inca Empire in 1531. 1522 A member of Cortés’s victorious SOUTH disease of the expedition against the Aztecs. gold can cure. MANY FROM NEW DISEASES. He went on to sieze more of Central America for the Spanish. AMERICAS’ NATIVE POPULATION HAD DIED. He earned fame as the most brutal of the Quito AMERICA heart that only Conquistadors by enslaving and killing native people. he became the was an island and first European to reach named it Florida. to please his troops. in an appeal to EUROPE Where did they the Aztec emperor. but executed Atahualpa Vasco Núñez de anyway. During the sighted what he thought journey. 1513–14 Explored lands north of Best known for leading Two years later. 1519 originate? Spain The Conquistadors were Cuzco VI C the hundreds of ambitious ER men who left Spain to seek OY fame and fortune in the A LT New World. On 2 April 1513. 81 . Flor Puerto Rico ida Cuba Modern illustration of Pizarro and Atahualpa an iola Hisp Jamaica “I and my Panama Santa Mariá la Antigua del Darién companions suffer from a Pedro de Alvarado. Pizarro received the ransom. Juan Ponce de León. the Inca Empire in 1531.

and livestock. including chickens. by 1600 they spread across Europe. organisms (germs) were also corn. citrus fruits. for instance. Some nonedible plants. smallpox. The Columbian Exchange Old World (Europe. livestock. sweet potatoes. they exchanged fruits. cocoa. EUROPE Conquistadors took tomatoes from Mexico Potatoes in Europe GREAT After reaching Spain. including worlds met in 1492–1600. MEXICO Cocoa in Europe Once the Spanish added West Indies sugar to cocoa. and seeds. such as Exchange. including avocados. and Asia) When the Old and New Fruits. and sugar cane. grain. and vanilla. event is called the Columbian peppers. transferred by accident. potatoes BRITAIN to Spain. from there it spread to west Africa. of these killed huge numbers diseases. cows. such as barley. COCOA WAS VERY POPULAR IN EUROPE AND CLASSED . rice. Tomatoes to Spain In the early 1500s. such as tobacco. and vegetables. independently in 1599. cocoa SOUTH was used in Central AMERICA America as a cold savory drink. pears. chile grains. America GHANA NIGERIA The origin of cocoa AFRICA In 1000 BCE. onions. in Brazil. It PERU BRAZIL was taken to Spain in the 1520s. and sheep. squash. Africa. such as chicken pox. Disease-causing tomatoes. oats. cocoa to their colonies early as 5000 BCE. This wheat. turkeys. vegetables. 82 IN THE 1600S. including syphilis. and malaria. olives. and seeds. potatoes were from South America The French introduced traded in the Andes as to Spain in 1565. Europeans exported sugar cane from Asia to their New World colonies. peaches. peanuts. Sugar in the New World In the mid-1500s. SPAIN tomatoes were ITALY used in cooking by 500 CE. New World (The Americas) bananas. coffee. diseases. grains. Spread of potatoes The origin of potatoes Spanish Conquistadors Before the European first took potatoes Cocoa in Africa conquest. of Native Americans. NORTH The origin AMERICA FRANCE of tomatoes First grown by the Aztecs in Mexico. Fruits. it became a popular drink and quickly spread through Central western Europe. vegetables. potatoes. pineapples. livestock. beans. They had spread to Italy were also brought to Britain and Britain.

The modern world

Journey of tomatoes Journey of cocoa Journey of potatoes Journey of sugar
before 1600 before 1700 before 1600 cane before 1600


East Crops in the colonies
European powers
EGYPT CHINA possessed colonies with
warm climates ideal for
growing some crops. The
Spanish grew tomatoes
and cocoa in their
Philippines colony.


Spread of sugar
During the Crusades
in the 12th century,
sugar was brought
into Europe from
Sugar in Asia New
Granulated sugar Guinea
the Middle East.
arrived in India from
Southeast Asia and was
first produced in around 300 CE.

Origin of sugar cane
In 1500, 100 lb First grown on the island
of New Guinea in 6000 BCE
(45 kg) of sugar was and used as a sweet juice,
sugar soon spread through
Southeast Asia.
worth the same as AUSTRALASIA
1 oz (28 g) of gold.

6000 BCE
–1600 CE The great food exchange
When cultures meet, they discover new foods by trading with each other. Possibly the
greatest ever meeting of cultures happened when Europeans explored the New World
(the Americas) for the first time in the 16th century. People on both sides of the
Atlantic discovered a vast range of previously unknown food plants.


1648 The Reformation
England’s church founded
Henry VIII of England broke
The Catholic Church had been from the Catholic Church
because the pope would not let
in religious control of western him divorce his wife. In 1534,
Europe for 1,000 years when in SCOTLAND he founded a new Protestant
church, the Church of England,
1517, a monk named Martin Luther nailed with himself in charge.
a list of 95 complaints against the Religious war breaks out
At the end of the 80 Years War
Church (called “theses”) to in 1648, the Netherlands
a church door in Wittenberg, IRELAND York was split into a Catholic
south (modern Belgium)
Germany. Luther’s ideas Dublin
and a Protestant north
(modern Netherlands).
sparked 130 years of wars
and persecution, but they ENGLAND
changed, or reformed, the London
Church and gave birth to a new branch A ND
of Christianity called Protestantism. NE

Huguenots massacred Paris
Leading Protestants (known as Huguenots in France)
were killed in Paris, in 1572, in what became known as the
St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre. The killing of Protestants
was widespread during the French Wars of Religion (1562–98). Nantes

Protestants burnt FRANCE FRANCHE-
Protestants were persecuted in Spain. Many COMTÉ
were put on trial and burnt to death. The first Cognac
to suffer were those in Seville and Valladolid
Martin Luther in 1558–62. Protestantism virtually Lyon
Luther wanted to reform disappeared from the country. SAVOY
the Catholic Church
rather than break away
from it, but when he was Avignon
excluded from the Church
in 1520, he became a

revolutionary leader.


SPAIN “Everything that
is done in the world
Seville is done by hope.”
Martin Luther, published in a
collection of his sayings in 1566


The modern world

NORWAY This map shows Europe in 1600,
by which stage the Reformation
Church assets seized had mainly settled the pattern
In 1527, Gustav Vasa, ruler of Catholic and Protestant areas.
of Sweden, seized church Stockholm
lands and reformed the Mainly Catholic
state church according Mainly Protestant
to Luther’s ideas.

Luther posts his list
On October 31, 1517,
Martin Luther posted
his 95 Theses on the
DENMARK Copenhagen
door of a church
in Wittenberg, in

Hamburg John Calvin
Emperor makes peace After becoming Protestant,
In 1555 in Augsburg, after John Calvin settled in
years of religious war, Berlin Geneva, Switzerland, in
the Catholic Emperor Wittenberg
1536. He developed his
Charles V allowed own strand of the new
Lutheranism in German POLAND–LITHUANIA
religion, which became
states whose rulers
were Lutheran.
known as Calvinism.
Prague Calvin sent missionaries
AUSTRIA who helped to establish
STATES Protestant churches in
Augsburg Scotland, France, and
the Netherlands.

Trent Buda

Florence Belgrade WALLACHIA
AL S Council of Trent meets
The Catholic Church, knowing it had to
Rome stop people from flocking to the new
NAPLES Protestant churches, met three times at
Trento in 1545–62. It decided to change itself

Naples to draw people back. The changes are

known as the Counter-Reformation. Adrianople




1800s Caribbean pirates
In the 16th century, galleons left the Spanish Main (parts of the American
mainland under Spanish control) loaded with plundered gold. They
attracted privateers, who were licensed by other countries
to take Spanish ships as prizes, and pirates, or buccaneers, whose
robbery was against the law. The age of pirates and privateers
ended in the 1800s, when better-equipped navies restored order.
San Agustín

NE Galleons of gold
OF In 1628, Dutch privateer
Piet Heyn captured the

whole Spanish treasure

fleet just off Cuba’s coast.

Aztec riches
Gold was carried
in mule trains Gulf of Cuba
to ports such as
Veracruz, where it
M ex i co
was loaded on to Spanish Pirate ship
Spanish galleons. galleon in pursuit
Campeche of a galleon


François l’Ollonais
This notorious buccaneer was shipwrecked C aribbean
at Campeche. The Spanish killed
his crew, so he spent the next S ea
10 years attacking Spanish
fleets throughout the
Caribbean in revenge.

“… a good sailor Old
but the most cruel This map shows the Caribbean
in the 16th–18th centuries.

and hardened Area controlled
by Spain
Henry Morgan
villain …” Key town A skilled privateer
turned buccaneer,
Charles Johnson on Blackbeard, Key pirate haven Morgan raided
in A General History of Pyrates, 1724 many towns and
Sack or capture
islands, including Old
of island or town
Providence, which he used
as a base in the 1670s.


The Netherlands. It gained 1720. based in New This motley crew of Providence. France used them against Spain. John Hawkins made shipped. OF THEIR PIRATE CAPTORS. Tortuga during which he sacked Sancti. the In 1720. Hispaniola Land grab Jamaica Puerto Santo The islands not Domingo Rico taken by Spain often changed Pirate ship hands as they were Pirates often sailed small. Jack. until antipiracy laws were passed in 1687. Ships attacking From 1655. Maracaibo had 16 cannon a profit selling seized slaves in towns on the coast to repel attacks. The first pirates were privateers. convicts. They often seized ships for gold and slaves. New Providence Privateer’s prize Ba am Francis Drake seized h as a Spanish galleon off Puerto Rico in 1571. Blackbeard blockaded the OCEAN benefit and often came to a sticky end. Mary joined island of Tortuga off pirate Anne Bonny to Hispaniola became a sail with Captain Calico hideout for buccaneers. their captain. HOPING TO GET RICHES AND MORE FREEDOM. Borburata Maracaibo Caracas Cartagena Nombre de Dios Coast raids Coastal towns were Gibraltar The Queen’s man repeatedly raided as Sailing with Queen Elizabeth I’s gold was held there. England. towns from Cartagena Spíritus to San Agustín. and a battle here in 1718. who dressed and escaped slaves Queen Elizabeth I of England knighting Francis as men. but remained respected. were said started to take over the Drake for his privateering services. French. He was a fearsome sight. along the South American coast. Both ex-privateers. Black Bart captured a reputation for wild partying 15 ships in three days. He Santa María del Puerto del Príncipe gained loot from later Buccaneer voyages too. so that it would smoke as he attacked. and people said that he would set his hat alight with fuses. fought over by the Port Royal fast ships that could overtake Dutch. ready to be blessing in 1564. coastal towns to this safe haven. port of Charleston and ransomed Charleston the inhabitants. women. pirates came heavy Spanish galleons. The modern world Ocracoke Island Privateer or buccaneer? A great place to hide out while waiting for ships to seize. including a spree in 1585–86. sent by Ocracoke was Blackbeard’s their countries to raid enemy ships in times Ocracoke haven until he was killed in of war. Buccaneers were Blackbeard AT L A N T I C pirates who robbed solely for their own In 1718. In and English. 87 . 1581 to be braver and seas once privateering better pirates than was outlawed. Pirate haven Mary Read From the 1630s.

and Spanish possessions in North AMERICA NEW America in 1733. THERE WERE AS MANY AS 250. FRANCE New Amsterdam The British claimed New Amsterdam British possession in 1664 (first settled by the Dutch in French possession 1614) and renamed it New York. and children left England on September 16. OF EROY NE W S ALTY as European countries tried to claim PAI N these newly discovered lands. but they have become the most well-known. 88 BY 1700. many settlements began to flourish. Jamestown.000 tons arrived in New Orleans however. Within a few years of their founding. French. onward and founded a capital at Santa Fe in 1609. The Pilgrim Fathers The Pilgrim Fathers were not the first European settlers to arrive in North America. focused in Maine (1675–76)—were a constant problem for the KEY This map shows British. life for New Spain In 1500–1650. Spain the colonizers was extremely tough. A party of 102 men. NEW Santa Fe LOUISIANA MEXICO Colonial 1500– 1733 New Orleans America Colonization (or settlement) of North Spanish gold VIC America started in the 16th century. start the growth of French Louisiana. Spanish possession Jamestown Santa Fe Disputed territory The first successful British The Spanish explored the Fur trading post southwest United States from colony.000 immigrants people dying. 1620. on a ship named the Mayflower. NORTH early colonizers. with many exported 180 tons New Orleans (164 metric tons) of Some 7. At first. the British Hudson Bay Company set up factories on Maine the coast of Hudson Bay. (15. Hudson Bay Hudson Bay European traders made the most of the fur trade routes established by the Native Americans.400 metric tons) of from France in 1718 to silver from New Spain. They landed at Plymouth Rock on December 21. was Mexico in the 16th century established in 1607. Conflicts between settlers and American Indians—such as King Philip’s War. In the 1670s. women.000 EUROPEAN SETTLERS IN . gold and 17.

Charleston (Virginia) and 1733 (Georgia). AND FRANCE. became Charleston the first AT L A N T I C New Hampshire Spanish successful Massachusetts helmet settlement in OCEAN Rhode San Agustín the Carolinas. Felicia Dorothea Hemans. New Island York Fl San Agustín or Spain founded San Agustín (now ida St Augustine. 1825 Mayflower The Pilgrim Fathers. SPAIN. call it holy ground. 89 . GERMANY. The modern world “Ay. Florida). in 1620. French religious refugees pioneer’s hat Pilgrim from England. New Jersey Cuba Delaware Virginia Maryland North Florida Carolina Spain established a number of colonies South in Florida in the Carolina AT L A N T I C 1580s and 1590s. Ge or OCEAN gia SOUTH AMERICA NORTH AMERICA. Plymouth New Amsterdam Pilgrim Fathers’ shallop (shallow boat for coasts The Thirteen Colonies and rivers) Jamestown Thirteen British colonies Charleston were founded between 1607 In 1670. the first European Pennsylvania Connecticut settlement in the United States. on the they trod” LAND banks of the St. Lawrence River. The soil where first Québec RUPERT’S In 1608. The Landing of the Pilgrim Fathers. in 1565. in modern-day Canada. sailed Québec Father’s hat to the New World in the Mayflower. MAINLY FROM BRITAIN. the French established their first colony at Québec.

90 THE ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE IS SOMETIMES REFERRED TO AS “MAAFA. slave traders took an estimated 12 million Africans by force and shipped them across the Atlantic in dreadful conditions to work as slaves on the plantations or in the mines of the Americas. wood. lum Cotton ber. Span ds ish M ain SAINT-DOMINGUE on m JAMAICA ia . Southeast More slaves were Brazil Sugar shipped to South America than Diamonds anywhere else. indigo. exchange for slaves Goods exported from SOUTH Pernambuco the New World AMERICA Recife Gold mine Sites of plantations or Most slaves brought Salvador mines in which slaves to South America were sent to work: BRAZIL Bahia worked in gold and Cotton diamond mines.” . but its most infamous episode came with the Atlantic Slave Trade. NORTH AMERICA Northern US UNITED STATES Boston Chesapeake Gulf Coast Charleston Whale oil. m were sent to work on cotton plantations. r olass to North America CUBA Sugar. Between the 16th and 19th centuries. Slavery Gold RÍO DE 1500s– Coffee LA PLATA 1800s Slavery had existed for thousands of years in many parts of the world.d KEY Caribbean e ffe The thickness of the islands co rope represents the number of slaves shipped co ac BRITISH ob Slave traders GUIANA . Sugar r. tobacco The majority of um slaves shipped e s.t ar SURINAM g Slave-raiding zone Sugar plantation su Europe’s craving FRENCH GUIANA d. Slave-trading ports for sugar drove the gol slave trade. furs plantation Cotton. Goods exported from plantations dominated ilve Amazonia S Europe to Africa in the Caribbean.

Three- Slaves were captured in large quarters of all slaves were Sierra Leone areas of Africa and were then shipped across the Atlantic Windward Gold Bight of sent to camps. were horrendous. Bight of on the coast. with Nantes disease a constant threat.” Southeast and groans Africa Madagascar rendered the whole a scene of horror almost unimaginable. one in Conditions for slaves four ships leaving Liverpool on board slave ships was a slave-trading ship. Biafra Britain—26% France—11% Portugal—48% Netherlands—4% Spain—8% Great United States—2% Denmark—1% West Central Africa Middle Passage The journey across “The shrieks the Atlantic Ocean was known as the “Middle Passage. FRANCE EUROPE um PORTUGAL SPAIN r. 91 . The modern world Human cargo Slave-trading port By the 17th century.c ns Gu Arguin The slave traders Senegambia AFRICA The Portuguese and British were the major participants Slave-raiding zones in the slave trade. Some 350–600 people were Liverpool DENMARK crammed into the ship’s BRITAIN hold. 1789 WHICH MEANS “HOLOCAUST” OR “GREAT DISASTER” IN SWAHILI.b ro .” Former slave Olaudah Equiano. chained together for NETHERLANDS months at a time.r Lisbon ee n .” those two countries. on the conditions on a slave ship. which were in ships originating from Coast Coast Benin known as “slave factories.i th lo .

1773 2 April 19. evacuated. so had to be fired in volleys (all together) to hit the target. 1775–76. outside Boston. cutting off the British army. 1776 A band of American patriots Local people had an The British suffered British forces left A British attempt to dressed as Mohawks armed conflict with huge casualties in Boston. Supporting this were regiments De belonging to individual states. in the city as they failure at the battle of British tea tax.” Thomas Paine. winning the battle all military supplies the Americans ended in Harbor in a response to The first shots of the of Bunker Hill. war were fired. Pennsylvania Virginia American army The Continental Congress (the governing body e of the whole Thirteen Colonies) raised an army Maryland ar called the “Continentals. 92 WHEN THE BRITISH PRIME MINISTER. which aimed to persuade Americans to fight for independence 1 December 16. which were inaccurate. 1775 4 March 17. from the best-selling pamphlet Common Sense. American and French armies then surrounded Yorktown and the British surrendered. 1775 3 June 17.” commanded by George law Washington. 1776 5 June 28. KEY Yorktown Yor This map shows the Major American k Riv KEY Thirteen Colonies that troop movements The British army in er British declared independence. they were armed mainly with muskets. American battle wins Virginia was building positions a harbor at Yorktown Yorktown American Major British Major French when a French fleet positions troop movements troop movements defeated British ships French British battle wins French battle wins that were coming with positions Key town or event supplies. HEARD THE NEWS OF . LORD NORTH. destroying take Charleston from dumped tea into Boston British forces at Lexington. Sullivan’s Island. Yorktown 15 Cowpens 13 Charlotte North Carolina Georgia Fort Camden 14 South Carolina Wilmington 12 Charleston 5 “We have it in our 11 Savannah power to begin the world anew. Like the British.

with neither side winning a decisive victory. HE BROKE DOWN AND SOBBED. 1781 The British defeated The Americans. the city in 1778 and victory persuaded the French Philadelphia. 1777 The Thirteen Colonies The British won a series The Americans won The British entered British general Burgoyne approved Thomas of skirmishes against their first significant Philadelphia under General surrendered to the Americans Jefferson’s Declaration George Washington’s victory of the war at Howe. 1781 14 April 25. the British army was one of Québec AMERICA the best in the world. 1780 13 January 17. The rest of surrendered to the Morgan. under The Americans. 1778 12 May 12. 11 December 29. until the British were finally trapped. The modern world NORTH British army In 1776. Its men were nicknamed the “Redcoats. New Jersey. 1781 15 October 17. 6 July 4. signaled the end of the war. HIS COUNTRY’S SURRENDER AT YORKTOWN. but suffered force after being cut off at Georgia soon fell under British after a month. South Carolina. of New York. retreated to New York. 1776 7 August 1776 8 December 26. 1777 10 October 17. forced to retreat. surrendering in 1781. 93 . headed by Daniel American forces at Fort to a combined French-American Savannah.” They were joined in some battles by green- coated American “Loyalists. Defeat for the British British control. 1776 9 September 26. long siege of Charleston. to enter the war on their side. War was inevitable. but they abandoned at Saratoga. heavy losses and were Yorktown. and Britain and the United States fought for six years.” 10 District of Maine New York Saratoga New (to Massachusetts) Hampshire Massachusetts Lexington 2 Philadelphia Connecticut 1 New York 3 4 Trenton 7 Boston 8 6 9 New Jersey Rhode Island AT L A N T I C OCEAN 1775– The American 1781 Revolutionary War After years of tension over Britain’s growing control. British at Cowpens. The British defeated Lord Cornwallis surrendered the Americans in Benjamin Lincoln. The American of Independence in army and took control the battle of Trenton. the American colonies declared themselves independent states. defeated the Camden.

also began to arrive in Australia. in port superior .000 . From 1793.500 people arrived at Botany Bay. 94 BETWEEN 1788 AND 1850.. On reaching Botany Bay. 1788 body art to today’s generation. It left England with fleet commander Captain Arthur Phillip Albany aboard. 1788.. he became governor in chief and decided to move the settlement to Port Jackson. the 1828. Aboriginal population A U S T R Aboriginal people had been in Australia for more than Swan River colony “We found ourselves in a 40. who chose to emigrate. kept their culture alive. however. It was a free colony.” or exile.000 years when the The first colony in Western Europeans arrived. Ravaged Australia was established on the Swan River. Thousands died from disease and there were clear boundaries or violence. The Europeans did not see this and taken over by the immigrants. for crimes ranging from minor theft to murder. THE BRITISH SENT MORE THAN 162. to all by conflict and disease. but Aboriginal people numbered only 100. All this had a devastating impact on the Aboriginal land 300. when immigrants wanted Captain Lieutenant Watkin Tench. free settlers. in 1850. and their land was around each group’s territory. traditions such as dance and the tough land. Australia. They penal colonies were set up in we had seen before. Most passengers were British convicts sentenced to “transportation. January 26. It brought the last of more than 9. passing down convicts to help them farm on Port Jackson (modern-day Sydney). Exiled 1788– 1860s INDIAN KEY Areas ex-convicts settled Penal colonies to Australia OCEAN Other important sites Route of the First Fleet. claimed the land for themselves.000 by 1920. 1788 On January 18.000 Aboriginal people who lived Aboriginal people were the original inhabitants of Australia. with no regard for either Aboriginal rights or heritage. Fremantle The last convict ship arrived in Fremantle port in 1868.” Western Australia. the first of 11 ships carrying 1.000 convicts into Western Australia. Perth HMS Sirius Fremantle The flagship of the First Fleet (the first 11 ships that left England) was a Royal Navy armed escort ship. there. Perth.

where the land 18–20. It had some of the strictest security and harshest punishments of any penal colony. There were many clashes escape. started by both sides. on May 13. after a party of Western Port British were sent from Port Philip Sydney to Tasmania to prevent the French from claiming the island. a penal colony was set up in Risdon Melbourne Cove. however. convicts escaped from a farm in Moreton Castle Hill. so was not suitable for settlement. The military won and The first free immigrant settlers the rebels were put to death. CONVICTS——MOSTLY THIEVES——IN 806 SHIPS TO AUSTRALIA. between the Europeans and the Aboriginal people. Castle Hill because the European perpetrators were brought to Myall Creek In March 1804. 95 . a group of rebel justice. It resulted in a battle Bay between the rebels and the Liberty Plains military. Wellington Newcastle Port Jackson Castle Hill Australia’s first penal Port Jackson colony (area for convicts) Botany Bay Botany Bay was established in Port The First Fleet arrived in Botany Bay on January Liberty Jackson. 1788. 28 Aboriginal people were murdered by harsh and many convicts tried to white settlers at Myall Creek. and livestock Rio de AUSTRALASIA Janeiro Cape Town Botany Bay (horses. The area later became Sydney. Moreton Bay Some convicts from Port Jackson who committed further crimes in Australia were sent to this penal Myall Creek colony. They were given land grants by the British government. This case was unusual. sheep. in Botany Bay. Port Stephens They were also given two years’ food A L I A rations and one year’s clothing. 1787. Conditions were particularly In 1838. Port Macquarie plus convict labor to work the land. seeds. It took eight months to reach Botany Tenerife Bay. and Cape Town SOUTH to restock supplies and collect AMERICA plants. The area had poor soil and little Plains was more fertile than fresh water. with stops at Tenerife. Risdon Cove In 1803. and goats) to take to the new land. Seven of the 11 guilty men were hanged. AFRICA Rio de Janeiro. Port Dalrymple ania Maria Island Tasm Risdon Port Arthur Cove From 1832. but were unsuccessful. Macquarie Harbour Sullivan’s Port convicts who had Cove Arthur broken the law while in their penal colonies were sent to Port Arthur. arrived in 1793. ea The modern world e w Guin N Crossing the world The First Fleet left Portsmouth. NORTH Portsmouth EUROPE ASIA AMERICA England.

Angers May 31. The king was sent to prison.000 of them during their “Reign of Terror. ENGLAND Events in Paris Many of the key events of the revolution took place around Paris. Marie Antoinette. and so the nobility had no Republic from 1793 to 1799. took power and gave Nantes itself unlimited authority. August 1793 The Republic called for French Poitiers troops to fight the Revolutionary Wars. and declared a republic in a revolution that caused considerable bloodshed. It was nearly bankrupt from wars it had fought.000 women of kingship. and the king was demanding taxes from the poor while the nobility lived in luxury. Ruffec July 31. 1793 The French queen. This was the start of French democracy. there was a bad harvest. Vendée uprising to protest about the shortage of bread. Caen right to rule over the commoners. 1792 An angry mob stormed the Tuileries Palace. 1793 King Louis XVI was executed.” French revolutionary motto The French 1789– 1794 Bordeaux Revolution In 1789. 1794 The Jacobins were overthrown and their leader. This stated that all men and women fought fierce wars against the are born equal. overthrew the monarchy. NICKNAMED THE “NATIONAL RAZOR. or death. SPAIN 96 THE SHARP-BLADED GUILLOTINE. They Citizen. brotherhood. 1793 The Jacobin party. Robespierre. equality.” “Liberty. 1789 An angry mob demolished the Protest march Bastille—a fortress-prison that was a symbol On October 5. They were loyal to passed the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Le Havre their lords and the church. executing 40. France was in turmoil. The Storming of the Bastille was marched on the royal palace of Versailles the symbolic start of the revolution. July 14. Rennes September 22. 7. The people rose up.” . Peasants in this area had a good August 26. 1792 A new government proclaimed that France was a republic. where King Louis XVI had been held under guard since trying to flee the country in 1791. was executed. The Jacobins accused VENDÉE many people of being anti-Republic. January 21. October 16. was executed. 1789. led by Maximilien Robespierre. 1789 The new National Assembly standard of living. August 10.

REPUBLIC Meeting of so they met in his indoor Besançon SWITZERLAND the Estates. Amiens Estrées Rouen The Great Fear Peasants armed themselves in fear of being starved or “burned out” by their landlords. Montpellier Bram Marseille Area of Vendée uprising Toulon Center of the Great Fear Siege of Toulon Town Republicans laid siege to the city for four months at the end of 1793. they swore to stay together FRANCHE. defeating a Royalist uprising. the French won a great victory at Fleurus. tennis court. The modern world AUSTRIAN Revolutionary Wars NETHERLANDS In 1794. Areas of Cahors counterrevolution Regions that were F R A N C E against the revolution. and spread Versailles nationwide from July 17. the king’s officials locked the National Assembly out of Dijon RAURACIAN Bourges their usual meeting place. the population Places where of counterrevolutionary Lyon anti-Republicans revolted against the Republic. 1789. WAS CONSIDERED TO BE A “HUMANE” METHOD OF EXECUTION. began in Romilly-sur-Seine and Metz Paris several other places. Orange because they were AVIGNON Royalist (supporting Toulouse the king) or for Nîmes NICE other reasons. a constitution for France. (counterrevolutionaries) Government troops laid siege were guillotined. and the Third Territory gained Estate (ordinary people) at Versailles. in modern-day Belgium. NEUCHÂTEL General COMTÉ until they had produced KEY On June 17. Centers of revolution SAVOY Lyon Siege of Lyon Centers of execution In 1793. which the French Republic fought against European countries that were monarchies. Romilly-sur-Seine Nancy La Ferté-Bernard Strasbourg GERMAN STATES Orléans Saint-Florentin Colmar Tennis Court Oath On June 20. Here. the king Louhans France in 1789 called a crisis meeting of representatives of the clergy. while the monarchies wished to put a king back in control of France. The French Fleurus wanted to spread the revolution. the nobility. called the Great Fear. by France 1789–97 The Third Estate broke away to form a National Assembly. The panic. Cluny 1789. 1789. to the city for two months. It was part of the Revolutionary Jemappes Wars. 97 .

1805 G KING KIN The French and Spanish fleets were destroyed by British ships commanded by Horatio Nelson. S T IC anti-French Spanish forces. Exile on Elba. OR RECRUIT BY FORCE. CE a British and Portuguese army and Mantua. In 1796. 1812 2 Paris Advance into Russia 2. Coronation. A 1805 E AT O C 9 KINGDOM OF SPAIN 9. Over the next decade. D 3. Helena—a remote island in imposed a legal code and the GREAT the middle of the Atlantic. Ulm. 1815 SWEDEN KEY This was Napoleon’s last battle. 1806 Waterloo TH E R 1 Key event E R AT HI I O N NE Russian campaign. when Napoleon controlled Prussian armies. Battle of Waterloo. metric system of measures. territories outside this empire 1806 fiercely rejected French influence. 1812 crowned IL KINGDOM PR LYR This was a key battle in the Peninsular emperor OV IAN OF ITALY IN war. his attempt to conquer the immense Russian Empire ended in disaster. FRENCH EMPIRE Marengo. 1805 Return from Russia 1804 Napoleon had himself SWITZERLAND 4. which French forces fought against here in Paris. but escaped ES SAR DOM O IA for one last campaign against the British. Napoleon’s empire 8 Dependent states and allies 10 CO Leipzig N Key battle OF FED Jena. He was then exiled DENMARK an empire. he was given command of the French army in Italy. he led France in a series of wars that left him controlling most of Europe. he was ruling France. 1814 K OF ING 4 Napoleon was exiled NA DOM PORT OM OF PL DIN F Salamanca UGAL here in 1814. 98 NAPOLEON WAS ALLOWED TO CONSCRIPT. Battle of Salamanca. VAST . across which he to St. 1800 1796 N N LA Corunna. M editerr OF G D O M SIC ILY 3 Trafalgar 1796– 1815 Napoleon Napoleon Bonaparte was one of the most brilliant military commanders of all time. This map shows Europe in as he was defeated by British and KINGDOM OF 1812. However. Battle of Trafalgar. three years later. The BRITAIN Lübeck. This stopped Napoleon Sea anean KIN from invading Britain. KINGDOM OF 10.

1805 and Italians. The so called “Battle of numbers of Germans. “You say it is impossible. he could threaten British dominance in India. Battle of Leipzig. in a letter demanding survey the ancient ruins. 1798–1801 Napoleon knew that if he controlled is not French. battle in Europe until R USS 1809 World War I. and under constant with an army of 400. Prussia. and Sweden The fall of Napoleon defeated Napoleon’s army. EM PI RE A cartoon of the time shows Napoleon trying to stretch to control both ends of Europe. 5. Armies from Russia. Austria. To do so. Napoleon’s forces found the 7 city abandoned and burned. As he occupied 1 Egypt. These enemy powers teamed up in a series of coalitions. 8. The Russians refused to GRAND DUCHY accept defeat. Retreat from Russia. The modern world Moscow 6 6. the French fought nearly every other European power AUSTRIAN EMPIRE of the time.” Battle of the Nile. 1798 But. September 1812 5 Having chased the Russian Maloyaroslavets. Egyptian campaign. Napoleon couldn’t defeat Britain. Napoleon’s several nations. This was beyond A even Napoleon. he N was defeated and exiled. and Black Sea Russia to join in. he had to force Portugal. June 1812 November 1812 Napoleon marched into Russia Freezing. Advance into 7. although Napoleon won land battles. and he fought O T them all at the same time—at both T M O ends of Europe. the British navy forced the French to leave.000 men. Arrival in Moscow. KINGDOM OF PRUSSIA 1812 army all the way to Moscow. Nations” was the biggest I AN EMPIRE Wagram. That word 1. Poles. The French OF WARSAW retreated as winter set in. he brought along scientists to Napoleon Bonaparte. as well as French. 1798 Egypt. Austerlitz. and in 1815. (POLAND) Russia. so he tried to cripple its economy with a trade blockade. Battle of the EGYPT Pyramids. Under Napoleon. 1813 reduced to 27. 99 . ARMIES. AROUND 1 MILLION SOLDIERS DIED BUILDING HIS EMPIRE. including large army retreated to Polish land. 1813 a craze in Europe for all things Egyptian. Spain. starving.000 men from attacks from Russian forces. leading to supplies for his exhausted army.

took control. While in exile in Jamaica. and Portugal had lost Brazil. but the South America. 1815 from Spain. Revolutionaries in South America. Haiti’s he soon had to flee to Jamaica. Although he against France and entered Caracas victoriously. Bolívar meets San Martín. such the most famous were Simón Bolívar and José de San Martín. as Simón Bolívar.” 1813 Bolívar. Venezuela. president. 1819 GRAN This battle between Camp ble aign a Bolívar’s Independentists Admir CUBA COLOMBIA and the Spanish would soon liberate Gran JAMAICA Colombia (now Panama. Ecuador. Bogotá Bolívar wrote a famous letter about his vision of a free South America. San Martín handed this task to Bolívar. all of Spain’s Simón Bolívar’s route José de San Martín’s route colonies except Cuba and Puerto Rico had slipped Key town out of its hands. By 1826. 1816 Simón Bolívar was a rebel leader who Haiti had become traveled across what is now Venezuela. Alexandre FRENCH Pétion. Free 1808– 1826 Lima South America In 1807–08. Letter from and Colombia) Jamaica. French leader Napoleon invaded KEY Portugal and occupied Spain. independent in 1804. winning victories against the ruling after slaves rebelled Spanish Royalists. helped both countries’ hold on their empires in to free South America. 100 ´ BOLIVAR SIMON ´ PLAYED A ROLE IN LIBERATING SIX MODERN COUNTRIES: . 1822 Bolívar and San Martín met Guayaquil PERU to plan the final conquest of Peru. and weakened Many revolutionary leaders. took the chance to free their nations from 300 years of colonial rule. Haiti helps Bolívar’s “Admirable Campaign. HAITI Caracas Battle of Boyacá. gave Bolívar GUIANA arms and support to reinvade the mainland—as long as SURINAM Bolívar agreed to free BRITISH GUIANA the slaves there. known as Libertadores.

a kind of tea. including Bernado O’Higgins. marched renamed the region Bolivia on Upper Peru (then in honor of the Libertador. since no one had expected an army to attack from the mountains. 1815 liberated Chile after only a few short battles. independence. The modern world ATLANTIC Brazil becomes OCEAN an empire. united us to Spain CHILE have been severed. Valparaiso dangerous crossing of the “The bonds that high Andes Mountains. 101 . then called the the Royalist army in South America. 1818 San Martín and O’Higgins Simón Bolívar. 1811 charge of Brazil. UPPER PERU (BOLIVIA) PARAGUAY Potosí URUGUAY Buenos Aires Ayacucho UNITED PROVINCES OF THE RÍO DE LA PLATA The crossing of PACIFIC the Andes. the Paraguayans lost Janeiro The Spanish government in in-chief signed the final surrender of patience and declared these parts. making it lieutenant. Spain had never had a strong Pedro declared Brazil hold over Paraguay. Simón Bolívar’s mate. 1818 José de San Martín decided OCEAN to approach Peru via Chile. ECUADOR. COLOMBIA. in 1814.” Chile freed. with him. part of the same state) to complete the liberation. Peru freed. won the Battle of Ayacucho too expensive for locals to Rio de Río de la Plata freed. AND BOLIVIA. in BRAZIL Paraguay freed. Dom Pedro I. PERU. John. Together. Pedro. Bolivia freed. eventually returned and left his son. the Prince Regent. 1825 José de San Martín then joined Sucre stamped out Royalist the independence cause resistance in Upper Peru and and. The Letter from Jamaica. 1822 The Portuguese royal family was in exile in Rio de Janeiro following Napoleon’s invasion of Portugal. afford. yerba Antonio José de Sucre. 1810 and the defeated Spanish commander. was ousted in 1810. He took Chilean independence leaders. United Provinces of the Río de la Plata. 1824 Paraguay’s main crop. However. When independent and became its Spain imposed a tax on first emperor. Santiago they led an army on a daring. PANAMA. VENEZUELA.

such as giant tortoise the iguanas that foraged in the sea. This idea was one of the biggest leaps forward in the history of science. and giant tortoise. finch. . was like nothing else on Earth. 102 THE BEAGLE’S MISSION WAS ORIGINALLY PLANNED AS A TWO-YEAR TRIP. OCEAN PACIFIC AFRICA OCEAN PACIFIC OCEAN des SOUTH An AMERICA AUSTRALASIA INDIAN KEY Lima OCEAN Route of HMS Beagle The Galápagos This island chain has such unusual wildlife that it started Darwin thinking about how such variety KEY Woodpecker of life comes about. and animals that helped him develop his theory of evolution. the Beagle had to cross the Pacific and complete a round-the-world voyage via Australia and South Africa. SOUTH AMERICA Capybara These huge rodents NORTH EUROPE ASIA were a common sight AMERICA for Darwin when on ATLANTIC overland treks. Some islands had their own types of mockingbird. He thought that different types of creature must have reached the islands. plants. HMS Beagle’s finch survey route Large agos Islands ground finch p PAC IFIC G alá O C EAN Green warbler-finch Marine Floreana Weird wildlife iguana mockingbird Darwin found that the wildlife of the Galápagos Galápagos. before evolving in many new directions. 1831– 1836 Darwin’s voyage KEY Key ports Route of HMS Beagle Darwin’s While exploring South America. British scientist Charles overland treks Darwin studied rocks. Around the world To return to Britain.

800 m) up in flightless rhea. on one meal of blood. These made him only after he and wonder at the immense his party had time needed for such eaten most changes to happen.. collecting specimens and other evidence to support it. England. It is the Andes. Charles Darwin. and develop inside the male’s throat. Gaucho AT L A N T IC For weeks. He realized he that he realized had once been had a specimen a seabed. Darwin’s frog The Beagle was caught then kept it to see Darwin discovered this bizarre frog in for weeks in storms off how long it could live the forests of Chile. 1835 Valparaiso Darwin’s rhea Darwin discovered this smaller.000 ft (1.” the crew for food. The tadpoles hatch Cape Horn. Part of Darwin’s beetle collection Giant ground sloth In Uruguay. When he published his theory in 1859. The modern world HMS Beagle A British survey vessel Evolution revolution called HMS Beagle sailed Darwin’s discoveries seemed to confirm that from Plymouth. its Aires Guanaco inhabitants being found Coquimbo This relative of the camel was often hunted by nowhere else. on a mission to thought. Darwin found Montevideo the fossil skeleton of “. a little world this giant extinct sloth.. a new idea that Darwin spent 20 years Salvador as the ship’s naturalist. 103 . it caused a revolution in science. within itself. Darwin lived Rio de Janeiro OCEAN as a gaucho (a cowboy of the pampas grasslands). Buenos called Megatherium. He formed a theory of how life-forms chart the coast of South America. BUT IT BECAME A ROUND-THE-WORLD JOURNEY LASTING FIVE YEARS. southerly Fossilized forest Valdivia species of the giant Some 6. It was such taken along. of the bird. Darwin was change over millions of years. at age 22. Darwin found trees now named after turned to stone on top of rocks him. on the Galápagos Islands. Kissing bug Darwin allowed this bloodsucking insect Storms off the cape to drink from his arm. the Earth was much older than people had in 1831.

This map shows where iron ore and coal fields were. Birmingham IRELAND Cardiff London 1770s– The 1870s Lille Industrial Amiens Le Havre Revolution Paris Orleans Tours In 1800. Sir. most people in northwest FRANCE Europe worked in industry and lived in towns.” and the industry and cities that had developed nearby. 1770 Richard Arkwright‘s mill used water power to drive Smethwick. Nantes but by 1900. The also built the world’s Manchester Sheffield engines powered first iron bridge here. 1709 Inventor James Watt used a “water frame”— Abraham Darby and Matthew Boulton Arkwright’s device produced cheap. The mill Coalbrookdale. by 1850. made high-pressure for spinning raw high-quality iron with Leeds steam engines at the cotton into yarn. what were available. the world desires to have—power. GREAT BRITAIN Cromford. most people in Europe worked the land and lived in villages. Liverpool Soho Foundry. KEY The Industrial Revolution happened where raw materials (coal and iron) “I sell here. Coal fields Matthew Boulton. British engineer. AROUND ONE IN THREE EIGHT-YEAR-OLD . 1796 textile machinery. 1776 Iron ore deposits Iron smelting Liverpool–Manchester. 1830 The world’s first passenger Textiles Glasgow railroad with tickets and Industrial cities timetables ran between two of Railroads England’s new industrial cities. which began in Britain in the 1700s with a series of inventions that harnessed the energy of coal-powered steam and the strength of iron. his grandson Birmingham. near In 1781. factory and mine machinery. This change Limoges is part of the Industrial Revolution. his innovative blast furnace. 104 BETWEEN 1791 AND 1850.

and Switzerland in the Child pulling a coal truck in a mine. Belgium. which became the center of German industry. but wages were so low that families sent their children to work. which swept through Germany. a water-powered cotton factory that. Steel technology was part DENMARK of a second wave of the Industrial Revolution. 1847–51 Alfred Krupp perfected the process of steel casting. too. 105 . Essen. since exporting the machinery was illegal. Industrial America Mulhouse The fast-flowing Blackstone River in New England was the birthplace of America's Basel Industrial Revolution. including Slater's Lyon. water frame in his head. was the first in America to use his invention—a loom technology from Britain. Here.1840s 1840s–70s. 1801 Mill. Slater’s Mill WORKING-CLASS BOYS IN ENGLAND WAS FORCED TO GO TO WORK. Children were in demand because North Sea they could fit through narrow tunnels in mines and reach into gaps in factory machinery. The modern world NORWAY Child labor People flocked to towns in search of work in the new factories. Hundreds of mills SWITZERLAND worked in this valley. Joseph Marie Jacquard demonstrated in 1790. Essen is part of the Ruhr region. 1840s Pilsen The Meuse Valley Nuremberg around Liège in southern Belgium Karlsruhe AUSTRIAN EMPIRE was the first part of Stuttgart mainland Europe to become fully industrialized. Samuel Slater Lyon that could weave had smuggled out plans of Arkwright’s patterned fabric. Hamburg PRUSSIA N DS R LA Bremen E N ETH Berlin Amsterdam Poznań POLAND Rotterdam Essen Leipzig BELGIUM Ruhr Brussels Liège Cologne GERMAN Prague STATES Liège.

overthrowing the king fought for workers’ rights. people came out onto the streets to fight for their rights: for better working conditions. SWITZERLAND in February. This attacked factories that used lasted until December 1851. the Chartist Movement Schleswig The rebels were defeated. and. They and declaring a French republic. In March. in the German and Italian states. Austrian troops Marseille and tax collectors Influenced by the events in Paris. people had lost hope. called canuts. Young Irelander box on opposite page). controlled state. not just the ruling classes). and drove out. the working classes Rouen 7 barricaded the streets in their Paris Karlsruhe fight against the aristocracy. In April. but the government Marseille people fought gave people greater freedom. including votes Ballingarry for all men. By 1849. for democracy (votes for all men. Yorkshire Chartists Copenhagen After earlier protests failed. for their states to unite into independent countries. Milan Limoges Lyon Limoges Rural areas such as Limoges joined in a Sonderbund War second wave of violent uprisings that started in Years of unrest in Switzerland led to Bologna Paris when the new Republican government a 25-day war. against. This led Young Irelander Rebellion drills in June. They lost the war. regions wanted to govern themselves. because seven Catholic Milan did not provide people with jobs. 1848 A year of revolutions In 1848. February Revolution Lyon Angry mobs barricaded Paris Silk workers. Yorkshire protestors exchanged gunfire London petition 5 with the Irish Constabulary. 106 THE FRANKFURT ASSEMBLY PROPOSED USING THE REVOLUTIONARIES’ . employing people. yet in the following decades many of their goals would be achieved. Some revolts had short-term success. Danish protestors Chartists in Yorkshire took demanded greater up arms and practiced personal freedom. held a peaceful protest and asked Parliament for a people’s charter. to events in Schleswig (see On July 29. when Louis machines rather than Napoleon declared himself emperor. London Frankfurt 6 Mannheim 1 Rouen In April. workers in from the Austrian- the port of Marseille rose up for their rights. but most were put down with much bloodshed.

protested rights. independent Italy. Polish states in GERMAN CONFEDERATION the Prussian Empire fought for Revolutions in the 39 an independent Poland and an independent states of the end to Prussian rule. Prague such as fair pay and employment. Venice the Austrian Habsburg Empire. Russian and Ottoman authorities. Venice 5 in this Danish-controlled declared independence from territory declared an independent Venice Austrian rule in March. created in May. February : Mannheim 1 4 Cracow An assembly of people of the In March. RED. freedoms for the people. government. In January. defeated by troops. part state of Baden demanded a bill of Berlin of the Austrian Empire. 1848 Revolt or unrest On January 12. Poles in Cracow. BLACK. they 7 wanted an independent Poland. Peaceful protest the king and central rule. KEY In 1848. refused to rule Germany. 107 . Rebels here fought against Austrian rule. People wanted who had been freed during a a united Germany with successful uprising in Berlin. This led to a war Bucharest between Prussia. chief minister of the ruling 3 Habsburg (Austrian) monarchy. people revolted against King Ferdinand II in support of an independent Sicily. but were violently Naples just a few months. 2 March: Berlin In an attempt Hungarian independence 4 to quell riots. The rebels German Confederation lasted were joined by Polish prisoners into 1849. Prague March: Vienna The first of 3 Czechs in Prague wanted several rebellions in the city freedom from Austria. government in Bucharest for the were put down with help from Principality of Wallachia. The Ottoman Empire then suppressed it. Hungarian nationalists king offered to make Prussia the Buda and Pest fought to gain independence from leader of a German national state. the Prussian In March. The modern world Copenhagen Poznań Uprising In March. Influenced by revolutions March: Schleswig Officials in Sicily and France. The northern states wanted to form September: Frankfurt a united. in defiance of Prussia and Austria. rebels installed a provisional National Assembly. Riots Naples A Roman republic was formed in for democracy broke out in February 1849. Germany and Italy were not unified countries. rule. Wallachian Revolution 6 Riots against a new German In June. Like people in Poznań. March: Munich Thousands 2 Dresden of people met on the city’s Cracow streets demanding workers’ rights. the German Bologna Confederation. Rome Rome 7 Karlsruhe The Assembly In November. Munich Vienna not want to be part of Germany. triggering similar demands Poznań and then revolted against Austrian in several other German states. but did caused the exile of Metternich. and Denmark. Sicilians German Confederation in Palermo revolted against (association of German. but made up of separate states with their own rulers. and speaking states) set up their own government. May 1849: Dresden. the people rose up against dissolved when the king of Prussia papal rule and the pope left Rome. AND GOLD FLAG AS THE FLAG FOR A UNITED GERMANY. Palermo Palermo State borders. but lasted many places.

1876 and sport.” to explore and settle this er land. Independence Rock journeys west from here Settlers aimed to reach here on were made on foot or by US Independence Day. N. Thousands of settlers endured a brutal journey across n R iv La ipe W a ew in ke g the country and came h n S a s k atc The Great Plains into conflict with the Tribes on the Great Plains relied on bison for survival. v Rive r e Ri bia ston m lo w Yel Colu r ve u co an e Riv er tV r Fo Fort ak Clatsop Sn Oregon City Independence Rock Fort Laramie Fort Hall Y RE GON TERRITOR O 1846 CESSION. . which was R explore the Wild West part of the war over land. wagon Prospector panning CESSION. when Texas fought RN of settlers followed for independence from Mexico. RED RIVE 8 . American Indians Battle of Little Settlers killed them for food Bighorn. IA the California trail. unknown land that lay to the west. 1853 PA C I F I C OCEAN MEXICO 108 IN 1860—61. CALIFORNIA WAS LINKED BY THE “PONY EXPRESS“ SERVICE. American Indian tribes deprive American Indians of led by Sitting Bull food and drive them away. CA Gold Rush Battle of the Alamo. 81 1 CESSIO RITISH COLUMBIA Many of them trapped ive r B ri R 1858 beavers in the forests Missou er of what is now Canada. Pioneers in Canada defeated the US Army The first Europeans to in this battle. The “Wild West” was the vast. for gold MEXICAN 8 Sacramento 184 San Francisco Sante Fe TEXAS California ANNEXATION. were fur trappers. Fort Hall Until a wagon trail was cleared. 1836 1845 LI Gold was the major This was a key battle of the Mexican– FO reason thousands American Wars. and Salt Lake City Covered carve their names on the rock. which they called their “Manifest Destiny. the United States was made up of just 13 colonies along the east coast. Many Americans believed that it was their duty. July 4. as well as to living there. 1776– 1890 The American frontier In 1776. mule train. Los Angeles GADSDEN PURCHASE.

Natchitoches Missis TRADE AND POSTAL ROUTES Sante Fe Trail PU ORI FL pp si Great trade route opened in 1821. RUPERT’S LAND Sitting Bull and family overlooked by a US cavalryman. RC DA i Riv er Used by US to invade Mexico. Louis the sources of three major rivers. 1783 CESSION. Massacre. 1791 Wounded Knee UPPER CANADA. 1870 LOWER CANADA. refugees looking for a new home. Sioux leader Sitting Bull led resistance until he and his family were made prisoners of war in 1881. 18 San Antonio SE 19 York Factory Express Trade route chiefly used by the OF fur trade to access seaports. their freedom The Hudson’s Bay Company. and northeast. crossing N 2. 1882 (OWNED BY THE HUDSON BAY COMPANY). Wars trade and sent trappers between Indians and the US lasted to explore the land. the US government passed the Lewis–Clark Expedition Indian Removal Act. taken away. among the many peoples resettled in Indian TH Territory—now part of Oklahoma. The journey became Pike Expeditions St. had its headquarters here.000 miles (3. HA . were E Rush in 1849. for over a century. such as the Pawnee. 109 . 1890 1791 KEY The Sioux tribe was almost wiped out in this last key Key location encounter between American Indians and the US army. Battleground Mi ss ADDITIONAL UNITED RED RIVER Territory. Independence . the American Indians found York Factory their lands invaded. Zebulon Pike sent by US to find St. with is the year it was STATES TERRITORY. 1803 er In 1830. TEE 776 California Trail Indian Territory IR 1 TH Tipis Key trail used to access the Gold Plains tribes. 1818 established sip LOUISIANA pi iv Trail of Tears EXPEDITIONS R PURCHASE.200 km) of territory. The modern world Hudson Bay Plight of the Indians York Factory As the American people expanded west to find freedom and a better life. the Pawnee had Used by Mormons—religious lived in tents called tepees during bison hunts. and their culture which controlled the fur almost entirely destroyed. Joseph known as the Trail of Tears. In their Mormon Trail homeland of the Great Plains. which allowed it to Goverment trip to explore and Nauvoo force American Indians from the southeast map the country in 1803–04. PIONEER TRAILS IES LON Oregon Trail CO Earliest pioneer trail. and resettle them west of the Mississippi River. Gulf of Mexico WHICH TOOK MAIL FROM THE EAST TO THE WEST COAST IN 10 DAYS.

m th e Wes t In 1828 die s Ouro Preto. Euro To California by boat pe The grueling 18. then by sailing up the gold-seekers journeyed hundreds of miles Yukon River. US.000-mile (30. and shipping. The population ortug From P skyrocketed and changed SOUTH AT L A N T I C From the Americas California into a major AMERICA OCEAN From center of manufacture. Some gold rushes happened on a grand scale. 1855–87 ca Afri Nome. 1886 Discovering gold transformed South Africa from a farming country into a 1690– Gold rushes major gold producer and led to the establishment of Johannesburg. South Africa. Half of California’s From Au 1883–1906 gold-seekers took this route. To Klondike by boat Klondike. 110 DURING THE VICTORIAN GOLD RUSH IN AUSTRALIA. to rush to Portugal’s Brazilian ric US.000 Portuguese gold-seekers me California. some 300. stop emigrating. Eventually. took about six months from stralia Chile and Argentina. such wealth came to only a small number Route by boat of those who flocked to find it. the government a In the world’s most in Lisbon forced people to famous gold rush. as populations soared and Direction of migration trade thrived. 1848–55 colony. However. Witwatersrand. From 1899–1909 Porcupine. triggered gold rushes—global migrations of thousands of people Major gold rush in search of fortune. Europe From Asia Canada. Colorado. trade. New York. 1909 1858–61 From E urope Fro Georgia.000 gold- seekers—known as AFRICA the “forty-niners. US. 1897–99 Some prospectors reached Klondike Accessing this gold field was notoriously difficult— by sea. From Europe From Asia Canada. From th e Am eri ca s NORTH AMERICA British Columbia. across mountains and rivers in punishing conditions. 1899 KEY Icons show the locations of history’s greatest Since the end of the 17th century. Alaska.000-km) journey to the m Afri ca Fro California gold fields by sea Tierra del Fuego. Brazil. Minor gold rush bringing lasting prosperity to an area. From 1690s–late 1700s EUROPE Sou The discovery of gold prompted th A 400. BETWEEN 1851 AND . Canada. finding gold in a new region has gold rushes.” due to the year most of them arrived—flocked to al California.

000 found gold. CANADA fortune. but others were quickly abandoned. American merchant and entrepreneur.000-40.7 million in 1871. PROSPECTORS MINED 61. California from the mining areas of eastern Australia. Central Otago.000 set out 30. and fewer still made any money. and New Zealand. 1851–60s Australia’s first major gold INDIAN rush increased the country’s population from 430. ro Fro pe Fr Many of these ghost towns still exist as om In desolate reminders of the quest for riches. 1896. 111 . 1885–94 A series of small rushes drew in people from Africa.000 in OCEAN 1851 to 1. Australia.730. PA C I F I C From boomtown to ghost town OCEAN s Boomtowns were settlements that grew ica er From rapidly as a result of the gold rushes. The modern world Striking it rich GOLD-SEEKERS TO THE KLONDIKE Gold rushes are linked with wealth and good GOLD FIELDS. some continued to China Eu m thrive. the Americas. and if they reached the gold fields. 1848 From Asia ASIA Victoria. yet the reality was very different. few ever 100. China. found gold ARCTIC OCEAN “Gold! Gold! Gold from the American River!” Samuel Brannan. di a Western AUSTRALASIA Australia.034. Europe. Once Am Fr om the the rushes were over. New Zealand. Gold-seekers endured hard journeys. stirring up gold fever to boost trade. they faced high living costs and often had to pay to pan for gold.304 KG) OF GOLD.000 arrived 4.682 OZ (1. India. Of the many who set out. as well as 1861 Bonie.

Confederate (Southern states) for I would free them all Michigan Union (Northern states) to avoid this war. such Illinois as Chicago. as they used it slave labor to run their cotton to transport food and troops. such as The river was important to the Alabama and Florida. They were full of workers. Union troops took the port Southern plantations of Vicksburg on the Mississippi River. while many Arkansas Tennessee Confederates had to provide their own uniforms. KEY This map shows the Union and “I wish that I owned Wisconsin Confederate states and which side won each battle of the Civil War. leader of the Confederate Iowa Army of Northern Virginia. had factories Battle—inconclusive and industries. Many soldiers died within a few months. The Southern states. Slaves lived and worked in dreadful conditions.” Chicago Border states (stayed in Union but allowed slavery) Robert E. “March to the Sea” route Missouri In the army Kentucky The Union Army was vastly superior to the Confederate Army. r e R iv p pi Alabama i Union general Confederate ss si and flag general and flag Atlanta is M Mississippi Confederate cavalry Vicksburg In July 1863. every slave in the South. Union troops were well clothed and fed. relied on Confederates. plantations. HUNDREDS OF . Lee. many just Blockade by Union arrived from Europe. Louisiana Coastal blockade Iron-clad Union ships blocked the coast to stop trade and supplies from coming in to Southern ports. Gulf of Mexico 112 WHILE MOST OF THE SOLDIERS WERE VOLUNTEERS. from injuries or illness. 1861 Indiana Battle—Confederate victory Industrial North Battle—Union victory Cities in the North.

New New York Hampshire Massachusetts Connecticut Rhode Island Pennsylvania Ohio Union infantry (foot soldier) y erse J New Antietam Gettysburg Mary De The largest battle of the war. was won by Maine long battle near Antietam the Confederates Vermont Creek in September 1862. on July 21. This led to civil war and many bloody battles between the Confederates and Union troops. was elected president in 1860. THOUSANDS MORE MEN WERE CONSCRIPTED——FORCED TO FIGHT. who was against slavery.C. in July Union cavalry land la w 1863. Virginia President Abraham Lincoln was shot in the Union capital by a supporter of the South on April 14. the Southern US depended Georgia on slaves.000 Confederates killed or injured. with Washington. 1861. Charleston The US 1865 March to the Sea In late 1864. Bull Run. It was the turning point of the war. 1865. fearing the North would try to change or id a their way of life. 1861. he died April 15.000 known as the First Battle of soldiers died in a day. D. was won by the Union. The war started here on April 12. 113 . effectively ending the war. Charleston Harbor 1865. all the states were united again and slavery was abolished. General (foot soldier) Robert E.C. The war ended in 1865 with Union victory. D. When Abraham Lincoln. CANADA Bull Run The modern world Antietam The first major battle of the war. Fl 11 southern states. broke away from the Union and formed the Confederacy. In the 1860s. while there was no slavery in the industrial North. Appomattox Washington. Union Civil War troops destroyed much Savannah of Georgia. ar West Virginia e 20. April 9. Lee surrendered at Appomattox Court House. when Confederate soldiers South Carolina fired on the Union forces based 1861– at Fort Sumter. as they marched to the seaport of Savannah. More than 22. North Carolina Appomattox Confederate infantry Following a short battle. just a few days after the war ended.

Below him were daimyo. Samurai march on Kyoto victory at Toba Fushimi meant Satsuma. each of whom ruled a domain. all the real power was in the States forced Japan’s shogun (military leader) to sign an unfair hands of the shogun in Edo. with the Choshu soldier shogun at the top. Domains join forces the anti-shogun alliance Satsuma was one of three southern domains Route of the (Satsuma. Japan Japan raced to catch up and overtake the West’s industry (East Sea) and technology. Satsuma declared that the new. young emperor (who had succeeded his father. Their decisive 6. certain neighbors. the Komei emperor) was restored to power. international trade agreement. In January 1868. or lords. This caused civil war in Japan. outsiders were forbidden 2. The daimyo paid samurai warriors to defend their land. Key battle because they saw he had weakened Japan. Domains in the Edo Period Choshu was one of many domains Tosa that made up Japan during the Edo standard bearer Period (1615–1868). which led to the emperor being restored to power in place Sea of of the shogun. The Komei from setting foot in Japan and Japanese people emperor lacks power The last emperor of the could not travel abroad. Choshu. and Tosa samurai that the shogun would marched to Kyoto. Battle of Toba Fushimi The anti-shogun alliance Kyushu fought the shogun's forces at Nagasaki several battles. That changed in 1854 when the United Although he was emperor. 114 IN THE MEIJI PERIOD (1868—1912). 1. In the Meiji Period that followed. He was KEY 5 called the Meiji emperor. and this event 1 Key city was called the Meiji Restoration. so that the country could 2 once again be proudly independent. Japan traded only with Edo Period lived in Kyoto.000 MILES . JAPAN LAID MORE THAN 7. 1853– 1912 Japan faces the future For more than 200 years. they soon lose power. Choshu Satsuma 1 soldier o ku 6 h ik Tosa S 7. Choshu. and Tosa) that formed anti-shogun alliance an alliance in 1867 to overthrow the shogun. Domains belonging to 5. Society was organized into strict classes.

In some countries. including the Machinery samurai class. overtake. his rule saw sweeping changes. Battle of Hakodate The last stronghold of the shogun's army was Hokkaido Hakodate. pottery. Black ships sail into Edo 3 Nagaoka In 1853.”) Edo by a military leader Meiji Period slogan called the shogun. and fans.000 KM) OF RAILROAD AND BUILT MORE THAN 1. “Oitsuke. The shogun rules During the Edo Period. In 1889. there was No rth also a craze for traditional Japanese products. Sendai 4. Kyoto Osaka Tokyo including Britain. Far from keeping Exports Japan traditional. US Commodore Matthew Aizu Perry sailed into Edo with four iron warships (called "Black Ships" in Japan). 115 . (11.500 STEAMSHIPS. Japan was ruled from (“Catch up. bristling with Utsunomiya JAPAN the latest guns. as some samurai had hoped. He forced the Edo shogun into a trade agreement (Tokyo) that benefitted the US and other Koshu 8 foreign powers. The Chemicals Fans class system. Japan raced to become an industrial nation. such Ceramics as silk. was abolished. Edo is renamed Tokyo 7 The new emperor visited Edo in 1868 and renamed the city Tokyo. Meiji industry KEY The Meiji emperor was only Manufacturing Industrial areas 15 years old when he was swept to power. oikose. before surrendering in 1869. exporting factory-made products to Yahata Silk and textiles the West. The modern world 9. Tokyo became Japan's capital.” 9 Hakodate 3. Katsunuma Honshu Kyoto 4 8. where it held out for six months against the anti-shogun forces.

1854–1900 European colonial How rail changed the world powers introduced railroads to Africa. highest railroad in the world Industry and employment for the next 100 years. The CP No. as materials were needed to build tracks. US President Abraham Lincoln. you will be the Railroads transported goods faster than roads or canals. LIMA. Lima. this was the farmers and improved diets. remembered man Military of your generation. but work and daily life. Iowa railroad’s first locomotive . and coal was needed to fuel the engines. 1868 was the Locomotion. not months. Often. Railroad. Global trade improved as goods traveled quickly to ports for export. Trade Pacific. 1885 This railroad helped to strengthen Canada against the powerful neighboring United States.Canadian Pacific Railway. designed by Sacramento. Standard railroad time Callao. and letters “By building the Union were delivered in days. 1825 NORTH Stockton/ AMERICA Stockton–Darlington Darlington Berlin Railway. 1870–1908 Built to cross the Andes Farming Mountains in Peru. which made rail vital to military success. Its first route the Union Pacific Railroad ran between Paris and Istanbul. Railroad time Lima AMERICA Time was slightly different in each town before the railroads. Africa. In addition to allowing convenient travel. 1869 This railway was finished Orient Express. 1883 when the Central Pacific This luxury passenger train ran between Railroad from California met Europe and the East. 1865 116 PERU’S CALLAO. No. linking Fresh produce could be carried great Pacific ports with the interior distances without spoiling. Railroads created jobs and boosted industry.1. to industrialist Oakes Ames. Postal Services Mail cars were added to trains. Railroad. 60 Jupiter Council Bluffs. Builders from each end had raced towards Railroads in AFRICA the middle in only 6 years. tracks ran in railroads helped develop many areas of from the coast. AND OROYA RAILROAD CROSSES THE ANDES . from Iowa.” Railroads transported soldiers and their equipment quickly during times of war. 1825 London Vancouver Montreal The world’s first public Paris steam railroad carried coal and passengers. California First Transcontinental British engineer George Stephenson. by connecting its east and Locomotion west provinces. did not join up to SOUTH create a network. and Oroya (the same everywhere) was established so that trains could run without colliding. which helped of the country.

22 Fairy Indian Railroads. 1872 The British built Japan’s first railroad. The world’s longest railroad.600 km) of flat. (Mumbai) Madras (Chennai) Trans-Australian Railway. provided jobs. this railroad was vital in uniting Western Australia with the rest of the country. measuring Trans-Siberian Express 5. dry land.259 km). Madras. 1875–99 1900–24 Moscow 1925–49 1950–74 EUROPE 1975–present No railroads Vladivostok Istanbul ASIA Key historic railroad route Beijing Tokyo–Yokohama Baghdad Cairo Railroads in Japan. and improved trade.1855 Built under British colonial rule. The lines shown Kalgoorlie AUSTRALASIA have still not all been completed. Within a few years. Soon. The modern world KEY The colors show the date of the first railroad line in each country. This (Kolkata) was part of a new era in which Japan Bombay embraced Western innovation. Port Augusta Cape Town 1825– 1917 The age of steam The opening of the first passenger steam railroad in Britain in 1825 revolutionized transportation. 1853 Queen. played a key role 1825–49 during World War I in transporting 1850–74 military supplies to the front line.806 FT (4. Calcutta between Tokyo and Yokohama.818 M). this network linked the key ports of Calcutta. 117 . MOUNTAINS AT AN ALTITUDE OF UP TO 15. and Bombay. They connected cities. rail had become the world’s most important means of transportation. people and goods would travel huge distances—even abroad— quickly and easily.000 miles (1. Golden Eagle. Railroads soon spread throughout Europe and North America. 1891–1916 still have no railroads. Lourenço Marques Cape-to-Cairo Railway. then across the world. Some nations Trans-Siberian Railroad. EIR No.753 miles (9. 1890s (Maputo) This network was planned by the Johannesburg British Empire as a link from the north Kimberley to the south of Africa. 1917 Spanning 1.

however. Africa was split which the Sun among seven European powers. local leaders. Orange Free State Now a part of South Africa. however.” comment on the Berlin Conference. the descendants of Dutch settlers). this region was controlled by Afrikaners (Boers. Ethiopia This is the only country in Africa never to have been colonized. or fiefdom. belonging to King Leopold of Belgium. BUT . which was to decide who was going to colonize Africa. The Scramble for Africa When Europeans entered Africa to help end the slave trade. This turned into a scramble for wealth and glory. revolutions for freed African- gained these countries American slaves. on Berlin Conference of 1884–1885 was organized to govern it. It did not claim any land. 1829 118 BY 1902. These treaties. giving them land if they flew their nation’s flag there and made treaties with A French political cartoon passes never sets. up African territory like a cake. Wilson). It shows the German Chancellor cutting Christopher North (pen name of writer John were mostly made by force. who revolted against British political rule. their independence. Congo Free State This was a private colony. describing the British Empire. so the dominions. Canada Austria-Hungary France gave up its Canadian The second-largest empire in Europe was territories to Britain in 1763. EUROPEANS CONTROLLED 90 PERCENT OF AFRICA. NORTH AMERICA The Caribbean Islands throughout the EUROPE region were shared among European empires. invited to the Berlin Conference. but in the AMERICA 1822 as a country early 1800s. they took the chance “His majesty’s to occupy territory. AFRICA Former colonies Spain and Portugal had Liberia colonized most of Central Americans created and South America 300 SOUTH this territory in years earlier.

The modern world Europe’s empires 1900 By 1900. or Raj. China The last dynasty of China—the Qing—ruled a huge empire including Mongolia and Tibet. India into eight provinces. divided time was for control Empire was in Asia. of Africa. the major powers in Europe had empires that stretched across the world. This map shows the extent of It is now the northern part the European empires in 1900. Siam was longest-running empires. more than 620 years. 119 . Japan. Ottoman Empire Siam One of the world’s Known today as Thailand. until 1922. The ASIA fiercest competition of the Russia India Three-quarters of the Russian British rule. Japan Japan’s empire building accelerated after 1900. (There were other imperial powers. It included each with its own governor. one of the few countries not to be this Islamic empire lasted colonized by a European power.) The European powers gained global importance and also wealth—by taking it from their colonies. and the US. with one. In 1900. MOROCCO. and the country annexed Korea in 1910. quarter in Europe. of Papua New Guinea. AND PARTS OF SOUTH AFRICA REMAINED FREE. around 200 small nations in addition to Russia. they Spain and Germany and Russian chose to become possessions possessions Empire a federation. Britain and France and possessions possessions AUSTRALASIA Netherlands and Portugal and Australia possessions possessions Australia was made up of six independent British colonies. which remained a part of the Italy and Denmark and Ottoman British Empire. including China. possessions possessions Empire ETHIOPIA. Kaiser-Wilhelmsland The farthest outpost of the German Empire was named KEY after the emperor Wilhelm II. too.

PEOPLE OPENED . By 1804. thus inventing the eraser. Factory. 1771 The first person he spoke to When Richard with his invention was his Arkwright opened assistant. Italian Bartolomeo Cristofori developed Pasteurization. 1895 making it suitable for home use. 1709 SOUTH covered 120 ft (36 m). 1876 Scotsman Alexander Graham Bell developed his telephone in Boston. 1846 in Cromford. Trevithick had built and run AMERICA Air conditioning. 1804 Invented by Briton Richard Trevithick. of Western music. 120 ALTHOUGH MODERN CANNED FOOD DATES BACK TO 1810. Frenchman Charles-Marie without affecting it became a mainstay de la Condamine came across rubber. US inventor Thomas Edison developed a type of bulb that Movies. and signals at a distance it played a moving picture for of 1. it allowed that liquid foods could musicians much Eraser. American Willis Carrier created the PE modern air-cooling machine. Watson.4 km). The material became famous back in Europe. surgery. England. 1903 American brothers Orville and Wilbur Wright developed the first powered airplane. American dentist he became the first William Morton was person to combine the first person to several stages of use anesthetic production under succesfully during one roof. body to encourage it to fight the disease smallpox. their food value. invented by French brothers Italian Guglielmo August and Louis Lumière. 1735 be heated to destroy greater control of the During an expedition harmful bacteria loudness of notes. which Vaccine. whose maiden flight lasted for 12 seconds and Piano. Steam locomotive. several minutes at a public screening in Paris. Marconi transmitted The device was a combined and received radio camera and film projector. Compared AMERICA Frenchman Louis to earlier keyboard Pasteur discovered instruments. 1879 development of vaccinations Although bulbs had already been for other diseases. Telephone. 1865 the piano. AFRICA Airplane.5 miles (2. and in 1770. the first locomotive NORTH ran on the road. 1796 EURO English scientist Edward Jenner controlled both injected a vaccine (weakened air temperature or killed germs) into a patient’s and humidity. Englishman Joseph Priestley discovered that it could rub out pencil marks. It led to the Lightbulb. locomotives designed 1902 for railroad tracks. his water-powered mill Anesthetic. The cinématographe was Radio. invented earlier. 1895 could safely glow for up to 50 hours. and to Ecuador.

THE CANS WITH KNIVES UNTIL THE CAN OPENER WAS INVENTED IN 1870! 121 . There were also major advances in the fields of transportation. with inventions that would eventually transform people’s lives throughout the world. 1847–1931 Electric train. Edison. This achievement was helped by many inventions made in Britain. North America. 1879 Werner von Siemens exhibited the first electric train in Berlin. The modern world The Industrial Revolution Between the late 1700s and 1850. Germany. 1657 jenny for spinning thread. science.” Thomas A. The Industrial Revolution in Britain saw the birth of the factory. imagination the Industrial Revolution. the tin Dutchman Christiaan Huygens built the first pendulum clock. US inventor. Modern 1500– 1900 Motor car. you locomotive. including the steam “To invent. which The modern period (1500–1900) was a had three wheels and was powered time of great development in Europe and by a small engine. 1886 German engineer Karl Benz inventions demonstrated the first car. This period is known as which vastly improved the accuracy of timekeeping. ASIA A colored engraving showing the inside of an English factory during the late 18th century. Britain transformed itself into the world’s first industrial power. and the subway. the spinning Pendulum clock. and medicine. the factory. as well as many machines for manufacturing. It gained a huge commercial and technological head start over the rest of the world. and a pile of junk. need a good can for preserving food. the Motorwagen. It carried 20–25 people and reached a speed of 4 mph (6 kph).


and Mike Fincke. reflected in the visor) make a space walk to repair the International Space Station in 2011. as people explored space for the first time in the 20th century. Here. 21st centuries The 20th and Into space The most recent chapter of Earth’s history hasn’t taken place entirely on our planet. shown. NASA astronauts (Greg Chamitoff. .

rallies African- fly faster than sound. after Japan attacks the following Victory in Europe American naval base at day in May. »pp126–27 1900 THE WRIGHT FLYER (1903) TITANIC DISASTER The first powered. RADIO ACROSS THE SOUTH POLE (1911) ATLANTIC (1901) Radio Norwegian explorer Roald pioneer Gugliemo Marconi Amundsen becomes the sends the first radio signals first person to reach the from England to Canada. GERMANY INVADES THE WORLD WAR II SOUTH KOREA (1945) US. Nations vote to partition Americans to demand »pp132–33 British-controlled Palestine. South Pole. killing more than »pp132–33 1. iceberg. highest mountain. CHINA POWER (2013) END OF THE COLD WAR EMAIL (1971) WALKING ON THE MOON China becomes the (1991) Aggression between Computer programmer (1969) US astronaut Neil largest trading nation the US and USSR finishes. government recognizes pages on the internet and calls it US. following a United King Jr. US. first person to walk on the US. »pp150–51 WORLD WIDE WEB (1991) ARPANET (1969) ABORIGINAL RIGHTS British scientist Tim Berners-Lee Computers are connected in a network for (1967) The Australian creates a system of interlinked the first time. Victory over Japan Day. Communism in the South. North Carolina. 124 IN 2008. »pp152–53 the Moon. »pp152–53 Australian citizens. on France declare war on Soviet-controlled North and to gain access to German. »pp142–43 course of the war. Soviet Ilyushin Il-2 “Shturmovik” Wright Flyer anti-tank aircraft Brothers Orville and Wilbur WAR IS OVER (1945) The US JOINS WORLD WAR II Wright’s plane had a wooden war ends in August with (1941) The US joins the war frame covered in muslin cloth. overtaking Communist government ends the first email. »pp152–53 version of the internet. »pp138–43 Mohandas Gandhi spinning cotton in defiance of British law SUPERSONIC FLIGHT (1947) THE STATE OF ISRAEL AMERICAN CIVIL RIGHTS The Bell X-1 rocket plane is (1948) The State of Israel is (1955–68) Martin Luther the first manned aircraft to declared. controlled (1912) The luxury cruise flight takes place at Kitty ship Titanic is sunk by an Hawk. and Canadian troops SOVIET UNION (USSR) (1941) (1939–45) England and Korea is divided into the land on French beaches The war’s largest invasion. »pp144–45 is abolished in 1994. 978 MILLION PEOPLE WATCHED THE BEIJING OLYMPICS’ . equal rights. and the country is law severely restricts the Sherpa Tensing Norgay are united in 1975 after the divided into Hindu-majority India and rights of black people. »pp140 Pearl Harbor. It conquer the world’s US lose the war to stop Muslim-majority Pakistan. INDIAN INDEPENDENCE (1947) APARTHEID (1948–94) MOUNT EVEREST (1953) VIETNAM WAR (1956–75) Gandhi inspires the end of British South African apartheid Sir Edmund Hillary and North and South Vietnam rule in India. the Eastern Front. »pp140–41 Poland. as Ray Tomlinson sends Armstrong becomes the in the world. held territory. in California. changes the Germany after it invades the US-occupied South. The network. is called ARPAnet and is an early Aboriginal People as full the World Wide Web.500 passengers and crew. »pp154–55 and the USSR splits up. »pp138–39 NORTH AND D-DAY (1944) British.

thanks to into West Germany. used by the British army Net connection mass production. »pp130–31 in dogfights. »pp144–45 World War I. from radio and but it doesn’t come. a revolution in telecommunications. »pp146–47 television to space exploration and computing. »pp132–33 rising disastrously. »pp128–29 British Whippet tank. war on Serbia. India. The white lines on the globe faster and cheaper to produce. thanks to improvements in transportation. sent by the Soviet Union (USSR). their ships. OPENING CEREMONY. »pp136–37 killing hundreds. RUSSIAN REVOLUTION IN THE AIR (1915) (1917–22) The Bolsheviks World War I sees the first (later known as Communists) air battles. »pp148–49 TO THE MOON (1959) Luna 2. World War I AMELIA EARHART (1937) THE GREAT DEPRESSION END OF THE WAR (1918) Aviation pioneer Amelia (1929–39) A global economic A temporary truce was Earhart disappears in the crisis is fueled by companies agreed to end World War I. wall to stop people from escaping from East Berlin and every part of the world is connected. of many forms of technology. but also THE BERLIN WALL (1961–89) Communist East made the world smaller: every continent has been German authorities build a explored. Technology had a major impact on wars. Airships drop take control of the Russian bombs and planes battle Empire. making cars Austro-Hungary declares during World War I. »pp134–35 signed in 1919. »pp128–29 »pp128–29 represent internet connections between cities. THE MOST WIDELY WATCHED TV BROADCAST EVER. »pp150–51 Beyond 1900 THE CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS (1962) The US asks the Soviet Union to remove its missiles from The 20th century saw the fast development Cuba. Pacific when trying to fly losing value and unemployment with a formal peace treaty around the world.000 protestors for Indian by German bombing of 1 year and 3 days to escape rights in Amritsar. the US joins Nationalist forces. »pp128–29 SPUTNIK IN SPACE (1957) The Soviet Union (USSR) launches Sputnik I—the first artificial satellite to orbit NASA’s Space Shuttle the Earth. The world waits for war. »pp128–29 CHINA’S LONG MARCH AMRITSAR MASSACRE AMERICA JOINS WORLD (1934–35) The rebel Chinese (1919) The British army fires WAR I (1917) Outraged Communist army marches for on 6. 125 . The 20th and 21st centuries PRODUCTION LINE (1913) WORLD WAR I (1914–18) TANK WARFARE (1916) The Ford motor company After the assassination of The first battle tanks are introduces assembly-line Archduke Franz Ferdinand. becomes the first spacecraft to land on the Moon.

in 1903–06.2°C). 6 e South Pole and he returned to the 2 Roald Amundsen was 191 Antarctic in 1911 “to reach n 14.” However. 34 days behind Northwest Passage (a sea the first to reach the South naval officer and a veteran route from the Atlantic Amundsen. No ° De v1 po ibe 6. e. Robert Falcon Scott was a Amundsen’s team became 1912. Well used to the the dogs t Amundsen’s team beat his Las polar conditions. and Scott and his team to the South climbed the Axel t his men died on their epo Pole and back in 99 days. The rest were killed for food. of No in De 5 Butc her cie started their climb of a glacier v1 ’s Gla 911 Scott’s team. 1 (which they called Axel Heiberg 1 1. died 7. 1912. Norwegian pole took them 56 days. already a celebrated 5. What followed was a race that captivated and shocked the world. return journey. Depo explorer. They Ma r De Teddy Evans. the South Pole was exploration’s To reach the South last great challenge. 1 911 Pole. and the least- known continent on the planet. explorers must climb over the thick Scott was determined to reach it. Amundsen Scott’s team reached the Robert Falcon Scott After discovering the reaches the pole South Pole on January 17. Heiberg Glacier. their return trip the same day. the highest.6°F (-89. Scott reaches the pole Roald Amundsen 6. he heard that Norwegian Roald Amundsen also had his eye on the prize. he led Of the 45 dogs that to the pole. Antarctica is also the most remote. By the early 20th century. 85 rg 911 AMUNDSEN LEFT NO MARGIN FOR ERROR: THE FOOD SUPPLIES IN HIS Glacier) to the Polar Plateau. e Amundsen’s team crossed the 191 pot 1 pot f. the the South Pole windiest. 1 pot 91 4 Nov Shop 2 per 21. 1 Depot Up Dec on February 7. Ocean to the Pacific) 1911. 19 ec3 D Plateau (Antarctic Ice Sheet) Dev il’s G 4. But as he and his team ice sheet that covers the continent made their way to the Antarctic in 1910. 126 1911– Antarctica 1912 The race to The coldest place on Earth. and British explorer Robert Falcon Pole. First casualty Great Ice Barrier in 28 days. Butchering t Ja the South Pole. 18 made the final Las t Jan Dec Depot assault on the South 8. 1 t 91 l He r 1 A xeG l a c i e . The journey to the Expedition to Antarctica. pot 1 Po l a r De 1 3° 1. with a lowest- ever temperature of -128. They set off on of the 1901–04 Discovery Pole on December 14. Climbing the glacier Nov lacier D 29. only ½° D 1912 1 10.

The decision had B ay of fatal consequences. r De Barrie 1 1 2. 1911. to . 1 D d Final camp d. Their base was On January 4. McMurdo Sound.s1911 1 a Order of events 9 No ° Dep v9 base of the Beardmore Glacier Dec . 19 ot 11 on 9 December 1911. t g each side of the depots epo rrier D 1912. Titus Oates. c a on October 21. Scott No ° De lacier D 1 1 Site of depot (Scott) v1 p -G and his team 3. 1 Oc ° De p N t2 3. S 1.” Mid v 26. to find and On March 17. Scott’s vessel Terra Nova arrives on the icy shore of the Bay of Whales. 1 ot 91 Alfred Lord Tennyson. Base of the climb p Cam 83 Scott’s team reached the Shamble. as a memorial to Scott and his fallen men ot h i.7 km) from One Before leaving on his journey i Ton Depot. Scott decided 1911 to Framheim. 1 No of Scott’s team. 1911. 1 ot Mid c 17. of its intended location at 80° South. with four sleds and 52 dogs. Departure for the pole ty Cape c. Departure for the pole Safe m p Evans Amundsen’s team left Framheim for the South Pole Scott’s main party left Cape Ca DEPOTS WERE AS MUCH AS 10 TIMES BIGGER THAN SCOTT’S SUPPLIES. Second He placed a line of 10 black casualty flags ½ mile (800 m) apart on seek.5 km) short Bluf 1 3 7 pole and back had taken 10 fewer p ot D e days than scheduled. 19 D Before setting off for the pole. Amundsen’s boat Fram arrives M u The Norwegians set up camp (which they called Framheim) a. Low ec 10. Detailed preparation th Sou ec 1. Preparing the ground (17. 1 cross on Observation Hill. because of 15 Nov Amundsen and his team returned bad weather. KEY Tr ans-Antarctic g. The journey to the to lay One Ton Depot f Framheim 37 miles (59. Whales er Corn p Cam 3. at Cape Evans on McMurdo Sound. 19 91 De reached Mid- 1 t Place where a member epo Barrier Depot lacier D of the team died er G 911 in March. November. Their to the pole. to ensure he could -Ba 911 81 not to yield. Evans for the South Pole on November 1. 11 h. 1 ot for the final time on 91 1 Great Ice Barrier March 19—11 miles (Ross Ice Shelf) b. Scott and his frozen bodies were Ton b found the following team laid depots along their One t o e D p . Surviving the storms er e After struggling through some Amundsen’s route ci or Mountains f of the most severe weather a a Scott’s route G l rd m Be conditions ever recorded in the Antarctic on their Site of depot (Amundsen) t 84 epo return journey. 127 . 19 ot them carefully along the route. It had taken them 39 days to cross pot the Great Ice Barrier. 1911. inscription on the camp and died alone. Amundsen laid food 82 depots (stores). positioning No ° Dep 2 v4 “To strive. Triumphant return route. the team set up camp rd The 20th and 21st centuries Mc ound o 60 miles (97 km) closer to the South Pole than Scott’s. Final camp Dep Scott. However. Bowers. find them even in Oc ° De walked away from t3 p the most extreme 1. 7. and arrier 1 80 er B 91 Wilson made camp Upp ov 21. conditions.

Hundreds of people died. a weapon for the first time. German An unofficial cease fire airships attacked on Christmas Day 1914 London and other allowed troops from the Loos. 1917 1917 om no-man’s-land. would not end officially Verdun. and fighting came to an end Loir e Rive r this dreadful. A successful Allied offensive at Amiens in Battle of the Somme 1916 More than 1 million August 1918 started the “Hundred Days” of KEY victories that pushed Germany out of France. 1917 Zeppelin Lys. 1915 by German forces against Passchendaele. Both sides dug In 1918. Some Ri Cambrai. Gas attack In 1915. Germany had wanted to go there—he would to give up territory and be too likely to be killed. 1917 the Germans’ 20. Drowning in mud Heavy rains made the mud on the Passchendaele battlefield so deep that injured soldiers drowned in it. r British In the trenches e Rive Whippet tank Ois Living in a trench gave soldiers S eine River River Marne some protection from gunfire. as British hospital ship two sides to meet. soldiers were killed This map shows the Western 1918 or wounded in this Front of World War I. 1917 Messines. or U-boats) attacked merchant London ships. This finally prompted the US to join the war. the French capital trenches on their side of the front Treaty of Versailles was shelled by a newly NC E line. pay the victors for the losses and damage caused by the war. well as Paris. 1918 air raids Soccer at Christmas From 1915. called “no-man’s-land. Paris Thierry. me The “Hundred Days” Somme. and even passenger and hospital ships belonging to Britain and the US. and infested with Paris attacked rats and lice. 128 AROUND 60 MILLION TROOPS FOUGHT IN WORLD WAR I: 8 MILLION . and the greatest number of them— National border Compiègne Chemin des thousands against Town Dames. ve even played soccer in rS Arras. French soldier. The Allies Major battle had the first tanks. The space between the A peace treaty was invented German long-range F R A trenches was unclaimed and was finally signed here in gun. The war Albert Joubaire.” No soldier June 1919. 1916. waterlogged. Amiens.” at the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month of 1918. in April 1917. French soldiers at Ypres. battleships. Tank warfare four-month-long battle. The end of the war An armistice (truce) “Hell cannot be was signed in a railroad car at Compiègne. until the peace treaty was signed in 1919. gas was used as Ypres. 1915 British towns. but Versailles Chateau trenches were muddy. 1918 disease-ridden. U-boats UNITED KINGDOM German submarines (undersea boats. The first tanks were invented to push beyond The 1914–1916 front line the trenches over rough terrain.

Empire (Turkey). Allied breakthrough skilled pilots tried to shoot enemy planes A massive offensive by the US down while dodging incoming fire. two rival E L GIU the Germans in B 1914.000 soldiers dead. planes. Along with German offensive and turned the tide Russia. 129 . along with Austria- much from this position Hungary and the Ottoman between 1914 and 1916. stopped Australian. The front line Germany was one of the leading The border between the St Mihiel. In air battles known as dogfights. I British Sopwith Camel Dogfights Fighter planes were first used during this war. known as the “Triple Entente. in September 1914. Over time. 1914 Liège.” WERE KILLED AND ANOTHER 22 MILLION WERE SERIOUSLY WOUNDED. The 20th and 21st centuries NET H E RLA ND S 1914– 1918 World War I In July 1914. in July 1918. in the first European military alliances (groups of battle of the war. 1916 German troops Marne. Austria- Hungary declared war on Antwerp. 1918 nations of the Central two sides did not move Powers. The first. 1914 were fought across the world. such as Canadian. Battle of Verdun The fierce battle in 1916 for this fortified French town lasted 10 months and left more than 300. New weapons such as machine guns. 1914. and Indian) fought the German advance on Paris. German troops made advances 1918 into France and Belgium in 1914. countries). army in 1918 broke through RG U the German defensive line. troops. Battles Meuse River Mons. 1918 Verdun. 1914 S cheldt River Serbia. including the US. more nations joined in. This triggered a The first battle The Belgian city wider war between the Central Powers M of Liège fell to and the Triple Entente. Allied troops French and British troops Battles of the Marne (including Commonwealth Two major battles were fought here. 1914 most crucial fighting was in western Europe. but the Charleroi. Fokker Dr. The on the Allied side of the second. these powers were in the Allies’ favor. LUXEMBO AN Y Ri ver E R M G Moselle Argonne. and tanks made this one German of the bloodiest wars in history. stopped another Western Front.

Marx thought that the working class was eventually bound to revolt and create a classless. Petersburg) ESTONIA Pskov 5 5. The upper (give up his power). stepped down. POLAND Smolensk 9 Brest-Litovsk Mogilev Gomel SWITZERLAND 9. Protests and demonstrations exile. but this was not enough. soldiers were ordered to stop protesters from demonstrating against the czar. called soviets. and life for the working people of Russia was brutal. sprang up all over the country. The Russian military rebel In March 1917. World War I Kishinev Yekaterinoslav Odessa Nikolayev Fighting on the Eastern Front during World War I claimed millions Soldiers of the Russian Empire trudging home of lives and was a major source of from the Eastern Front the Russian people’s discontent. 130 THE SOVIET UNION WAS THE WORLD’S LARGEST COUNTRY AND REMAINED . FINLAND and exploited the working class. but they swapped sides and joined the revolution. SWEDEN Petrograd Reval 4 6 (Tallinn) (Leningrad / 3 7 2 8 LATVIA St. political activist Vladimir GERMANY As the war continued. after years in 2. What is Communism? Lenin studied the ideas of German 4. to Petrograd with the goal demanding change and bringing Vitebsk of overthrowing Russia’s Minsk the city’s industry to a halt. The czar. Marx described against the czar. These and the Bolshevik party organized a people’s revolution that led to the establishment of the world’s first Communist state. Peace treaty In March 1918. provisional government. leaving a provisional classes owned the farms and factories (temporary) government in charge. he was forced to abdicate history as a class struggle. Lenin returns LITHUANIA In April 1917. Sevastopol Novorossiysk 1917– 1922 The Russian Revolution World War I caused food shortages. who once ruled with absolute power. the Bolsheviks signed a treaty to bring Russia IT out of World War I. Karl Marx 3. AL UKRAINE Y 1 1. “Communist” society in which everything was jointly owned. Czar Nicholas II abdicates As more workers and soldiers rebelled thinker Karl Marx. thousands of Lenin returned from Switzerland workers demonstrated in Petrograd. Workers’ councils.

This included 1917. Border of Soviet Union. Ongoing conflict Eastern Front of World War I. They controlled the large area shown Movement of Lenin here in 1919. Soviet Union control of Petrograd’s telegraph systems. but kept control of Russia’s heartland. and other areas. not assume power now. Archangel 10. Later on October 25. the Georgia. 131 . Latvia. Exile and execution After his abdication. the triumphant The symbol on the Soviet Union’s flag Bolsheviks united most was a hammer. the czar and his family were placed under house arrest in a remote Petrozavodsk retreat near Yekaterinburg. September 12–14. crossed with a sickle. Lenin and the Bolsheviks Tver Yaroslavl set up a Communist government. in a letter to Bolshevik leaders in Petrograd and Moscow. Area under Bolshevik control by 1919 By 1919 the Bolsheviks had retreated. although they lost Finland. Despite their ideals. bridges. creating the Soviet On October 25. Belarus. 1918 Having seized power in Petrograd. KEY Bolsheviks seized as well as Russia itself. under Lenin’s Ukraine. power in Petrograd rule. The 20th and 21st centuries Soviet Union In 1922. 1917 UNDER COMMUNIST PARTY CONTROL UNTIL 1991. met with immediate resistance to their leadership. standing for industrial of the former Russian workers. The star stood for the Communist Party. Storming of the Winter Palace by their Bolshevik captors in July 1918.” 1 Key event Vladimir Lenin. 1917 The Bolsheviks. and railroad stations. and Lithuania. Vologda 10 Kostroma 8. Poland. Communist government After taking power. Kaluga Nizhny Novgorod BOLSHEVIK RUSSIA Mogilev Kazan Izhevsk Tambov Czar Nicholas II and family Orel Penza Kharkov Ufa Yekaterinburg Samara (Sverdlovsk) Saratov Novocherkassk Tsaritsyn Orenburg Rostov-on-Don (Stalingrad / Volgograd) KEY Border of Russian Empire. WHEN IT SPLIT APART. they soon established Vyatka Moscow Ivanovo a ruthless dictatorship. command. They were shot 7. the Bolsheviks fought for control in other areas. standing 6. the Bolsheviks had Russia under “History will not forgive us if we do Communist rule. renamed the Communists in Movement of Czar Nicholas II 1918. 1922 By 1922. but civil war raged until 1922. Bolsheviks take Empire under Communist for farm laborers. Estonia. 1914 11. Union. armed Bolsheviks entered the Winter Palace and arrested Novgorod leaders of the provisional government. Towns under Bolshevik control.

flying was the hobby of a few adventurous balloonists. 1986 launched the world’s British Airways Concorde from The arrows on this map show Dick Rutan and Jeana first passenger London to Bahrain. planes were being used both as vehicles taking paying passengers and Newfoundland–Ireland. 1976 Tampa Bay. 1936 First nonstop flight The zeppelin LZ-127 Hindenburg around the world began to take passengers on scheduled flights across the Atlantic. Vimy across the Atlantic in 16 hours. 1947 The Bell X-1 rocket plane. 1903 London. nonstop flight milestones. Frankfurt–Rio de Janeiro. North Carolina. airplane. California. John’s Edwards Air Force Base California. An Air France Concorde made one Florida. 1942 receiving a £10. 1914 of the world’s first two supersonic Round the world The St. the Wright brothers made the first controlled.225 km) on a test flight. California. New York– highest jet aircraft.000 ($45. 3 minutes. Paris–Rio de Janeiro. 132 THE FIRST AIRLINE WAS FOUNDED IN 1909 AND FLEW ZEPPELINS . 1970 The Wright brothers made The Boeing 747 the first-ever controlled heralded the age of flight in a powered wide-bodied airliners. Connecticut–Ohio. the king of England.000) prize The first mass-produced from the UK’s Daily Mail newspaper helicopter. the Sikorsky R-4. 1903– 2013 The story of flight Until the 20th century. flew and knighthoods from 761 miles (1. powered flight in an airplane. Petersburg– scheduled passenger flights. 1919 Alcock and Brown flew a Vickers as weapons of war. First nonstop flight nonstop around the across the Atlantic world. The flight took First nonstop flight 9 days. Within a few years. however. The (California– Tampa Airboat Line. became the first manned aircraft to travel faster than sound in level flight. piloted by Chuck Yeager. which carry hundreds of passengers each. Yeager flew the Rutan service to use Model 76 Voyager winged aircraft. across the Pacific and 44 seconds. was by a KEY California). In 1903. Clifden Wenatchee St. 2013 SpaceShipTwo—the world’s first commercial passenger spacecraft—made its first powered test flight. other. 1976 The SR-71A Blackbird became the fastest and Kitty Hawk. on the same day.

The 20th and 21st centuries Southeast Yorkshire. their round-the- world flight. Miss Veedol. 1896 Otto Lilienthal launched himself from his own man-made hill in a series of homemade hang-gliders. Lake Constance. London– Johannesburg. Mediterranean. Sabishiro Moscow. AND BADEN-BADEN. Germany. 1975 Round the world successful helicopter with The supersonic Tupolev Tu-144 (Switzerland–Egypt).” Wilbur Wright.. and freight to Alma-Ata (now Breitling Orbiter 3 was the Almaty) in Kazakhstan. 1952 The de Havilland the air on great Comet became the first jet airliner to fly with passengers. flying aircraft to fly. 1942 Germany. 1900 The first production LZ-1 launched the era of helicopter. GERMANY. 1940 George Cayley developed a The Battle of Britain manned glider that flew across was the first major the valley in front of his home. 133 . “There is no sport equal to . was filled with hydrogen or helium. Somewhere in the Pacific. 1939 the Marquis d’Arlandes The experimental Heinkel He 178 became the world’s was the first jet-engine-powered first pilots. 2007 and her navigator The Airbus 380—the heaviest-ever disappeared on airliner—made its first passenger flight. 2001 The unmanned aircraft being carried through Global Hawk flew unaided across the Pacific. 1932 Beach The TsAGI-1EA—the first Moscow–Almaty. England. deployed in World War II. Japan–US. campaign fought entirely by air forces. DUSSELDORF. Paris. 1783 Pilâtre de Rozier and Rostock. the Montgolfier hot-air balloon. a single rotor for creating went into service. Germany. 1853 England.. white wings. flying mail 1999 lift—took off. Lichterfelde. first balloon to fly around the world without landing. 1905 ¨ BETWEEN FRANKFURT. California–Australia. 1937 Pioneering female pilot Amelia Earhart Sydney–Singapore. 1931 Clyde Pangborn and Hugh Herndon crossed the Pacific in 41 hours in their Bellanca Skyrocket. the Flettner zeppelins—rigid airships Fl 282 Kolibri.

speaking during the Great Depression in 1932 134 BEFORE THE START OF THE GREAT DEPRESSION. believing peasants displaced by there was an ever-growing market European settlers. “I see nothing to give CHILE ground to hope— nothing of man. An American family left homeless by the Depression 1923–29. and companies out free food. 1937 profits. 1930 Paris as people T STA ERICA Businesses across tried to bring down AM the US laid off workers. many Chile. producers found they could were handing price of coffee to fall. RI Migration to California. job losses and poverty. This led to burn some of it to increase Santiago its scarcity and its value.” Calvin Coolidge.” people in the US bought stocks and Out-of-work tin shares in those businesses. But eventually the expansion kitchens. 1937 BR factories. U N I ES OF Detroit. the economy of the L ZI A world expanded greatly. Meanwhile. Algeria. GE in Detroit. 1930 An ongoing drought led to severe dust storms that spread across Britain. northeast England. and other businesses A famine affected landless produced more and more. This not sell their goods.000 . One of the largest Dust Detroit “Hoovervilles” (see France. How did it happen? During the 1920s. 1929 UK NORTH The value of shares on the AMERICA Wall Street stock market fell GERM rapidly. THERE WERE 25. Great Plains. 1936 North America’s Great Plains. 1934 TED Bowl New York Riots erupted in key) sprang up near SPAIN the port of Seattle. forced the government to started going bankrupt. as farmers. 1930 “Year of Great Hunger. 1932 the Great Depression.” which AMERICA The Depression caused the slowed. hoping miners lined up that they would earn a share of the outside “soup SOUTH Brazil. combat poverty and the army and landowners. New York. US president. who wanted to keep things as they were. marking the start of Seattle FRANCE Seattle. 1936–39 War broke out between a from the Dust Bowl to find government that wanted to work in California. against poverty and The affected area was known unemployment in as the Dust Bowl. 1937 is still remembered as the for their goods. what they believed including those in the was a corrupt AL automobile industry government. People marched ruining the livelihood of farmers. 1932 A Thousands of farmers migrated Spain.

ABOUT 11. people voted ANY the Nazis in because they promised to create more jobs. industry saved the South African City economy after Country affected by the Great Depression the value of farm Most of the world suffered from the produce fell Depression. 1933 millions of people died in a terrible Joblessness among the famine in 1932–33. 135 . The 20th and 21st centuries USSR. expanding its industry despite the Depression. 1931 a salt tax in India to Japan tackled the boost its own weakened Depression by creating economy. hunger. to lose their homes. Banks lost money. Area damaged by Dust Bowl Major Hooverville AUSTRALASIA Temporary settlements made of tents and shacks built by homeless people. BY 1933. AFRICA Australia. and then the rest of the world. ASIA India.000 HAD FAILED. factories closed. they were mockingly named after US president Herbert AUSTRALIA Hoover. it became a against the tax. Although the party SOVIET UN had racist views. Police beat weapons factories. the stock market in the United States crashed. and trade collapsed across America. and it lasted for almost a decade. BANKS IN THE UNITED STATES. who was criticized for failing to tackle SOUTH the poverty created by the Great Depression. The Depression led to poverty. unfolding in these countries. In 1929. but Germany. 1932 IND The Depression caused IA many Australian people South Africa. JA mighty military power. German people helped the Nazi party rise to SSR) I O N (U power. and mass unemployment. 1930s The USSR built lots of factories. but it led to major events rapidly. 1930 EUROPE The British introduced Japan. KEY such as Sydney. AFRICA Sydney 1929– 1939 The Great Depression The Great Depression was the biggest economic crisis in history. They 1930s built crude shelters on The gold mining the outskirts of cities. As AN protestors who marched P a result.

Crossing the Yangtze The First Red Army secretly crossed the Yangtze River 40. Battle of Lazikou Pass Wuqi In September 1935. THE FIRST RED ARMY OF THE COMMUNIST . 9 After a disagreement. ow R i v e r Controlled by a local warlord. Thousands died in the process. near Yan’an. who who were guarding a mountain pass.000 men 7. the Fourth Red 9. Yunnan The ploy boosted the army’s morale. 4. 11.000 made it across. The First Red Army after 1 year and 3 days. Mao split the army and sent smaller units south to confuse Nationalist forces. 1935. Battle of Luding Bridge On May 30.000 men Chinese Communist Party (CCP) base CCP base destroyed by Nationalist forces 10. ending the Long March in October 1935. The armies meet taking a different route. led Wei River by the heads of the CCP. but Zhang challenged 10 Mao’s leadership and insisted on 8. Zunyi Conference 6 In January 1935. Crossing the Luding Da du gained the army’s mountain passes Ri ve support after a speech The army marched r and took a leading role through mountainous in directing the march.000 men the Luding Bridge over the Dadu River. Gansu The Fourth Red Army An army of 100. the First 11 Yan’an Major battle during march Red Army engaged in its final 6. er 3 v Ri ze gt Zunyi n Ya 6. It briefly met Mao’s Pass Shaanxi First Red Army. 136 DURING THE LONG MARCH. including Mao.000 men and avoided a major battle. Nationalist forces tried and failed to stop the First Red Army crossing 20.000 men Yell Blockade battle with Nationalist forces. Crossing the wetlands Army traveled west and was The army had to cross then virtually destroyed by 250 miles (400 km) of Nationalist forces. r ve 8 Ri Lianghekou e tz 7 ng Ya Sichuan 3. 5 4 Guizhou 5.000 men who entered the marsh. The main group of Communist troops. wetlands. only 10. In July 1935. The march finally ends agreed to let the First Red Army pass. terrain.000 men Zhang Guotao.000 troops led by Lazikou 6. Mao 7. the First Red Army met the Fourth Red Army in Lianghekou. Of the 10. KEY Ningxia Suiyuan 4. The First Red Army reached 8 Key event during march Wuqi. Outsmarting the enemy In April 1935.

Breakout In October 1934. From their new base at er Jiangxi Yan’an. ng BASE AREA Xia Nationalist soldiers. led by Mao.000. “The Red Army fears not the trials of Ha nR ive Hubei the Long March. from where they eventually took over China. the Communist force. 137 . Hunan 1 1. lost more than half of its force fighting CENTRAL in strength. Mao Zedong. More marching units arrived in 1936. 18 MOUNTAIN RANGES. China was ruled by a Nationalist government that wanted to crush the rebel Chinese Communist Party.000 Communist troops 2 broke through Nationalist lines and began the Long March.000 men. The 20th and 21st centuries 1934– 1935 China’s Long March In the 1930s.000 men Guangxi Mao Zedong PARTY CROSSED 11 PROVINCES. To escape destruction. Pearl River 86. eventually beat the Nationalists in the struggle to rule China. Battle of Xiang River number of troops rose to about 130. and the total 2. named the 30.000 miles (10. The Long March poem.” r Ya n gt ze Mao Zedong. which numbered 7. about 6.000 km) across some of the harshest territory in China. Mao’s troops joined a Communist army that was already there. and.000 men In December 1934. 1935 Ri ve r After the march At Wuqi. AND 24 RIVERS. the Communists grew Riv First Red Army. the First Red Army of the Communist Party marched 6.000 Communist soldiers made it to their new base in Yan’an. Guided by their future leader. about 86.

Flash invasion Battle of Stalingrad Hitler invaded and conquered German expansion into eastern Europe most of western Europe. As more countries joined in. including was halted in January 1943. China in the war China had been partly invaded AUST by Japan before the war. Britain and France declared war. the Allies fought with tanks. MANY CHILDREN HAD TO LEAVE THEIR HOMES——AS . the people to wear a yellow star badge. was in 1940. when France. the world was divided into Axis powers. and others through the Holocaust (Hitler’s killing of certain groups. but the unoccupied part of the country joined the Allies. German cities. 138 DURING THE WAR. and the Soviet Union. Jews and other victims were killed bombing in extermination camps. 1939– 1945 World War II Battle of Darwin The biggest attack on Australia was a Japanese air-strike of 242 planes over Darwin. By the time war ended in 1945. in February 1942. Battle of Britain Allied Nazi persecution British planes fought German bombing raids The German Nazi party forced Jewish aircraft above Britain in 1940. When Germany’s dictator. they fought ferocious battles (see pp140–41). especially Jews). Fighting in the desert Battle of Anzio As the war spread to North Africa After Italy’s leader. Italy. and the Allies. From preventing a German invasion. Axis and Allied forces removed from office in 1943. led by Britain. In 1944. Allied troops landed in Normandy to free Europe from German control (see pp142–43). in three months in 1940. led by Germany. the US. More civilians died here than in any other country. millions of people had suffered and died. planes. P E RO ASIA EU Battle of the Atlantic German submarines sank thousands of ships carrying supplies to The Eastern Front Britain. and Japan. mainly in Poland. until the Allies Germany and the Soviet Union stopped them in 1943. and fought German troops for control mines in the desert heat. Adolf Hitler. Allies started 1942. some from bombing raids at home. their troops surrendered Stalingrad D-Day (see p141). AFRICA pushed the border back and using better radar and forth in eastern Europe as antisubmarine ships. of the country during 1944. some while fighting. invaded Poland in 1939. Mussolini. From 1942. bombers targeted British towns with nighttime air raids. The Blitz German For 37 weeks in 1940–41.

that was once an extermination camp. In a final outrage. Pearl Harbor A Japanese surprise attack in 1941 destroyed this US navy base in Hawaii. Allied forces tried to stop Japanese expansion in the Pacific. but Brazil declared rather than between ships. Hitler ordered the Final Solution—the murder of Allied nation all Jews. and members of Neutral country other groups were killed in a horrific campaign now known Artificial limbs of Holocaust victims. In countries under Nazi occupation. prompting the US to join the war. were inferior to the German people. Axis-controlled country In 1942. 1945 EVACUEES ESCAPING BOMBS OR REFUGEES FLEEING ENEMY OCCUPATION. neutral. Hiroshima and Nagasaki Battle of Midway NORTH An Allied victory in In August 1945. what Benito Mussolini Hirohito Emperor Adolf Hitler Führer (dictator) Head of of Japan of Germany and have we done?” government of Italy leader of the Nazi (National Socialist) party Robert Lewis. such as Jews. where 11 million Allied-controlled country Jews. Jewish people Axis nation were herded into tightly packed city districts called ghettos. Churchill Dictator of the Roosevelt Prime Soviet Union President of Minister of (USSR) the United Great Britain States of America Leaders of the Axis nations “My God. at the Adolf Hitler convinced many of his Nazi supporters that height of Axis power. The 20th and 21st centuries KEY The Holocaust This map shows the world divided in mid-1942. expansion. Battles were fought at sea and on the many small SOUTH islands. The war continued here for almost AMERICA three months after it ended in Europe. US bombers this 1942 sea battle AMERICA dropped two atomic bombs on these Japanese cities. Japan ended Japanese surrendered a week later. Leaders of the Allied nations Winston Joseph Stalin Franklin D. copilot of Enola Gay. disabled people. Major battle or fighting as the Holocaust. War in the Pacific From 1941. Roma (Gypsies). war on the Axis countries in RALASIA 1942. camp workers collected preserved as a memorial in a museum Eastern Front the personal possessions of the victims for recycling. this was the first Brazil enters the war sea battle ever fought between Most of South America stayed planes from aircraft carriers. He set up extermination camps. 139 . other peoples. the plane that dropped the atomic bomb on Hiroshima. Battle of the Coral Sea Fought in 1942. after its ships were sunk.

Not one from September 1941. In June–December 1941. the end of the war. two-thirds of its total numbers. 1941– 1943 The Eastern Front In 1941. 1945 Focke-Wulf Fw 190 German German leader Adolph fighters Junkers Ju 88 bomber Hitler didn’t spend much time in the German capital city Battle of Kiev. 1941–44 on May 8. Petersburg) End of the war in Europe “The time for Victory in Europe (VE) Day. it became a brutal battleground with many killed on both sides. he made his four Soviet Red Army groups in headquarters here Kiev.500 TANKS LINED THE 1. 1945. As Soviet counterattacks pushed the front line west again. was celebrated retreating is Siege of Leningrad. The loss of many The Soviet city was under siege for 900 days Axis troops on the Eastern Front over. 1941 during the war. step back!” Soviet leader Joseph Stalin. 1942 German Minsk Panzer III tanks GERMANY Berlin Warsaw German Berlin bunker. By Christmas. The Red Army lost nearly in a bunker. part of Order Number 227 issued to the Soviet armed forces. 140 FOUR MILLION AXIS TROOPS AND 3. Leningrad (St. as German forces were eventually pushed back to Berlin in 1945. the German army and its allies advanced steadily eastward. contributed to Hitler’s suicide and the German surrender. but In September 1941 German Kiev from January MAY 1941 troops trapped and slaughtered 1945. Hitler launched Operation Barbarossa—a surprise attack on the Soviet Union.000 people had starved to death. German defeat at Stalingrad in 1943 was the beginning of the end of World War II in Europe. July 28.800-MILE . 52.

After a Soviet counterattack. from the Kursk first German capture of the city in Siege of Stalingrad. the Germans surrendered Stalingrad. made advances and the Soviets made Germany withdrew in December and counterattacks. launching 1. 1941 Soviet Ilyushin Stalin. In November additional Soviet troops outside DECEMBER the city launched a massive attack.000 air strikes a day. Major battle Key town German advances in June–December 1941 These pushed the front east Soviet T-34 Soviet counterattack in tanks December 1941–May 1942 Moscow Soviet Lavochkin La-5 fighter This pushed back the front in the north k lens Smo SOVIET German advances in 1942 These pushed the front farther UNION east in the southern part Battle of Kursk . but the German This map shows the changing position advance was hampered by savage of the Eastern Front. 1943 German/Axis border. weeks of fighting. Rostov German Junkers Ju 88 bomber NOVEMBER 1942 German Panzer IV tanks Sevastopol Sevastopol bombardment. (2. The city was evacuated after 24 days of fighting. May 1941 The largest tank battle of the war took place here in July 1943. including a “Stuka” dive-bombers by the Red Army of the Soviet Union two-day aerial bombardment and in August 1943. leader of the Soviet Union. December 1941 It resulted in another German German defeat after Stalingrad. This key explains the Moscow was saved. Panzer III tank Eastern Front. the Germans bombarded this city. as Axis troops weather. for the Germans to break into Stalingrad. (Volgograd) At the end of January 1943. 1942. 1941–43 This city saw four battles. November 1942 Battles in Kharkov. Il-2 “Shturmovik” declared Moscow to be under siege KEY antitank aircraft in October 1941.900-KM) EASTERN FRONT——THE LONGEST IN ANY WAR. from August to Kharkov October 1942. 1942–43 German Junkers Ju 87 October 1941 to the final liberation It took four attacks. 1942 From June 2. 141 . The 20th and 21st centuries Battle of Moscow .000 German troops in the Stalingrad city were trapped and under siege. advances in the order they happened. 1941 The 330. Eastern Front.

ships provided warships. and gunfire support before and during the landings. US. Eisenhower. they had secured five beaches and were on their way to victory. and Troops arriving by sea US Canadian troops) by US paratroopers evening of June 6 US troops Soldiers were parachuted in before dawn to attack Area liberated by Allies British and by June 12 Canadian troops the Germans from behind their coastal defenses.000 landing craft. on Lightning fighters LCM Landing Craft and that’s the way German gun emplacements Coast guard it’s going to be. Yet by the evening. A “This operation is ntry canvas “skirt” helped them stay afloat to Divisi planned as a victory. ivision Airborne D US 82nd D o u v re River Douglas C-47 KEY transports isi on Div Town rne bo Areas liberated by Allies Troops arriving by air st Air 101 (British.750 flights during D-Day. 600 In addition to transporting the troops. France. 156. CANADIANS . General Dwight D. US P-38 reach the shore. soldiers were drowned. and was the start of Operation Overlord—the plan to free mainland Europe from German occupation.” (bunkers) lined the coast at Normandy. Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces in Europe. 4. It was codenamed D-Day. such as -É US infantry gli se the Douglas C-47. The Allies suffered huge losses. 1944 UTAH Ch Sa Support from the air er bo int e- Around 1. dropped paratroopers.900 planes and gliders made ur Mè g re 10. Some landing craft English sank. 142 US TROOPS LANDED AT BEACHES CODENAMED UTAH AND OMAHA. 1944 D-Day Warships At dawn on June 6.000 Allied troops launched a They also worked as surprise attack on the coast of Normandy. Floating tank US 4th Sherman tanks were Infa launched at sea. 1944. Many. floating hospitals. while others were fighter or bomber planes. and they Channel were under German artillery fire all the time.

Div h3 isio rd Inf an n try Div Ca isi na on dia n3 rd Inf an try Higgins Boats Di Br vis iti ion sh 50 th Inf an German try infantry Di SWORD Ou vis ist ion re US h am 29 Sa th int an O -A d US JUN Co ub in- ur su 1s se r-M tI ull er nf an es -s tr ur yD -M iv LD A er is io GO r n Ba rom Ca en ins an c he UK paratroopers Lo s- ng les British soldiers were dropped ue - s. Even tanks were made to float with a canvas “skirt” designed to keep the water out. nicknamed “Duck. but many sank by Omaha Beach as they were swamped by high waves.-H Ba Orne River. but it was not R er Ca able to get them there. Assault) were basic. to stop German Vie Pe on rte or ye u reinforcements arriving. The Higgins Boat. flat-bottomed craft that could transport soldiers all OCCUPIED the way to the beach. LCI (Landing Craft. rv ine x ille s -s - Po ur int -M ed er uH oc British infantry German defense German infantry Only one German tank unit was in place to counterattack the Allies. and LCA (Landing Craft. The 20th and 21st centuries Barrage balloon Horsa glider Br transport DUCW Landing craft iti sh Special flat-bottomed 6t hA boats were built to irb take the troops from or ne Br itis the ships to the shore. The German command planned to V i re have tanks along the coast in iv case of attack. re nt an Landing craft Different types of landing craft were used on D-Day. shown right). Infantry. here to take control of an Or su r-M important bridge over the eR n A Sa er iver OMAH de inte s. 143 . AT JUNO BEACH.” was like a boat with wheels that FRANCE could also be driven as a truck. while the amphibious DUKW. AND BRITISH TROOPS AT GOLD AND SWORD BEACHES.

he broke the law by picking up a fistful of salt. Spinning to defy the British While imprisoned in Pune’s Yerwada Jail. divided into of the Indian struggle for East and West parts. Gandhi made his own clothes. This led to more protest 6 Pune marches. PERSIA 1914– Gandhi 1947 and Indian 5. There. ending in the salt- manufacturing town of Dandi. KEY Key sites of nonviolent Partition of India. the British divided India INDIA 1 Key location CEYLON into two states. Gandhi made a stirring speech in Bombay. India won its freedom from British colonial rule in 1947. Britain began forcing Indians to buy salt from the British at high prices. after many decades of struggle.” 7. 144 IN 1943. The spinning wheel became a symbol of the independence movement. and the rest self-rule became Hindu-majority India. but many Dandi Salt Muslims wanted their own state. in 1932. GANDHI WENT . Quit India Movement 7 In 1942. BEING HELD AS A POLITICAL PRISONER. demanding Bombay that the British leave the country immediately. but he was only released in 1944. to encourage the Indian people to weave at home instead of buying clothes from the British. Mohandas Gandhi joined the fight for independence in 1914 and helped the cause with his philosophy of nonviolent resistance. 5 Dandi meaning “Great Soul. After EAST March fighting broke out between Muslims PAKISTAN and Hindus. Gandhi was (Mumbai) thrown in jail once again. 1947 resistance Gandhi wanted India to be independent WEST as a single state in which different PAKISTAN Route of the religions would live at peace. Dandi Salt March When in 1930. Muslim-majority in the story areas became Pakistan. 6. His dedication to Indian freedom earned him the name Mahatma. Gandhi independence protested by making a 24-day march. called satyagraha.

CHINA 1. British General Dyer ordered troops to open fire on 6. Gandhi refused to leave the Chauri Chaura 4 village until the British authorities 1 Champaran dropped their demands. killing hundreds. Amritsar 2 4. 1919. Chauri Chaura incident In 1922. Gandhi addresses his supporters in Bengal 8. Gandhi organized protests on behalf of farmers in Champaran. Champaran satyagraha (nonviolent resistance) In 1917. Noncooperation Movement Launched in Calcutta in 1920. even in times of famine.” 8 Calcutta 3 Bengal (Kolkata) 3. Burma WITHOUT FOOD FOR 21 DAYS AS A PROTEST AGAINST BRITISH RULE.000 Indian protestors. a nonviolent protest turned INDIA nasty when angry people set fire to a police station. Speaking during a tour of the Bengal region. refused to be part of the British-led economy. The government blamed Gandhi for inciting the violence and imprisoned him for two years.” SOVIET UNION (USSR) Mohandas Gandhi. Amritsar massacre On April 13. you AFGHANISTAN can shake the world. Gandhi BHUTAN called it “the noblest act of the British nation. in doing so. They also had to pay taxes. killing 22 policemen. the campaign attracted millions of followers who stopped buying British goods and. The 20th and 21st centuries “ln a gentle way. The act strengthened Gandhi’s determination to liberate India. who NEPAL were forced to grow indigo dye instead of food crops. 145 . Gandhi‘s triumph Britain finally granted India its independence in February 1947. speaking in 1942 2.

They became bitter rivals. This period was called the Cold War. Cold War conflict destroyers. military. the US and USSR These missiles were designed threatened each other in an to launch nuclear weapons that argument over the Soviet were capable of destroying plan to station nuclear cities thousands of miles away. However. US USSR The Warsaw Pact 50 ICBM warheads The USSR and its allies (as they were in 1985). and ideological barrier erected by the USSR after World War II to seal 1. ENABLING THEIR .000 main battle tanks off itself and its dependent eastern and central European allies from contact with the West. Intercontinental Ballistic Cuban Missile Crisis Missiles (ICBMs) In 1962. hardware. the US and USSR chose instead to fight one UNITED STATES another indirectly. 1962 DOMINICAN REPUBLIC EL SALVADOR 1965–66 1979–92 NICARAGUA 1981–90 GRENADA 1983 KEY This map shows the total number of military vehicles. After World War II.000 miles (10. DEW Line (Distant 1945– 1991 The Cold War Early Warning) The US set up radar installations in a line measuring nearly 6. with contrasting CANADA political ideas about how the world should live. 10 warships (including battleships. the US and USSR (the Soviet Union) emerged as two superpowers—wealthy countries capable of influencing international events. The US and its allies (as they were in 1985). weapons in Cuba. For almost 50 years. by taking sides OF AMERICA in conflicts in other countries. GUATEMALA CUBA 1954 1961. and aircraft carriers) Dew Line 20 submarines Iron Curtain 500 combat-capable aircraft The political.000 km) to detect incoming Soviet bombers. 146 IN 1963. cruisers. NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) and other weapons held by the US and the Soviet Union in 1985. the two countries threatened each other by amassing enough nuclear weapons to wipe out the planet. THE US AND USSR INSTALLED A HOTLINE. frigates. aware of the fatal results of actually using these weapons.

1980S Berlin. 1958–62 Vietnam in 1957 to stop the POLAND army of North Vietnam from 1956. OR SOVIET UNION) Vietnam War EAST GERMANY The US entered the war in 1948–49. Britain (the Allies). LEADERS TO SPEAK DIRECTLY IF THERE WAS A NUCLEAR WAR CRISIS. 1962 1957–75 1945–49 EGYPT LEBANON 1956. KOREA UNION OF SOVIET 1950–53 SOCIALIST REPUBLICS (USSR. and fuel by air. When US-backed 1960–61 each separately controlled by the US. 1968 TAIWAN HUNGARY US withdrew in 1973. North Korea fought against the US and its allies in an attempt to occupy South Korea. 1969–74. the Soviets the USSR and closed all Allied routes into Allied- Cuba helped ANGOLA occupied Berlin. For more than a year. Germany’s capital.” Richard Nixon. was divided into four zones. Allies supplied the people food. US President. (Ethiopia) CONGO 1970S. bringing supplies to the besieged city. and the Ogaden in Ethiopia. This was Berlin children cheer a US cargo plane the first clash of the Cold War. medicine. 1953. 1977–92 Soviet Union. the the region. In June 1948. leaving the people Ethiopia to reclaim 1975–90 trapped. speaking in 1964 Korean War Backed by the USSR and China. 1980–81 spreading Communism in the South. 1958 1957. The 20th and 21st centuries “The Cold War … is burning with a deadly heat. CAMBODIA 1973 1969–75 YEMEN ETHIOPIA 1962–70 1977–78 The Berlin Airlift 1948–49 Ogaden War SOMALIA After World War II. The North claimed CZECHOSLOVAKIA victory two years after the 1948. 147 . 1958 1956 Iron Curtain TURKEY LAOS 1945–47 1953–75 IRAN AFGHANISTAN 1945–46. 1979 SOUTH YUGOSLAVIA 1951–53 IRAQ VIETNAM 1948–53 INDIA GREECE 1958 1946–54. Somalia invaded MOZAMBIQUE France.

nV Diama tur Sa uttle aur IV nt A Space Sh n9 Minot Falco Kodiak Launch Complex (US) Wallops Flight 2001–present Facility and Mid- 3+ launches Atlantic Regional Spaceport (US) 1960–present 45+ launches Kennedy ne V Space Aria Center (US) Vandenberg Air 1967–present Force Base (US) 150+ launches 1959–present 500+ launches Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (US) KEY 1958–present This map shows every launch 600+ launches site that has ever launched rockets into orbit or beyond. 148 THE FIRST ARTIFICIAL OBJECT SENT INTO SPACE WAS THE SOVIET . Since then. 1980 sent rockets into orbit or beyond. American astrophysicist. US the stars are astronauts were the first men to reach the other suns. an agency of European states (ESA) have in Cosmos. but in 1969. 10 more countries and Carl Sagan. the US and USSR (Soviet sea of space. Hammaguir (Algeria) Unmanned missions 1965–1967 4 launches Both manned and by France unmanned missions The 1957– present Guiana Space Centre (French Guiana) 1970–present Space Age 225+ launches by NASA and ESA “Across the After World War II.” Moon. Union) raced to be the first into space. The Soviets won that race.

Russia. 1970–present. 149 . WHICH WAS LAUNCHED IN 1957. This image shows these and other objects tracked by ESA. 65+ launches Uchinoura Space Air Force 2009–present and Ukraine Center (Japan) Base (Israel) 3+ launches 1970–present 1988–present 28+ launches 7+ launches Tanegashima Space Center (Japan) 1975–present 55+ launches Satish Omelek Dhawan (Marshall Islands) Broglio Space Space 2008–2009 Xichang 2 launches Centre (Kenya) Centre Satellite by US 1967–1988 (India) 1980–present Launch 9 launches Center by US 35+ launches (China) 1984–present 80+ launches Woomera Into Earth orbit (Australia) Space is a busy place. SPUTNIK 1.200 operational satellites orbiting the Earth. UNION’S SATELLITE. 1967–71 There are more than 2 launches by UK 1. The 20th and 21st centuries Launc r Satellite Kosmos-3 icle) Plesetsk h Veh Long March 2F (Pola Cosmodrome Shav m H-IIA (USSR/Russia) PSLV it 1966–present 1500+ launches Svobodny Cosmodrome Sohae Satellite (Russia) 1997–2006 Launching station 5 launches (North Korea) 2012–present 1+ launch Yasny Launch Base (Russia) Kapustin Yar 2006–present (USSR/Russia) 7 launches 1962–present 85 launches Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center (China) 1988–present 45+ launches Naro Space Center Baikonur (South Korea) Cosmodrome 2013–present (Kazakhstan) 1+ launch 1957–present Jiuquan Satellite Semnan 1300+ launches Launch Center (China) Palmachim (Iran) by USSR.

Yutu. 12 American astronauts Luna 9 First spacecraft to make walked on the Moon’s surface. “soft” landings. KEY Surveyor 1 Apollo 12 This map shows the landing sites of 30 Surveyor 3 Apollo 14 successful Moon missions. 1965. the Moon has been explored the Moon’s surface. landings Luna 17 Chang’e 3 Luna 17 The USSR had already landed a spacecraft on First spacecraft to deploy a lunar rover. between Luna 13 1969 and 1972. Chang’e 3 1959– Moon present Chinese mission to land a probe and rover. Probe soft-landing on the Moon Probe soft-landing on the Moon and returning rock samples to Earth “That’s SMART-1 (ESA) Surveyor 7 Manned spacecraft landing one small LCROSS One of a series of craft searching step for man. President Kennedy 1970. a controlled landing.” Yutu rover Neil Armstrong. The first ones aimed simply to crash on the Moon to study the accuracy of rockets. It was sent by the US in 2009. launch manned lunar missions before the end of the decade. Lunokhod 1. It tested the lunar surface’s Probe crash-landing temperature and hardness to on the Moon prepare for manned landings. This Soviet rover of the US announced that his country would worked for 322 days and traveled 6 miles (10 km). This Soviet craft also sent back the first photos of however. Lunokhod rover for mankind. and the Chinese Chang’e 3 (2013). in 1961. there have been only three more of these soft Surveyor 1 landings—the Soviet Luna 21 (1973) and 24 First US spacecraft to make (1976). engineers designed robotic spacecraft (probes) that Ranger 7 would make safe. on setting foot on the Moon LCROSS during the Apollo 11 mission. Sure enough. 1966. Chang’e 3 aimed to study the lunar soil down to 100 ft (30 m) deep. Luna 9 only by unmanned probes and rovers. 1969 150 WHEN CHINA’S CHANG’E 3 SPACECRAFT LANDED A ROVER ON THE . Later. total of six Apollo voyages. during a a controlled landing. 2013. Since the era of manned exploration in 1969–72. for frozen water that might be trapped in the dark corners of Apollo Lunar Roving Vehicle one giant leap craters near the Moon’s south ole. Since 1972. the Moon when.

return Moon rock samples to Earth. 364 ft (111 m) Surveyor 6 Apollo 11 Luna 16 Chang’e 1 Interstage adaptor Linked the Luna 16 second and Apollo 16 First robotic spacecraft to third stages. The 21 hours on the Moon and crew spent more than collected 48½ lb (22 kg) three full days on the Luna 24 Third stage of rock samples. Apollo 15 Apollo 17 Lunar Module Landed on the Moon. Hiten First stage Launched the rocket from the Earth’s surface. Luna 21 Service Module Luna 2 Powered the Apollo spacecraft. Interstage adaptor Linked the first two stages. then Fifth crewed mission. 1970. Command Module Carried the crew on the journey from Earth. 1972. 1972. by the USSR to crash Apollo spacecraft. Launched the Apollo spacecraft from low Earth orbit on a course to Luna 20 Ranger 8 the Moon. Propelled the Apollo 16 rocket into low Earth orbit. MOON IN 2013.5 m) into the Moon’s surface. Kaguya Kaguya Chandrayaan-1’s Japanese mission to map the Moon Impact Probe Moon’s surface and to study the origins and evolution of the Human. Sent the largest rocket ever built. was jettisoned. Surveyor 5 Saturn V rocket. The mission ended with 6 ft (1. 151 . then returned Apollo 11 crew to the orbiting First crewed mission to the Apollo 17 Command and Moon. 1969.8 m) a planned crash-landing in 2007. It was sent Second stage Ranger 9 by the USSR. The crew spent 71 hours on the Moon and covered 20 miles (27 km) in their rover. The 20th and 21st centuries Saturn V rocket Luna 2 The Apollo astronauts were blasted First spacecraft to land into space inside the nose cone of on the Moon. Neil Armstrong Final Apollo Moon Service Modules. IT WAS THE FIRST SOFT MOON LANDING FOR 37 YEARS. 54 ft (16. then was Lunar Prospector jettisoned. Moon’s surface. and Buzz Aldrin spent over mission. 1959. Moon. then was jettisoned.

Google The world’s most popular Facebook search engine was invented This social networking International in 1998 by Larry Page and site was created in ARPAnet Sergey Brin in a garage in 2004 by Harvard In 1973. and other mobile devices) 1999–2000 2001–02 to share information. called ARPAnet. company BBN. read “just UK. In 1991. by site Virginia the computer science lab creator Jack Dorsey UCLA. Stanford University and Menlo Park. the first Menlo Park. 1998 or before tablets. Cambridge. Kjeller NORTH AMERICA Cambridge Twitter London This “microblog” site lets users post short BBN and Harvard University. Norway. Los Angeles at Cambridge University. The shading shows when 25 percent or more of a country’s population is The internet is a vast network that connected to the internet.” .” but the first actual 2011–12 network. ARPAnet connection 152 THE FIRST MESSAGE EVER SENT OVER THE ARPANET WAS “LOGIN. or tweets. allows computers (including phones. This became First international part of the internet in 1983. The 1969– present SOUTH AMERICA World Wide Web Invented by Tim Berners-Lee at the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) in 1989. This idea was 2003–04 first suggested in 1962 and called 2005–06 2007–08 the “Intergalactic Computer 2009–10 Network. ARPAnet Email The first message on the The first email was devised ARPAnet was sent from UCLA and sent by Ray Tomlinson (University of California. Los in 1971 at the technology Angeles) to Stanford University. the “Web” went internet KEY global in 1991. the first online for anyone to read. connection linked London to the ARPAnet at UCLA via Kjeller. California video camera was used in EUROPE The first tweet. to check if there was setting up my twttr. The system was set up and used by universities and government departments. Massachusetts Webcam CERN messages. and Virginia. student Mark international Zuckerberg.” coffee left in the pot. was Under 25 percent No data set up in 1969. in 1969. in 2006. California.

such as email. engine was invented Yandex by Robin Li and Eric Russia’s biggest search engine Xu in 2000. “We are still in the very beginnings of the internet. Tallinn was launched in Moscow in 1997. online gaming. this AFRICA is China’s most popular social networking site. There were 1 trillion pages of Web content by 2008. server on the World Wide Web’s 20th birthday. 153 . founder of Wikipedia. this “voice-over-internet” China’s biggest search system lets people make audio and video calls. but the most common use is the World Wide Web (or “Web”). Search engines help readers by Inventor Tim Berners-Lee shows the first Web scouring the Web for any word or phrase entered. South Korea was the first country to convert completely to broadband—the technology that allows fast transfer of multiple types of internet data at once. This is a system of pages of data (Web pages) connected by hyperlinks (links that take the reader to more. Tencent Launched in 1999. Let’s AUSTRALASIA use it wisely. and online chat. Shenzhen The nation is still the world leader in internet connection speeds. related information on other pages).” Jimmy Wales. 2009 The World Wide Web There are many uses for the internet. THE L AND O ARRIVED. BUT THE SYSTEM CRASHED ON THE LETTER G. Moscow ASIA Seoul Broadband Beijing In 2005. The 20th and 21st centuries Skype Baidu Launched in 2003.

2b $21 billion on engines.3b UK Imported the majority of its high-definition $29b television sets from China. billion.4b toys from China. In 2013. It is now the world’s largest trading Country that is among the top nation after overtaking the US in 2013. which included $26. computers sold Mexico in Italy were Imported about from China. $60. China totaling NORTH pumps. Healthcare industry spent $2 billion on medical equipment from China.9b $25. from Chinese Brazil manufacturers. $8 billion worth of electronic equipment France manufactured in China.2b made in China. China’s wealth has increased at KEY an incredible rate.2 trillion in US dollars.5 billion AMERICA electronic equipment worth of vehicles from Chinese factories. Germany The Netherlands Imported Spent more than clothing from $29. 154 IN 2000—10.8b factory machines. Export of Chinese goods to its top 20 customers. AFRICA 1978– present The rise of China Since the late 1970s. CHINA’S ECONOMY GREW SEVEN TIMES FASTER THAN THAT . One of the main 20 importers of Chinese goods reasons China is becoming richer is that it sells more $10 billion worth of Chinese goods to the world than any other country.1b Canada Bought almost $1 billion worth of $51b $67. AMERICA $369.9b of its goods from China. Spain Spent almost Italy $1 billion on The bulk of the organic chemicals clothes and $36. and construction almost $4 equipment from China. SOUTH Imported more than Turkey $5 billion worth of Bought $0. goods imported in 2013 China sold products worth $1. US EUROPE Imported one-fifth $18.

9b $5 billion importing Saudi Arabia Chinese-built ships. writing for Forbes.8 billion $45. superpower.5 billion on Chinese clothes its buildings are also growing taller. on machinery from China. as fertilizers.6b South Korea Imported $2 billion worth of crude oil from China. with many of them in cities such as Hong Kong. THE CHINESE BECAME 2.9b worth of Chinese cars. 2009 OF THE US.6b AUSTRALASIA “Yes. which included sewing Singapore machines. Spent more than $36. such as fridges organic chemicals.4b ASIA $91. $17.2b $18.” Shaun Rein. 155 . and footwear. China Market Research Group. Indonesia Spent a total of $12. such and washing machines. and Guangzhou.7b Spent $10 billion of its knitwear from China. Shanghai (right).7b $48. Imported $0. but Spent $6. $49. Engineers have built some of the tallest skyscrapers in the world in China. ON AVERAGE.4b CHINA Japan India Imported 85 percent $32.5 TIMES WEALTHIER. founder.8b $ China has Australia Imported more than $2 billion worth fully arrived as a of steel products from China.5 billion on Chinese factory Thailand machines and electronic Spent $1 billion on Chinese equipment. $37. The 20th and 21st centuries Reaching for the skies Russia China is not only getting richer.

buccaneers 86–87 treasure fleet 51. Bartolomeo 121 aqueducts 46 Boulton. 80–81 Benin 68 Aztec 48–49 Colossus of Memnon 22 see also North America. 113 colonial rule 116. Emperor 85 ancient 16. 33. 38 Council of Trent 85 Apollo missions 150–51 Botany Bay 76. John 85 Condamine. 62. Matthew 104 castles 51. battle of 39 art. 76. Napoleon see piracy 77. 134 slave trade 90–91 Australia railroads 116 China World War II 138 British colonies 119 Reformation 84 ancient 8. 91. 46 cinema 120 Algeria 134 Baghdad 52. 12–13 Abu Simbel 23. Amritsar massacre 125. South Benz. 146–47 15th-century 70–71 Belgium 105 Cairo 52 Colombia 100. 56. 12–13 Atahualpa 81 Chartists 106 Chauri Chaura incident 145 great kingdoms 68–69 Athens 28–29 Great Depression 134 Chavín culture 27 railroads 116–17 Atlantic. 86–87 Corte Real. battle of 92 chivalry 61 Aldrin. 154–55 Ain Jalut. 16. 15 blast furnaces 47 Cano. 83 92–93 HMS Beagle 102. Emperor Carrier. 58–59 crops 14–15. 134 cave art 7. 110. Tim 124. 81 Coral Sea. 72. 41. 55. 118 astronauts 148–51 British Empire 118–19. 58. Juan Sebastian del 79 Continental Army 92 evolution 102–03 the Blitz 138 Cape-to-Cairo Railway 117 convicts. 24–25. 120 Brazil 77. 138. Confederate States 112–13 wonders of 44–45 Black Death 51. 116–17 “Black ships” 115 Canadian Pacific Railway 116 conquistadors 58. 31. 87 Cannae. 44 age of exploration 78–79 Charlemagne. 30. 89. cave 7. 18–19 alphabets 20. Charles-Marie de la 120 timeline 6–7 the Bible 40–41 Canada 9. 110. 121 American Revolutionary War 76. 139 medieval 58. 60. battle of the 108 Bunker Hill. 116 child labor 104–05 scramble for 118. battle of 100 Catholic Church 84–85 Aboriginal people 13. 15. 116. 142 discovery 78. 126–27 Berlin Conference 118 Callao. 140–41. 12–13 Britain Chang’an 56. 104. 47 agriculture early humans 8. 103 Caesar. Winston 138 Alfonso XI of Castille and Léon 65–66 Babylon 7. 25 Antarctica 126–27 bombers 125. battle of 138 Bonny. siege of 61 Napoleon I. 110. 7. Sergey 152 Champaran Satyagraha 145 Actium. 63 ancient 7. first 7. 92. 66–67 aircraft 120. 14–15 gold rushes 77. Captain James 42 in Pacific islands 43 Bolivia 101 Caribbean Coolidge. Council of 60 Amazonia 71 Barents. 138. 87 cars 121. 101. 133 Cabeza de Vaca. 46 Silk Road 52–53 air-conditioning 120 World War II 139 Brunel. 108. 125 cotton 90. 100. 118 copper 24. battle of the 138 Industrial Revolution 104. siege of 65 Cold War 124. 94–95 Ice Age 10–11 Bolívar. Temple of 7. 105. 94. storming of the 96 Cabral. 82–83. 51. 132–33 129 Buddhism 50. 80. 38 Constantinople 50. 43. 111. 64–65 118 Congo Free State 118 Andes Mountains 101. 125. Calvin 134 Annam 63 Bolsheviks 130–31 colonial rule 110. 105 apartheid 124 Boston Tea Party 92 Carthage 36–37. 32–33 B Byzantine Empire 50. battle of the 139 Antietam. battle of 133. 81 Anzio. Willis 120 Cortés. 25. 94–95 Bronze Age 6. Bastille. Hernán 51. Richard 104. 51. Lima. 13 Romans 38 golden age 50. 152 Brin. 136–37. 153 Calvin. 14–17 Asante Empire 68 ancient 10. Anne 76. 45. 77. 80. 92–93 Charles V. 71. transportation of 76. Isambard Kingdom 75 Space Age 149–50 air raids 128. battle of 113 Bonaparte. 118. 147 anesthetics 120 Berlin Wall 125 116–17 compasses 57. 90 156 . 55 Churchill. 139. 84–85 Alexander the Great 7. 21 Balboa. 101 ancient 6. Alexander Graham 120 calendars Colosseum 45 conquistadors 76. and Oroya Railroad Communism 130–31. Alvar Núñez 80 Clermont. 64 Chile 9. 17. 14. 95. 57 World War II 139 Aksum. 79 Amundsen. battle of 113 Chinook 70 Alamo. 95 Cartier. 80–81 animals Blackbeard 77. Julius 38. Christopher 54. Jacques 78 Cristofori. 111 slave trade 91 Great Wall of 34–35 medieval 72 Great Depression 135 Vikings 55 Long March 136–37 modern 90 railroads 117 Britain. 124. John 78 clocks 46. battle of 62 transportation to 76. 151 bricks 46 cave men 6. 152. 39 coins 7. Kingdom of 69 Aztec Empire 48–49. 45 Armstrong. 124 Arkwright. 46 Americas Beijing Olympics 124–25 Caffa. 77. 11 California 77. 141 Austro-Hungarian Empire 107. Gaspar and Miguel 78 Antioch. 24 Charleston 89. 57 Afghanistan 25 Artemis. 10. 73. 60 domestication 14. 86 Bull Run. 40–41. 134 Columbus. 25. 21. Simón 100–01 Caral 19 Cook. 150. Pedro de 81 balloons 132. Karl 121 Maya 26 Columbian Exchange 82 America Bering Land Bridge 9. 70. 8–9 Acropolis 44 ARPAnet 124. Roald 124. battle of 37. 94. 86. 9. 144–45 Chartist movement 106 early humans 8–9. 144 Berlin Airlift 147 Caliphate 50–51. William 79 Cabot. 60–61. Buzz 151 burial mounds 27 Christianity 7. 89. Neil 124. 119 atomic bombs 138. 138 rise of 124. 59. 63 cities. 76. Index A Argentina 12 Boyacá. 108. 20. Vasco Núñez de 81 C civil rights movement 124 Alvarado. Pedro Alvares 78 cocoa 82. 68 78. 56–57. 70. Emperor 51 Africa Artesian wells 72 American colonies 88. 26–27 Bell. 101. 73 ancient world 4–47 Berners-Lee.

Krupp. 119. 46 Jesus Christ 6. 57. 114 evolution 77. 117 Detroit 134 under Napoleon 98–99 Hirohito. 149 gold 76. 22. 135 Klondike 76. 88 Dark Ages 25. 135 Darwin. 24. Edward 120 diamonds 90 Fremantle 94 Holy Roman Empire 6 Jerusalem 39. Jack 124. 102–03 44. 107 Kaifeng 56 144–45 Huygens. 47 Daisen Kofun 45 France Hasdrubal 36. 19. battle of the 62 Krak des Chevaliers 51. 77. 151 DEW Line (Distant Early Warning) Vikings 55 Hiroshima 139 trade with 77. 124 D canned 120 Hangzhou 63 Italy. 91. 45 Israel 8. 13. General Dwight D. 31. 72–73 iron 104 Lanzhou 53 157 . 96–97 Homo erectus 6. 134–35 ink 47 Kutchin 70 Etruscans 29 Great Fear 97 Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles Kyongju 57 Everest. 62. 135 Gambia 16 Hundred Years’ War 51 K Gandhi. Joseph Marie 105 Darius I of Persia 31 colonial rule 118 Hawaii 43 Jaffa 61 Darius III of Persia 32. John 87 Jamestown 77. 24. 139. Martin Luther Jr. 96–97. European 118–19 glass 7. 146 fjords 10 Hagia Sophia 44 Islam Cyrus the Great 30–31 flight 124. 37 J Dandi Salt March 144 ancient 24. 32–33. 79 humans. 28–29. 34–35 Inuit 70–71 Great Zimbabwe 68 inventions L Greece. 119 Iceland 54 Kashgar 53 Edessa 61 Great Depression 135 immigrants 76. 31 Khwarizm Shah 62 Edo Period 77. 10–11 Facebook 124. 38 Hatshepsut 22 Jacobins 96 Darby. Arthur 105 Ethiopia 8. 59. 21. 41 DNA 8 Frobisher. 77. 124 44. 78–79 Great Wall of China 7. 152–53 exploration. 69 Great Depression 125. 142–43 trade in 77. 60–61 fire 7. 115. 22–23. Christiaan 121 Kaiser-Wilhelmsland 119 E Genghis Khan 50. 144–45 Komei Emperor 114 Elizabeth I of England 87 ghost towns 111 medieval 65. 81 Kiev 55 Egypt unification of 106. 138–43 British rule 117. 114. 40. ancient 46–47 Lake Trasimene. Charles 77. 45 medieval 72–73 land bridges 9. Francis 77. 63 Denmark 106