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Cahier technique no 191

Fuzzy logic

F. Chevrie

F. Guély

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no 191

Fuzzy logic

François CHEVRIE

**After joining Telemecanique in 1987, he joint the Advanced
**

Automation Laboratory of the Research Division in 1993. A CNAM

Industrial Automation engineering graduate, his dissertation was

based on the integration of fuzzy logic in Schneider programmable

controllers.

He played an active part in the preparation of the fuzzy logic product

offer for the Micro/Premium PC range, and helped implement this

technique, particularly in the car and food industries.

François GUELY

**After graduating from the Ecole Centrale de Paris in 1988, he joined
**

Telemecanique in Japan in 1990 and was awarded his PhD in fuzzy

logic based automatic control in 1994. He has been in charge of

Schneider’s Advanced Automatic Department since 1995 where he

has helped prepare the extension to fuzzy logic of the IEC language

standard for programmable controllers.

ECT 191 first issued, december 1998

Cahier Technique Schneider no 191 / pp.1

1] interval. the cooking state of the Term associated with a membership function biscuit can be deduced. equals to zero for all Fuzzy set: x. etc. degree of membership by evaluating a Singleton: membership function. NOT operators. A predicate can the degrees of membership of the rule be made up of a combination of several predicates. A conclusion can be Calculation of the degrees of activation of all the made up of a combination of several statements. Function µA (x) associating to any input value x Degree of membership: its degree of membership to the set A. linguistic variable and a linguistic term written Inference: after the then of the rule.2 .. The term “Sensor characterising a linguistic variable. a rule Degree of truth: predicate is a statement combining a linguistic The degree of truth.) or 1 (.. belong.. given Predicate: by the membership function µ A (x). Fuzzification: Sensor merge: Conversion of a numerical value into a fuzzy See Data merge. after inference. Data merge: Knowledge base: Data merge consists of extracting. the characteristic function defines the set: this function only takes Cahier Technique Schneider n o 191 / pp. This An element x belongs to a fuzzy set A with a gradual value belongs to the [0. In the classical set theory. expert. conclusions of this rule. conclusions of these rules. Also known as premise or condition. except at a singular point x0. merge” is also used. Conversion. from several Set of membership functions and rules of a fuzzy pieces of data. Linguistic variable: Defuzzification: Numerical variable with a name (pressure. See Predicate.. knowledge of the which may be different kinds. It directly affects the value of the statements linked by AND. of a fuzzy set of a temperature… to which are associated inguistic linguistic output variable into a numerical value. The rule is also said to Premise: be active at y. Membership function µA (x). Degree of activation: Membership function: See degree of truth. V and B giving Linguistic term: the colour of a biscuit. OR. operator. rules in the base as well as of all the fuzzy sets Condition: of the linguistic variables contained in the See predicate. of a variable and a linguistic term written between rule is a value y between 0 and 1 deduced from the if and the then of the rule. one or more items of information system containing expertise. degree of membership between 0 and 1.belongs to the set). or degree of activation.Lexicon Activation: the two discrete values 0 (the element does not See degree of truth. A fuzzy set Conclusion: is defined by a membership function which can A rule conclusion is a statement combining a take any real values between 0 and 1. For example: from variables R. terms.

Its advantages stem from its ability to: c formalise and simulate the expertise of an operator or designer in process control and tuning. and progressively incorporate them into the expertise.3 Fuzzy logic operators pp. 20 6 Conclusion pp.2 Designing an application pp.2 Examples of industrial achievements pp. 14 3. Contents 1 Introduction 1.4 Rules and outputs pp.1 Application types pp.1 Introduction pp.3 Value and use of fuzzy logic for control pp. in terms of implementation and competitive advantages. 4 1. 16 4. c take into account several variables and perform “weighted merging” of influencing into variables. How does this technique contribute to industrial process control? What is the effect on product quality and manufacturing cost? Following a few basic theoretical notions. 6 2. this Cahier Technique answers the questions asked by automatic control engineers and potential users by means of industrial examples. 6 2. it is making a discrete but appreciated appearance in industrial control automation systems.2 Membership functions pp. Used alongside other advanced control techniques. 15 4 Implementation 4. 17 4.1 Fuzzy logic today pp. 16 4. Fuzzy logic does not necessarily replace conventional control systems.1 when can fuzzy rule bases be used? pp.2 Presentation of the example pp. 8 2. 26 Bibliography pp. 17 4.3 .4 Choosing the implementation technology pp. 4 1.4 Fuzzy rules pp. 5 2 Theory of fuzzy sets 2.3 Linguistic variables and terms pp. 9 3 A teaching application example 3. 14 3. today fuzzy logic has become an operational technique. 18 5 Fuzzy application 5. 15 3.1 Notion of partial membership pp.2 The history of fuzzy logic pp. Rather it completes such systems. 28 Cahier Technique Schneider no 191 / pp. 24 Appendix pp. 19 5.3 Using an application pp. c continually take into account cases or exceptions of different kinds.5 Standards pp. Fuzzy logic Initially a theory. c provide a simple answer for processes which are difficult to model.

At the same time. In 1975 as finance and medical diagnosis.1 Introduction 1. In 1978 the Danish company. mention “fuzzy logic” were too numerous to be counted. many applications began to strategy for process control and published the emerge in large numbers in Germany. cameras and camcorders with the workers developing theoretical works. harbour container cranes. have also increased. 1. Fuzzy logic has developed Fuzzy logic began to interest the media at the in this area as it is an essentially pragmatic. achieved the control of a cement kiln.L. USA. parameters. attention to the resolution by fuzzy logic of applications developed in such other fields such problems considered to be difficult. F. of procedures such as startup and setting of In the car industry. Zadeh from the university of Japan where research was not only theoretical Berkeley. This was the first genuine industrial application of fuzzy logic. in the USA. some researchers turned their undergrounds and ventilation/air conditioning systems began to use fuzzy logic too. fuzzy In continuous and batch production processes. Cahier Technique Schneider n o 191 / pp. beginning of the nineties. The numerous effective and generic approach. conditioning can be optimized thanks to fuzzy This Cahier Technique describes fuzzy logic and logic. At the end of “Fuzzy sets”. control of a steam motor. its application to production processes.4 .2 The history of fuzzy logic Appearance of fuzzy logic Boom The term “fuzzy set” first appeared in 1965 when Fuzzy logic experienced a veritable boom in professor Lotfi A. implement in real time applications. It allows applications in electrical and electronic systematisation of empirical knowledge and household appliances. as well encouraging results he had obtained for the as. Since then he has achieved many the eighties fuzzy logic had taken off in a big major theoretical breakthroughs in this field and way. automatic gear changes. to a lesser extent. Finally. sets offers a suitable method that is easy to Washing machines not requiring adjustment. Industrial applications such as Initial applications treatment of water. published a paper entitled but also highly application oriented. particularly in Japan.1 Fuzzy logic today In the majority of present-day applications. which is thus hard to control. Smidth. logic allows many kinds of designer and operator as well as in automation systems (which is the qualitative knowledge in system automation to subject of this Cahier Technique). the term “fuzzy logic” to the attention of a wide This makes fuzzy logic able to tackle automation public. applications be taken into account. and enables camcorders with Steadyshot (TM) image knowledge of designers and operators to be stabilization and many other innovations brought transcribed into dynamic control systems. The theory of fuzzy were mainly responsible for such interest. for which few approaches were injection and anti-rattle controls and air previously available. and consumer products such as washing has been quickly joined by numerous research machines. professor Mamdani from London developed a From 1990 onwards.

unconscious omission c rather than using equations. particularly when system knowledge is “fuzzy control”. the more difficult transcribed in the form of fuzzy rules. they complete these methods.1. Using knowhow to its best advantage c In industry and technology. frequently encountered. when the system is controller. v or imprecise. rather on the process.3 Value and use of fuzzy logic for control Value Fuzzy rule bases are advantageous in control as Fuzzy logic stems from several observations. car. Fuzzy rules do not replace setpoints and one or more measurements taken conventional automatic control methods. in order to choose an v modification of their output (feed forward) apartment he may take into account surface according to events that cannot be taken into area. proximity of shops. the difficulty to explain and the described by qualitatively with an appropriate fear to disclose knowhow are obstacles that are quantitative translation. but is known in a qualitive way. for example. Fuzzy logic is well known by automatic control engineers for its applications in process control If human expertise exists. When such knowhow exists and can be c The more complex a system. Use for control purposes taking into account the human factor. When collecting expertise. The following are naturally deduced from these Fuzzy logic also enables maximum benefit to be observations: derived from practical knowhow. c improvement of conventional controller c Human beings often solve complex problems operation by: with approximate data: accuracy of data is often v self-tuning of controller gains off line or on line. workplace and rent without. Likewise. and operation is then easily understood by the user.5 . useless. simplifies its implementation. often sought for c rather than modelling the system. would be difficult to model with traditional means. and yet a car is a highly complex system. needing a very precise value for each piece of information. it is often in order to prevent loss of knowhow or to share more useful to model the behaviour of a human this knowhow with other people in the company. however. they allow: namely: c consideration of existing qualitative expertise. it is common knowledge that a no-one knows how the system operates or mathematical model is not required to drive a people are unable to manually control it. operation can be of information. then fuzzy rules can and monitoring. c The knowledge that a human being has of any c consideration of variables the effect of which situation is generally imperfect. the fuzzy controller is incorporated in complex and hard to model and when the the control loop and computes the control to be method used requires a global view of some of applied to the process according to one or more its aspects. fuzzy logic it is to make precise assertions on its behaviour. simple manner without needing to model the Fuzzy rule bases cannot provide a solution when system. Cahier Technique Schneider no 191 / pp. operator used to control the system. then commonly referred to as be used. This stage must therefore be prepared and conducted with care. operators A vital condition for the use of fuzzy rules is the frequently solve complex problems in a relatively existence of human expertise and knowhow. distance from the account using a conventional technique. Just like a conventional tainted by imperfections. v it can be uncertain (he doubts its validity).

Cahier Technique Schneider n o 191 / pp. Speaking of fruits. an element either belongs or The notion of a fuzzy set was created in order to does not belong to a set. the notion of a ripe apple is thus a gradual one. however. 1 : comparison of a conventional set and a fuzzy set. apple ripens progressively. it is easy to define been defined.80 m] and “1” for heights in that function” which corresponds to the notion of a range.60 m.2 Theory of fuzzy sets 2. 2 : characteristic function.. 2 ) gives “0” for heights outside the heights” (see fig. does not take into partial membership: each element belongs account situations which are yet both simple and partially or gradually to the fuzzy sets that have common.2 Membership functions A fuzzy set is defined by its “membership range [1. Degree of membership µ Degree of membership µ 1 1 Characteristic function Characteristic function “medium height” “medium height” 0 0 1m60 1m80 Variable: height 1m72 Variable: height Fig.6 .1 ) are not “crisp”. 1. we function in that it can assume any value in the would agree for example that people of medium range [0. height are those between 1. 2.1 Notion of partial membership In the sets theory. This theory of fuzzy sets is based on the notion of essential notion. However. In classical logic. The notion of a set is take situations of this kind into account. 3 ) between 0 and 1. We understand that an “gradual”.1]. 3 : membership function.80 m Each possible height will be assigned a “degree tall. The fuzzy set of people of “medium “characteristic function” in classical logic. height” will be defined by a “membership Let us assume that we want to define the set of function” which differs from a characteristic people of “medium height”. The used in many mathematical theories. it is harder to define (see fig. but “fuzzy” or the set of ripe apples. The characteristic function of the set of membership” to the fuzzy set of “medium (see fig. Fig..60 m and 1. The outlines of each fuzzy set the set of apples. “Fuzzy” or “gradual” y A B outline t z x “Crisp” outline x belongs neither to A nor B y belongs completely to A z belongs completely to B A: conventional set B: fuzzy set t belongs partially to B Fig.

80 2 Height (m) Fig. 1. 7 : fuzzification. membership of a value (measured by example) to a fuzzy set.7. intuition.80 m person would then 1. The variable (for example: height) as well as the terms (for example: medium. 4 : membership function. an assertion which shocks Fig. 5 ). 6 : singleton membership function. 4 ). A 1.60 1. current value of the “input” variable is 2. are known Fuzzification . “Piece-wise linear” membership functions are We can also say that the “low input” proposal is frequently used as: true at 0. We then talk of degree of truth of the proposal.80 m tall person belongs to the “tall” set with a degree of 0.78 m Paul's height be of medium height. They are then known as 0. same variable. and 1 equal to 0 elsewhere.4 which is the (see fig. if the Membership functions can assume any shape. µ “Totally” medium height µ Small Medium Tall Low 1 Height 0.7 .4 Small “not at all” Tall “not at all” 0 medium medium 2 Input Fig. In classical logic. each where the notion is true and areas where it is notion being explained by a membership function false. 6 ) defined on a real variable (height) is the expression in the fuzzy field of a 0.7 “singleton membership functions”. Cahier Technique Schneider no 191 / pp. variable and linguistic term. converted into a fuzzy one. For example (see fig. We have chosen to use membership functions of this kind in the rest of this document. and to the set “medium height” with a degree of 0. µ This example shows the graduality that enables 1 fuzzy logic to be introduced.Degree of membership as linguistic variable and linguistic term Fuzzification enables a real value to be respectively.A number of fuzzy sets can be defined on the c they are simple. Degree of membership and degree of truth are therefore similar notions.3. both linguistic It consists of determining the degree of variables and terms can be used directly in rules. the However they are often defined by straight degree of membership to the “low input” segments and said to be “piece-wise linear” membership function is equal to 0.4. for example the sets “small c they contain points allowing definition of areas height”. A fuzzy singleton (see fig. µ In some cases. 5 : piece-wise linear membership functions. whereas a 1. thereby simplifying the gathering of (see fig. tall) defined by the membership functions. the change from average to tall 0 would be sudden. result of the fuzzification. 7 ).3 specific value (Paul’s height) of this variable 0 (see appendix). expertise. Fig. “medium height” and “tall height”.81 m person would be tall. membership functions may be Small Medium Tall equal to 1 for a single value of the variable. As we shall see further on. A 1.

5 environment in which air does not move. Just as for classical logic. or cold and damp.7 appendix). µ(NOT A) = 1 .8 .3. The degree of truth of the proposal “A AND B” is the minimum value Ladder language or contact language is of the degrees of truth of A and B: commonly used by automatic control engineers to write logic combinations. to logic: 0 OR 1 yields 1. 0. µ µ Low High Low High Low High Good temperature humidity comfort 10 20 30 °C 50 100 % High Low Temperature Humidity temperature humidity Fig. The degree of truth of the proposal corresponding to the following combination: “A OR B” is the maximum value of the degrees Good comfort = (Low Temperature AND High of truth of A and B: Humidity) OR (High Temperature AND Low µ(A OR B) = MAX(µ(A). AND. However the most common are the “NOT Low Temperature” that we will normally “Zadeh” operators described below.5 = MIN(0. This can be The logic operator corresponding to the union of transcribed by the fuzzy ladder in figure 8 sets is OR. yelds 0.µ(B)) graphic representation.2. likewise breathing is difficult in air logic 0 and 1. NB: the negation operator is compatible with classical logic: NOT(0) yields 1 and NOT(1) Intersection yields 0. write as “Temperature NOT Low” is therefore true at 0.7.7 sensation of comfort felt by a person in a thermal “Low Pressure” is true at 0. The logic operator corresponding to the For example: Interesting Apartment = complement of a set is the negation.5). Reasonable Rent AND Sufficient Surface Area.µ(A) Choice of operators For example: These operators have many variants (see “Low Temperature” is true at 0. that is cold and too dry. OR and NOT Complement operators can be defined. Cahier Technique Schneider n o 191 / pp. 8 : fuzzy ladder.3. hot. The logic operator corresponding to the Fuzzy ladder intersection of sets is AND. damp air is uncomfortable (excessive NB: this fuzzy AND is compatible with classical perspiration).e. “Low Pressure” is true at 0.7 describe fuzzy logic combinations. The most comfortable thermal situations are those in which air is hot Union and dry.5 Below is an example dealing with the comfort of “Low Temperature AND Low Pressure” is ambient air: therefore true at 0. Fuzzy logic operators These operators are used to write logic NB: this fuzzy OR is compatible with classical combinations between fuzzy notions.µ(B)) Humidity). For example: It represents a possible definition of the “Low Temperature” is true at 0. The degree of truth of a proposal A will be noted µ(A). i. Schneider has For example: introduced the use of ladder representation to “Low Temperature” is true at 0. perform computations on degrees of truth. as it enables their µ(A AND B) = MIN(µ(A). “Low Temperature OR Low Pressure” is therefore true at 0.7.

Fuzzy classification belongs to a varying degree to the class of “fresh Classification normally consists of two steps: lettuces”. pressure” THEN “strong ventilation and wide open valve”. Cahier Technique Schneider no 191 / pp.9 . such as for example the probability that a patient has measles given Gradual (or fuzzy) classification methods can be the symptoms that he shows (diagnosis). gradual. This is the case of the c gradual: the elements have a degree of industrial cooking example for biscuits described membership to the sets. As such it can be classed in the field of artifical intelligence. Nevertheless. The tool most commonly used in fuzzy logic Fuz. sequentially Interpolation between rules that No interpolation. D AND A ⇒ E Rules processed in parallel Rules used one by one. rely on a knowledge base derived from condition) is a combination of proposals by AND. whether they produce a considered. 2. The “high temperature” and “high pressure” proposals in the previous example are combined A fuzzy rule comprises three unctional parts by the AND operator to form the predicate of the summarised in figure 10 . for example a lettuce later on. can be c on line: assigning the elements to classes.4. human expertise. Defuz- Inferences applications is the fuzzy rule base. used in control loops. 9 ). NOT operators. c boolean: the elements either belong or do not c mathematical or physical knowledge of a belong to the classes. C ⇒ D. the comfort of a thermal situation can be evaluated from thermal balance c probabilistic: the elements have a probability of equations). no contradiction may contradict one another Fig. rule. there are major OR. There are three types of assignment methods c examples used for learning purposes (e. differences in the characteristics and processing of this knowledge (see fig. A rule is of the type: Numerical Fuzzy Numerical values area values IF “predicate” THEN “conclusion”. problem (for example. boolean or probabilistic result. Fuzzy rule base Conventional rule base (expert system) Few rules Many rules Gradual processing Boolean processing Concatenation possible but scarcely used Concatenated rules A OR B ⇒ C.g. 9 : fuzzy rule base and conventional rule base. For example: IF “high temperature and high Fig. belonging to boolean classes. mentioned above). Predicate Fuzzy rule bases. 10 : fuzzy processing. developed from: The notions of class and set are identical c an experiment (case of “fuzzy ladder” theoretically. c preparation: determining the classes to be Classification methods. just like conventional expert A predicate (also known as a premise or systems. Fuzzy rules Fuzzy logic and artificial intelligence The purpose of fuzzy rule bases is to formalise Inputs Outputs and implement a human being’s method of reasoning. A fuzzy rule zification zification base is made of rules which are normally used in parallel but which can also be concatenated in some applications. for according to the result produced: neuron network classifiers).

simplification of the more general mechanism Likewise. A Mamdani fuzzy rule base therefore contains “OR” clauses are not used in conclusions as they linguistic rules using membership functions to would introduce an uncertainty into the describe the concepts used (see fig.” THEN “average valve opening” µ µ µ Average High Average Pressure Temperature Valve opening Fig. This is because if a rule were to “generalised modus ponens”. Only the average”. The theory of The most commonly used inference mechanism possibilities. These concepts have the conclusion “Then ventilation not are explained in the appendix. Therefore the Fuzzification consists of evaluating the “Mamdani” fuzzy rules are not in theory suitable membership functions used in rule predicates. The conclusion of a fuzzy rule is a combination of proposals linked by AND operators. this means “weak ventilation” or “strong ventilation”. invented by Lotfi Zadeh.10 . Cahier Technique Schneider n o 191 / pp. as for a diagnosis of the “medical” kind for which is illustrated in figure 12 : IF “high pressure” AND “high temp. negation is not used in conclusions for based on “fuzzy implication” and the Mamdani rules. 11 : implication.” THEN “valve wide open” µ µ µ High High Wide Pressure Temperature Valve opening IF “average pressure” AND “high temp. “strong ventilation” and “wide c Principle open valve” are the conclusion of the rule. This uncertainty is not taken into account by the Mamdani inference mechanism which c Fuzzification only manages imprecisions. In the Mamdani inference mechanism previous example. Inference conclusions are uncertain. it would be impossible to say whether “Mamdani” rule bases are used below. This would be yet another case of Conclusion uncertainty. 11 ). It represents a appropriate methodology in such cases. knowledge (the expertise would not make it The inference mechanism is made up of the possible to determine which decision should be following steps: made). offers an is the “Mamdani” one.

3 } = 0.3 2. c Degree of activation The degree of activation of a rule is the (see section 2.” THEN “valve wide open” µ µ µ High High Wide 0. IF “high pressure” AND “high temp. as shown in figure 13 . (see fig.). There are the membership function.5 bar 17°C Pressure Temperature Valve opening Fig.3 2.5 0.5 0. 14 ).3 2.” THEN “valve wide open” µ µ µ Wide Min 0. c Implication The degree of activation of the rule is used to The conclusion fuzzy set is built by realising the determine the conclusion of the rule: this minimum between the degree of activation and operation is called the implication. IF “high pressure” AND “high temp.5 0. a sort of “clipping” several implication operators (see appendix).” THEN “valve wide open” µ µ µ Min High 0. Cahier Technique Schneider no 191 / pp. but of the conclusion membership function the most common is the “minimum” operator. 13 : activation.11 . IF “high pressure” AND “high temp. 12 : fuzzification. 14 : implication.5 bar 17°C Pressure Temperature Valve opening Fig.5 bar 17°C Pressure Temperature Valve opening Fig.3. The evaluation of the predicate of each rule by logic “AND” is performed by realising the minimum combination of the predicate proposals between the degrees of truth of the proposals.3 } = 0.

use determined. and we therefore calculate the rule concerning this output. 16 ). but cannot be directly used to membership functions on system variables. We need to move from the its own inputs and outputs. Each rule uses control an actuator. R1: IF “high temperature” A number of methods can be used. R2: IF “average temperature” AND “low pressure” THEN “average output” µ ∫xµ(x)dx R3: IF “average temperature” AND “high pressure” ∫ µ(x)dx THEN “low output” R4: IF “low temperature” AND “high pressure” 35. and provide the operator with precise information or rules that can be written textually. 16 : defuzzification by centre of gravity. The rules are considered to be linked by aggregation of the fuzzy sets obtained by each a logic “OR”. Cahier Technique Schneider n o 191 / pp.12 .5 bar 17°C Pressure Temperature Valve opening µ Aggregation: MAXIMUM Valve opening Fig.3 2. in their general case.6° Valve opening THEN “very low output” Fig. The example below maximum value between the resulting shows the case when two rules act on an membership functions for each rule (see fig.5 bar 17°C Pressure Temperature Valve opening IF “average pressure” AND “high temp. 15 : aggregation of rules. 15 ).” THEN “valve wide open” µ µ µ High High Wide 0. as shown by the “fuzzy world” to the “real world”: this is known as example below: defuzzification. the most THEN “high output” common of which is calculation of the “centre of gravity” of the fuzzy set (see fig. c Aggregation The output global fuzzy set is built by output. IF “high pressure” AND “high temp.” THEN “valve wide open” µ µ µ Average High Average 2. Defuzzification “Free” and “able” rules At the end of inference. the output fuzzy set is Fuzzy rule bases.

but: Very c it does not always allow simple expression (in Low High low output a minimum number of rules) of the existing output expertise. table in figure 17 . the space is “gridded” and each “box” in the grid is assigned a rule. 17 : implication represented in a table. This approach has the advantage of being systematic. It is best to verify it as this and their overlapping can be represented in the may be an omission. etc. In this context. Low Average High Temp. c The main advantage of the “fuzzy PID” We can make the following observations: controller. Moreover it explanation is for example that this combination would be hard to incorporate an existing is not physically possible for this machine or that expertise in this case. is to make combination “low temperature and low pressure” a non-linear PID.13 . Pressure However. c it can be applied only for two or three inputs. many applications define rule “tables”. often presented as a teaching c not all the space is necessarily covered: the example to give an idea of fuzzy logic. c Fuzzy rule bases are not themselves dynamic. c the first rule only takes temperature into account: this situation is normal in that it reflects the existing expertise. which rarely justifies its use in is not taken into account in this case. Average Remarks Low output c The behaviour of a fuzzy rule base is static and non-linear with respect to its inputs. although they often use as inputs variables Fig. expressing system dynamics (derivatives. Cahier Technique Schneider no 191 / pp.In diagram form. the “areas of action” of the rules it does not interest us. The the place of a conventional PID. integrals. High output whereas ”free” rule bases can be built with a large number of variables. ) or time.

v Guarantee safety Limits are imposed: . Cahier Technique Schneider n o 191 / pp. In application and is designed to illustrate the order to be easily understood by the reader. Water flow Chlorine flow Tunnel Drum Measurement off line of: . c With respect to profitability c on water flow to prevent damaging the lettuce v Maximise production leaves. the procedure for creating a fuzzy rule base. The usually inspect the dirty water at the end of the purpose of washing is to remove earth from the tunnel washing. The water removes the earth.1 Introduction Most fuzzy logic achievements require preliminary following example is based on a fictitious specialist knowledge of the application area.2 Presentation of the example The example concerns a process for washing v Save water lettuce for the production of prepacked lettuce in v Save chlorine. gives the ratio of micro-organisms and residual whereas the chlorine kills the micro-organisms chlorine found in washed and prewashed lettuce (see fig. If the water is clear. at the end of the line. The lettuce water.Acceptable level of micro-organisms c on conveyor belt speed.3 A teaching application example 3.No taste of chlorine. operators use once an hour a report through a “tunnel” fitted with nozzles spraying based on analysis conducted in the factory which chlorinated water. by the mechanism. . v Guarantee quality c the amount of chlorine sprayed. The following priorities were formulated by the The aim is therefore to use the above marketing department and listed in the order of information to improve control of: their importance: c lettuce conveyor belt speed (in order to c With respect to the customer increase production output). 3. The operators manually controlling the process The lettuce is cut.14 . determine the degree of transparency of the Washing is a continuous process.chlorine ratio . 18 : lettuce washing process. washed and packed. leaves are placed in “drums” which move Moreover. c the amount of water sprayed. The “clean” appearance. the “fresh produce” counters of supermarkets. 18 ). they deduce lettuce as well as any micro-organisms which by experience that the lettuce will have a could proliferate during product shelf-life.micro-organism ratio Belt speed Turbidity measurement Waste water after washing Fig. The decision is thus made manufacturer wishes to automate the washing to install an optic “turbidity” sensor designed to process.“Very clean” lettuce (appearance) .

3. Negative. big. Linguistic variables and terms The following variables will therefore be c outputs: chosen: v modification of water flow: Water_f_var c inputs: v modification of chlorine flow: Cl_f_var v micro-organism ratio: Micro_ratio v modification of speed: Speed-var v residual chlorine ratio: Cl_ratio A session with an experienced operator. c Too many micro-organisms c No micro-organisms: save chlorine IF Micro_ratio IS High THEN Cl_f_var IS Positive If Micro_ratio IS Low THEN Cl_f_var IS Negative. rules below to be determined. 19 ): µ µ Negative Positive Positive Acceptable High big Cl_ratio Water_f_var µ µ Negative Positive Positive Low High big Turbidity CI_f_var µ µ Acceptable Negative Positive Low High TMicro_ratio Speed_var µ Not high High Water_f µ Not high High Speed Fig. c Everything is fine and production is maximum: c Lettuce badly washed but high conveyor belt save water. 3. 19 : piece-wise linear membership functions. speed IF Speed IS High AND Cl_ratio IS Acceptable IF Turbidity IS High AND Water_f IS High THEN AND Turbidity IS Low THEN Water_f_var IS Speed_var IS Negative. the centre of gravity is chosen Acceptable AND Water_f IS NOT High THEN as the defuzzification operator. each c Lettuce tastes of chlorine. c Everything is fine and production can be Defuzzification increased Insofar as the aim is progressive behaviour of IF Turbidity IS Low and Micro_ratio IS NOT High the rule base in all cases and an interpolation AND Speed IS NOT High and CL_ratio IS between the rules. Cahier Technique Schneider no 191 / pp. but there are no corresponding to a specific case: micro-organisms c Lettuce badly washed IF Cl_ratio IS High AND Micro_ratio IS NOT High IF Turbidity IS High AND Water_f IS NOT High THEN Cl_f_var IS Negative. a v turbidity of water: Turbidity microbiology specialist and a lettuce “taster” v conveyor belt speed: Speed produces the following membership functions v water flow: Water_f (see fig.4.3. Rules and outputs Writing fuzzy rules Speed_var IS Positive AND Cl_f_var IS Positive A meeting with operators enables the seven AND Water_f_var IS Positive. THEN Water_f_var IS Positive big.15 .

A triangular output This is a three-step process: membership function in fact implies an c listing the variables to be taken into account: uncertainty on the output to be applied.Operator . gathering of expertise. c gradual expertise (if it is boolean. how they are “conflicting” and avoids intermediate decisions. “Mamdani” rule bases are Designing a fuzzy rule base is an interactive used. the choice is also made to use base validated by the people who provided the “trapezoidal” membership functions as they expertise before testing it on a real system. maxima” for decision-making problems enables c formulate how these concepts are manipulated: a decision to be made when rules are which cases should be considered.Expert knowledge . characterised. the rules. Cahier Technique Schneider n o 191 / pp. 4. are easier to implement and simplify the Figure 20 illustrates the procedure used.4 Implementation 4. Output membership functions are often singletons. Professional expertise level: Gathering . The largest portion of the task consists expertise contains indeterminations. expert c an expertise or knowhow exists. conditions are satisfied: c qualitative expertise (if it is mathematical. One of the advantages of fuzzy logic is the possibility of having the rule In most cases.1 When can fuzzy rule bases be used? Fuzzy rule bases can be chosen to solve c the variables (inputs and outputs) can be application problems when the following measured or observed.Automatic control engineer and membership functions . how should you act in each case. defuzzification takes place using the account and specifying when they are true and “centre of gravity” for control (all active rules are false: these quantities will become the linguistic taken into account): the use of the “average of terms of the rule base.2 Designing an application Choice of operators Methodology In most applications.16 . systems are more suitable). and does they will become the linguistic variables of the not have much effect on interpolation between rule base. of collecting knowledge.Designer Validation of principle Validation of operation Programming level: Interpretation in form of rules . conventional automatic control should be c it is possible to act on the process preferred). (controllability).Ladder / Grafcet « Open loop » Implementation tests Fig. (measurability). 20 : design methodology. c listing the qualitative quantities to be taken into Finally. This choice is suitable except if the process. except when rules Collecting knowledge are concatenated.

(assembler. input membership functions must then be c the operator is able to modify (tune) the modified.4 Choosing the implementation technology Most of today’s applications run on standard implementation of fuzzy rule bases without hardware platforms (micro-controller. micro. it is The aim of the discussion is to identify points normally preferable to properly tune the that have not been covered and to ensure that membership functions. command of fuzzy logic algorithms. principles will act as a guideline in searching for the probable cause of the deviation observed: Validating the knowledge base c if the behaviour of the closed loop controller is This takes place in a number of steps: the opposite to what you expected. However the rule base order to take new situations into account than to may need to be modified or tuned.g. the and he does this for a production change (for membership functions must then be modified. portage c the operator is able to read the rules (e. programming. etc. 4. controlling an application using fuzzy logic varies Production changes considerably. the rules are understood by everyone. c the operator is the main designer of the base: They can then be managed by qualified he has been given the means to record his own operators. We observe that it is easier to add rules in satisfaction right away. c if the system is not robust and works in some c “open loop” simulation: the experts compare cases but not all the time. enable rapid Cahier Technique Schneider no 191 / pp. c the type of system has changed (e. some rules c presentation of the rule base to the experts have most likely been incorrectly written. During an application. the rule base must be able The following cases can be observed: to be adapted to changes in the production c completely autonomous system: the end-user system and the products manufactured. Transcription in fuzzy rule form is then straight c if the process can be simulated. These is not familiar with fuzzy logic and is not aware of changes can be of various kinds: its use. who helped collect knowledge. programmable controller. phase and requires programming skills and controllers. and rules as possible should be written in order to limit the number of parameters which will have Tuning to be tuned later on and to ensure legibility of the The rule bases written in this manner often give base. etc.3 Using an application The function of the operators knowhow and to validate the resulting The degree of involvement of operators behaviour. etc. The setpoints or rule the operator. example he can control the rule base in exceptional situations. The disadvantage Many software programs designed to help of this solution is that it is slower in the prototype develop fuzzy rule bases and aimed at micro. The most common changes are of the first type. processor.). it is likely that not all the behaviour of the rule base to the behaviour cases have been taken into account and that that they expect on cases chosen beforehand.). programmable controllers and micro. C language. computers (to name but a few).17 . their of the rule base from one machine to another). closed loop forward. 4. c objectives have changed (cooking c fuzzy logic is a “black box” which can be temperature. micro- Fuzzy inferences can be directly programmed computer. and discussion. The following remove them. example). c if you wish to optimise performance. membership functions according to the situation. However as few membership functions simulations can also be performed. for example due to a change disconnected or changed to “manual mode” by in product manufactured. rules must be added. For be modified.).g. c system dimensions have changed. degree of activation): he understands and is able the rules and membership functions must then to interpret the actions of the rule base.

Other result of choices made by manufacturers. 21 : performance of components and application areas. etc. numerous ASIC components provided by software solutions. thus a compromise between the flexibility In particular. lack of portability has also slowed down widespread use of fuzzy logic in industry. Use of such electronic chips is Figure 21 shows as an example the increasing as: applicational needs that can be encountered in c the operations required to produce fuzzy number of rules (complexity of the application) inferences are elementary and feasible in and cycle time (rapidity) as well as the possible integers.). For applications with exacting response time now commonly integrated inside micro- demands or in order to obtain very low mass controllers. steps. where they are production cost prices. They are solutions. language standard into the language standard of This is because these components are not programmable controllers (first official draft of compatible with one another as each one is the standard IEC 61131-7 available in 1997). initatives in the field of fuzzy logic standardisation should spring from this.18 . The rules c some operations can be carried out in parallel. technologies (1993 figures). has incorporated the “fuzzy logic” problems holding up the use of fuzzy logic chips. Software Regarding software. 4. Cycle time (s) 10-7 10-6 10-5 RISC 10-4 Image processing 32 bits 10-3 Control system. and the performance of dedicated hardware electrical household appliances. Cahier Technique Schneider n o 191 / pp. scale economy designed for specific markets exist (car.5 Standards Components Today. car -2 16 bits 10 8 bits Cameras 10-1 1 4 bits Control Washing 10 machines Financial analyses 2 10 Medical diagnosis 3 10 Number of rules 1 10 100 1 000 10 000 Micro-programming technology ASIC technology Analog technology Fig. thereby enabling simple “pipeline” The necessary technical-economic choice is architectures to be made. a work group in which Schneider plays Absence of standards is one of the main an active part. use of fuzzy logic ICs is used to accelerate fuzzy inferences. even low cost ones. advantageous. considered have one predicate and one c the calculation takes place in successive conclusion.

consists of modifying approaches require respectively.5 Fuzzy applications 5. conventional automatic control. but regulation applications to neuron networks and the membership functions remain the same. XX Neuron Conventional control network automatic control Data Model Automatic XX parameter setting Fig. Expertise Fuzzy rules Rule Classification bases algorithms Regulation. Diagnosis X XX Quality XX control fuzzy logic may be preferred for the ease with which it is understood by operators. Rule bases excel in cases when interpolation and action are required. whereas classification Imprecision Uncertainty methods are suitable for evaluation and and graduality diagnosis tasks normally performed upstream. the rules and and a dynamic model of the process.19 . fuzzy rules belonging to a “rules table”. This approach is often referred to as Cahier Technique Schneider no 191 / pp. its own strong points. Applications sometimes combine several of these functions. structure of the expertise are not altered. If all three are available. data for learning purposes. These three A second approach. an expertise. Unlike the first method. In particular. for example often the case in theoretical studies but rare in gradient methods. without challenging the binary c Learning fuzzy rules or neurofuzzy nature of events (either true or false) enable the Fuzzy rule bases can be modified using learning uncertainty of these events to be managed. while retaining the graduality of the information.1 Application types Functions performed The following table shows the functions most often performed in industry by means of fuzzy Fuzzy Theory of systems (X means possible use. These combinations are graduality to be introduced into notions which advantageous when each approach make use of were previously either true or false. in order to be parameters representative of the membership applied. Fuzzy logic and other techniques Hybridation of techniques Fuzzy logic is above all an extension and a Fuzzy logic is often used in combination with generalisation of boolean logic. XX that the logic possibilities Probabilities technique is suitable for this type of problem). annealing. Probabilities. The Fuzzy base rules are often compared for control/ actual expertise is modified by the learning. methods. the theory of possibilities (invented controller” were developed as early as 1974 and by Lotfi Zadeh) enables both graduality and aimed at heuristically modifying the content of uncertainty to be taken into account (see fig. On the boundary between these two The first methods known as “self-organizing approaches. It enables other techniques. 22 : comparing fuzzy logic with other control Decision-making help XX X techniques. 22 ). or global optimisation practice. practical methods such as genetic algorithms or simulated considerations often take priority. The These approaches can only be compared when membership function parameters are modified all three are available at the same time. which is using optimisation methods. functions.

fuzzy logic is increasingly example a very high upstream flow. air flow is kept to a minimum compatible the methods commonly used to control industrial with the biological process. advantages offered by fuzzy logic in some applications.e. in particular when the gradient is c Using fuzzy logic in association with automatic used. the NH4 and O2 concentrations in the control loop: this term is first transcribed in fuzzy ventilation tanks must be carefully controlled. exceptional states into a control loop is The energy used for ventilation purposes described below: frequently accounts for more than half the global energy consumed by the plant. processes. Due to the competitive affected. which is an recognised and used for its differentiating extreme circumstance under which parameters advantages. It then replaces an operator in order to expertise. Use of fuzzy logic to simulate a perceptrons” in order to optimise weights proportional term allows all kinds of non- between neuron network layers. These are available. the integrator or end-user do not Although partial mathematical models of plants normally wish to mention the subject. The resulting rules can then tune controller parameters according to control theoretically be used to help build an expertise. such as for applications. Cahier Technique Schneider n o 191 / pp. situations matter contained in the waste water is used by when sewage capacity is partially downgraded. In order to A proportional term which must adapt to the ensure correct development of bacteria and exceptional circumstances is identified in the sewage. Use of the gradient to optimise these control parameters is likened to “retropropagation” used A fuzzy rule base is sometimes part of a in neuron networks known as “multi-layer controller. tanks) to purify sewage water before discharging The designer highlights the advantage of using it into the natural environment. and applications benefit from extensive acquisition of the overall control strategy must often be knowhow or use of a crafty technical short-cut. all logic. then this fuzzy logic element is inserted in the more so since in order to reduce energy the control loop. simultaneously determining rules and membership A fuzzy rule base is used to greater advantage functions by learning. The plant shown in way all the examples given below. Air is blown into the tanks. maintenance or structural optimisation of the rule base) aims at partial failures are easily integrated. there are no complete models. to supervise a normally takes place without referring to an controller. particularly for controlling quality of are seriously modified and sewage capacity production and costs. are treated simply and without discontinuity. based in Germany. The organic fuzzy logic in control: exceptions. linearities. “neurofuzzy”. has been in operation since 1994.2 Examples of industrial achievements Today fuzzy logic is accepted as being one of costs. The bacteria discharges carbon dioxide (CO2) The method chosen to introduce these and nitrogen (N2). Fuzzy logic was produced Sewage plant on a Schneider Modicon programmable Most modern sewage plants use biological controller by means of its standard fuzzy control processes (development of bacteria in ventilated functional modules. Confidentiality is then essential. figure 23. Added to these requirements is the consideration Although PID controllers still suffice for most of some specific operating cases. Specific cases of downgraded A third approach (that can be qualified as operation such as overloads.20 . the bacteria to create its cellular components. This explains Use of fuzzy logic is relatively common why it was not possible to describe in a detailed nowadays in sewage plants. i. system operating conditions. The learning process then outside the control loop. 5. heuristically developed.

IF low input THEN low output.Excess sludge 8 7 6 .Recycled sludge 9 7 .Final purification I 9 . describe the proportional controller: Once the proportional term has been simulated.21 . Cahier Technique Schneider no 191 / pp.Sludge scraper 8 . two rules are sufficient to (see fig.Sewage water supply 2 .Inlet mechanism lifting 3 . 24 ). other rules depending on other input variable A third rule is added at the operators’ request as combinations.Denitrification basin Fig.Venturi drain 5 . 23 : block diagram of the sewage plant. the exceptions are introduced in the form of IF high input THEN high output. 24 : simulating a controller proportional term.Final purification II Outlet 10 . Once the membership functions have been IF average input THEN average output suitably tuned.Nitrification channels 11 .Ventilated sediment removal basin 4 . µ Controlled output z Low Average High Area corresponding to the Exception input input input proportional controller influencing area µ Low Average High output output output Input variable x Exception y Fig. 25 : introducing an exception into a proportional term. Precipitant tanks for phosphates Control station and Blower operating building Recirculation Grid building 10 11 4 3 2 1 7 6 5 1 . they find it improves their understanding of the A simple example of this possibility is illustrated operation: in figure 25 . Fig.

Modelling of the cooking process is both The main characteristics that can be measured complex and uncomplete. other installation functions use first rule expresses an exception due to an fuzzy logic: excessively high upstream flow. manufacturers both in France and Germany. figure 27 lists the rules for sludge recycling. as sludge deposits minimum is recycled and re-injected upstream. humidity and operators are perfectly able to control cooking dimensions. For in co-operation with ENSIA (French Higher this control type. The proportional term is created content” define an exceptional situation in the from the input variable “NOx content”. experienced in a biscuit are its colour. The two first rule. result in increased overload of the installation. a conventional solution is not Institute of Agricultural and Food Industries) satisfactory due to the non-linearities. The table in sediment due to the excessively high flow. 26 : recirculation function rules table. IF turbity AND drained off quantity AND sludge level THEN quantity of discharged water of recycled sludge High Low Low Normal Low Low High Low Normal Low Normal High Normal Normal Normal High Normal High Low High Normal Normal High High Fig. However. Below is another treatment using fuzzy logic: part The exceptional condition is detected by the of the sludge deposited in the downstream basin strong turbidity. multiplicity worked out an automated solution. c management of excess sludge.22 . These characteristics can be using their empirical knowledge. The table in figure 26 lists the rules for input variables “nitri O2 content” and “denitri O2 recirculation. Food produce The chosen example is an aperitive biscuit Automation of industrial oven production lines production line. used for cooking biscuits interests biscuit A French group contacted Schneider who then. affected by variations in quality of pastry Cahier Technique Schneider n o 191 / pp. and heterogeneity of sensitive parameters. 27 : sludge recycling function rules table. IF nitro O2 content AND denitri O2 content AND NOx content THEN recirculation quantity Not low Greater than 0 Low Low Low Normal Normal High High Fig. The For information. a high degree of recycling would c air injection. In these conditions.

l (2 control horizons.C. Other examples c Automation systems G... c conditioning and merging of data. over cooked. 28 : functions and associated techniques. Control of production evaluating quality is colour which is three- quality of this kind of food process can be broken dimensional: hence the interest of defining down into the following functional steps: membership functions upon several variables.s in future productions. based on the input c evaluation of subjective quantities (linked to variables perform a gradual evaluation of such quality). c diagnosis of quality deviations. environmental conditions and the c Subjective evaluation time the biscuit remains in the oven. One of the factors for and conveyor belt speed. Such Subjective evaluation Fuzzy classification setting is both lengthy and difficult and normally Diagnosis Fuzzy ladder requires an expert. Fig.P. Fuzzy rule The overall operating evaluation is satisfactory. but require the setting of 4 parameters: N1.23 . qualitative variables (top of biscuit well cooked. 29 ). Sensor melting prediction horizon. bases have been used associated with other techniques (see. weighting factor). N2. fig.. Cahier Technique Schneider no 191 / pp.C.P. Nu. Classification algorithms. c decision-making.s (Global Predictive Controllers) are Functions Associated techniques extremely effective.. taken into consideration and existing The oven has 3 sections. 28 ). c Diagnosis c subjective evaluation The fuzzy ladder was used to diagnose quality Fuzzy logic enables qualitative variables to be deviations observed on biscuits (see fig. “professional” expertise to be used. 29 : fuzzy ladder for quality deviation diagnosis. These Most quality defining notions depend on a influences must be compensated by oven setting number of variables.).. Schneider’s NUM subsidiary is currently developing numerical controls and Decision making Fuzzy rule bases would like to use G. High biscuit Bottom of biscuit Top of biscuit Section 1 humidity well cooked well cooked temperature too low Bottom of biscuit Top of biscuit a little over cooked a little over cooked Bottom of biscuit Top of biscuit far too cooked far too cooked Bottom of biscuit Top of biscuit undercooked undercooked Fig.ingredients.

Fuzzy logic adapt to the type of driving of the person behind controls the stadyshop image stabilization of the wheel.24 . Cahier Technique Schneider n o 191 / pp.L. consideration of non-linear phenomena and subjective parameters. F.g. economic optimisation. advantage. compact size digital camcorders are automatic gear box which uses fuzzy logic to highly sensitive to movement. climatic influences on the kiln which is several reliable parameter setting. the dozen metres high. nuanced decision-making. For Renault and Peugeot (PSA) have announced an example. These tools are available in the development “What decisive advantages can fuzzy logic offer environment of some programmable controllers me in my application?”. Schneider has thus developed for NUM a the Danish company. to method for automatically setting the parameters control cement kilns. then copied by other manufacturers. household appliances A large number of applications are now available c Car industry to the general public. fuzzy logic offers competitive such tools (e. control expertise and designer/operator expertise. especially in Japan. c Evaluation limited to competition with the other c A tool for enhancing quality and increasing conventional control tools is not productive as productivity. useful in most application areas. Moreover. PID controllers) continue to be advantages to industrial firms seeking technical. and in particular the bases. and offer simple evaluation fuzzy logic is used to model and replace process possibilities. Some twenty rules suffice for rapid. was produced by 6 Conclusion c Classed as an artificial intelligence technique. (see fig. these devices. c Cement plants The first industrial application of fuzzy logic. is c General public electrical and electronic no longer necessary. Contact and user-friendly tools. hard to find in numerical control installations. not to mention c Thanks to suitable programmable controllers contradictory decision-making factors. This process takes many for such controllers by means of fuzzy rule variables into account. fuzzy logic is now with Schneider specialists will enable users and accessible to all automatic control engineers designers to find a suitable answer to their wishing to increase the scope of their skills and perfectly understandable question: the performance of their achievements. presence of a monitoring and control specialist. Smidth Automation. c Fuzzy logic has its own special areas in which c This Cahier Technique specifies the areas in it works wonders: these are areas involving which this interesting approach can be used to expertise. 30 ).

30 : for fuzzy logic. the Schneider programmable controllers are equipped with user-friendly development tools on PC.25 .writing of rules b .configuration of the fuzzy logic module c . Cahier Technique Schneider no 191 / pp.definition of membership functions d .simulation .validation Fig.a .

Figure 32 illustrates this Fig. This is because they allow the same Average interpolation effect between rules as for triangular membership functions (for example) High for far simpler calculations. Cahier Technique Schneider n o 191 / pp. ZADEH Logic operator operation A∩B A B µA µB Intersection µA∩B = MIN (µA. 32 : defuzzification of singleton membership calculation.Appendix Operators between fuzzy sets The table in figure 31 shows the ZADEH operators. There is no need to calculate the maximum of output membership Output functions (aggregation).26 .µA NOT A Fig. Singleton output membership functions µ “Singleton” membership functions are often 1 used as output membership functions for fuzzy Low rules. µB) AND µA∩B A∪B A B µA µB Union µA∪B = MAX (µA. functions. 31 : operators between fuzzy sets. µB) OR µA∪B _ A µA µA_ Negation A µA_ = 1 . and the centre of gravity Action is also simplified.

Rules (fuzzy implications) Inputs Fuzzification Generalised Modus Ponens Defuzzification Outputs Fig. µB) Mamdani rule bases. 35 : principle of fuzzy inferences.y)) ) where T: modus ponens operator (t . implication. The implication “A ⇒ B” is considered to be true as long as it is not invalidated (A true and A A' B false): see figure 34 . and is used to decoupled.µA + µB ) c they offer a high degree of robustness in The fuzzy implication works like a conventional applications. the modus ponens A⇒B 0 1 B' 0 1 enables a conclusion B’ to be deduced from an 0 1 0 0 0 0 B A⇒B observation A’.Fuzzy inferences: fuzzy implication and Generalised Modus Ponens Rules (implications) As shown in figure 33 .1 . = Min (µB(y). This is not the case for the those mentioned below: Larsen and Mamdani operators used in the MAMDANI: µA ⇒B = MIN (µA. In most µB’(y) = MAXx (Min (µA’ (x). 33 : principle of inference from the front. Fig. Calculations on input x and output y are obeys the following formula. 1 1 1 1 0 1 The same theoretical principle can be Implication Modus Ponens generalised in fuzzy logic. µA⇒B (x. The general diagram is given in figure 35 . Cahier Technique Schneider no 191 / pp. It 2. With knowledge whether the implication is true or false. also known as Facts implications.4. These operators are the LARSEN: µA ⇒B = µA . where A and B are fuzzy sets. MAXx (Min (µA’(x). the conventional forward inference mechanism “from the front” or “modus ponens” consists of using rules.standard). µA(x)) ) µB’ (y) = MAXx (T(µA’(x). The mechanism generalising the implication is The Lukeziewicz operator behaves like the known as the “fuzzy implication”. µB(y)) ) cases the operator T used is the Minimum (known as the Zadeh operator). Fig. including to boolean values.). as the formula below shows: determine a B’ conclusion fuzzy set. There are conventional implication when we limit ourselves several fuzzy implication operators. 34 : principle of implication and Modus Ponens. µB most extensively used as: LUKASIEWICZ: µA ⇒B = MIN (1.27 . µA(x). and a deduction mechanism (the observed Modus Ponens Conclusions modus ponens) to deduce conclusions from observed facts. c calculations are considerably simplified and The mechanism generalising the modus ponens allow simple graphic interpretation (see section is known as the “generalised modus ponens”.

29 réf.ecs.28 .edu/afs/cs.S. IEEE Expert 02/90. Bernadette BOUCHON-MEUNIER. PAL. legends and facts. PRADE. méthodes. Addison-Wesley. H. Les cahiers des clubs CRIN.html c http://www-cgi.html Cahier Technique Schneider n o 191 / pp. and expert system myths. applications et enjeux. D.ac. club CRIN logique floue. M.ortech-engr. c A. IEEE Press. Mathematics in Sciences and Engineering vol.edu/ project/ai-repository/ai/areas/fuzzy/0.I.cs. pp 8-20.cmu.Bibliography Standards IEC 61131-7: Programmable Controllers part 7 Fuzzy Control Programming.html c http://www. DUBOIS. 1992. 1995.soton. 144.com/fuzzy/ reservoir. Academic Press 1980. c La logique floue et ses applications.uk/research/nfinfo/ fuzzy. Miscellaneous works c Fuzzy models for pattern recognition.cmu. Internet c http://www-isis. c Fuzzy sets and systems: Theory and applications. James C. FOX. c Evaluation subjective . BEZDEK & Sanker K.

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Edition: Schneider Service Communication Technique Real: AXESS .Saint-Péray (07). © 1998 Schneider Schneider Direction Scientifique et Technique. F-38050 Grenoble cedex 9 Printing: CLERC-Fontaine-France-1000 Télécopie : (33) 04 76 57 98 60 -100FF- 007431 12-98 .

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