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1. Highlight and comment upon fragments from three 1916-1917 major addresses of
Woodrow Wilson concerning his attitude towards WW I/the Great War, his principles
regarding peace, the support of the establishment of the League of Nations and, due to
historical circumstances, his request, addressed to the Senate, for a Declaration of War
against Germany. The ideological aspects of these documentary texts constitute an
important determining background of American modernist literature. Use in your work
the relevant information in Lecture / PPP 3, slides: 16, 17, 18, 20, 23, 24, 32, and 38.

A. Gentlemen of the Senate:

On the eighteenth of December last I addressed an identic note to the governments of the
nations now at war requesting them to state, more definitely than they had yet been stated
by either group of belligerents, the terms upon which they would deem it possible to
make peace. I spoke on behalf of humanity and of the rights of all neutral nations like our
own, many of whose most vital interests the war puts in constant jeopardy. (…)

In every discussion of the peace that must end this war it is taken for granted that that
peace must be followed by some definite concert of power which will make it virtually
impossible that any such catastrophe should ever overwhelm us again. Every lover of
mankind, every sane and thoughtful man must take that for granted.

I have sought this opportunity to address you because I thought that I owed it to you, as
the council associated with me in the final determination of our international obligations,
to disclose to you without reserve the thought and purpose that have been taking form in
my mind in regard to the duty of our Government in the days to come when it will be
necessary to lay afresh and upon a new plan the foundations of peace among the nations.

It is inconceivable that the people of the United States should play no part in that great
enterprise. To take part in such a service will be the opportunity for which they have
sought to prepare themselves by the very principles and purposes of their polity and the
approved practices of their Government ever since the days when they set up a new
nation in the high and honorable hope that it might in all that it was and did show
mankind the way to liberty.

They cannot in honor withhold the service to which they are now about to be challenged.
They do not wish to withhold it. But they owe it to themselves and to the other nations of
the world to state the conditions under which they will feel free to render it. That service
is nothing less than this, to add their authority and their power to the authority and force

There must be. Such a settlement cannot now be long postponed. but a community of power. it must be a peace made secure by the organized major force of mankind. . (…) If the peace presently to be made is to endure. I feel sure. but we owe it to candor and to a just regard for the opinion of mankind to say that. The treaties and agreements which bring it to an end must embody terms which will create a peace that is worth guaranteeing and preserving. but we shall. The present war must first be ended. Fortunately we have received very explicit assurances on this point. No covenant of cooperative peace that does not include the peoples of the New World can suffice to keep the future safe against war.of other nations to guarantee peace and justice throughout the world. But the implications of these assurances may not be equally clear to all —may not be the same on both sides of the water. and yet there is only one sort of peace that the peoples of America could join in guaranteeing. that it was no part of the purpose they had in mind to crush their antagonists. I think it will be serviceable if I attempt to set forth what we understand them to be. and our judgment upon what is fundamental and essential as a condition precedent to permanency should be spoken now. not afterwards when it may be too late. not merely a peace that will serve the several interests and immediate aims of the nations engaged. a peace that will win the approval of mankind. but an organized common peace. The statesmen of both of the groups of nations now arrayed against one another have said. have a voice in determining whether they shall be made lasting or not by the guarantees of a universal covenant. The elements of that peace must be elements that engage the confidence and satisfy the principles of the American governments. It is right that before it comes this Government should frankly formulate the conditions upon which it would feel justified in asking our people to approve its formal and solemn adherence to a League for Peace. not a balance of power. it makes a great deal of difference in what way and upon what terms it is ended. elements consistent with their political faith and with the practical convictions which the peoples of America have once for all embraced and undertaken to defend. in terms that could not be misinterpreted. We shall have no voice in determining what those terms shall be. I am here to attempt to state those conditions. so far as our participation in guarantees of future peace is concerned. not organized rivalries. (…) Only a tranquil Europe can be a stable Europe.

The precautions taken were meager and haphazard enough. That had seemed to be the object of the German submarine warfare earlier in the war. catch them in a net of intrigue and selfish rivalry. It is not pleasant to say this. (…) Difficult and delicate as these questions are. they must be faced with the utmost candor and decided in a spirit of real accommodation if peace is to come with healing in its wings. their errand. choices of policy to be made. (…) I am proposing that all nations henceforth avoid entangling alliances which would draw them into competitions of power. There can be no sense of safety and equality among the nations if great preponderating armaments are henceforth to continue here and there to be built up and maintained. The new policy has swept every restriction aside. have been ruthlessly sent to the bottom: without warning and without thought of help or mercy for those on board. GENTLEMEN OF THE CONGRESS: I have called the Congress into extraordinary session because there are serious. first of all. Location: District of Columbia Washington) B. but a certain degree of restraint was observed. but since April of last year the Imperial Government had somewhat restrained the commanders of its undersea craft in conformity with its promise then given to us that passenger boats should not be sunk and that due warning would be given to all other vessels which its submarines might seek to destroy when no resistance was offered or escape attempted. which it was neither right nor constitutionally permissible that I should assume the responsibility of making. and come to stay. very serious. On the third of February last I officially laid before you the extraordinary announcement of the Imperial German Government that on and after the first day of February it was its purpose to put aside all restraints of law or of humanity and use its submarines to sink every vessel that sought to approach either the ports of Great Britain and Ireland or the western coasts of Europe or any of the ports controlled by the enemies of Germany within the Mediterranean. 1917. that it must be a peace without victory. When all unite to act in the same sense and with the same purpose all act in the common interest and are free to live their own lives under a common protection. as was proved in distressing instance after instance in the progress of the cruel and unmanly business. their cargo. whatever their flag. They imply. Peace cannot be had without concession and sacrifice. and care taken that their crews were given at least a fair chance to save their lives in their open boats. their character. There is no entangling alliance in a concert of power. and made immediately. Vessels of every kind. the . their destination. and disturb their own affairs with influences intruded from without. (Address to the Senate of the United States: "A World League for Peace" January 22.

visible craft giving chase upon the open sea. even in the defense of rights which no modern publicist has ever before questioned their right to defend. The choice we make for ourselves must be made with a moderation of counsel and a temperateness of judgment befitting our character and our motives as a nation. We must put excited feeling away. (…) t is a war against all nations. we are incapable of making: we will not choose the path of submission and suffer the most sacred rights of our Nation and our people to be ignored or violated. Even hospital ships and ships carrying relief to the sorely bereaved and stricken people of Belgium. of which we are only a single champion. …armed neutrality. American ships have been sunk. if dealt with at all. It is common prudence in such circumstances. grim necessity indeed. With a profound sense of the solemn and even tragical character of the step I am taking and of the grave responsibilities which it involves. Our motive will not be revenge or the victorious assertion of the physical might of the nation. I advise that the Congress declare the recent course of the Imperial German Government to be in fact nothing less than war against the government and people of the United States. Armed neutrality is ineffectual enough at best. to endeavor to destroy them before they have shown their own intention.vessels of friendly neutrals along with those of belligerents. it is impossible to defend ships against their attacks as the law of nations has assumed that merchantmen would defend themselves against privateers or cruisers. There is one choice we cannot make. but in unhesitating obedience to what I deem my constitutional duty. they cut to the very roots of human life. They must be dealt with upon sight. in ways which it has stirred us very deeply to learn of. There has been no discrimination. of human right. Each nation must decide for itself how it will meet it. have been sunk with the same reckless lack of compassion or of principle. it is practically certain to draw us into the war without either the rights or the effectiveness of belligerents. American lives taken. The challenge is to all mankind. in such circumstances and in the face of such pretensions it is worse than ineffectual: it is likely only to produce what it was meant to prevent. The German Government denies the right of neutrals to use arms at all within the areas of the sea which it has proscribed. The wrongs against which we now array ourselves are no common wrongs. but the ships and people of other neutral and friendly nations have been sunk and overwhelmed in the waters in the same way. though the latter were provided with safe conduct through the proscribed areas by the German Government itself and were distinguished by unmistakable marks of identity. but only the vindication of right. that it formally accept the status of belligerent which has . Because submarines are in effect outlaws when used as the German submarines have been used against merchant shipping. is impracticable. The intimation is conveyed that the armed guards which we have placed on our merchant ships will be treated as beyond the pale of law and subject to be dealt with as pirates would be. it now appears.

Many people still succumb to violent retching when they happen upon any of its characteristic wordsЧwords which have since yielded in vividness to the coinages . 59. We have seen the last of neutrality in such circumstances. 96. as then. pid=65366) 2. the same that I had in mind when I addressed the Congress on the third of February and on the twenty-sixth of February. 1917. Scott Fitzgerald. thus been thrust upon it. I have exactly the same things in mind now that I had in mind when I addressed the Senate on the twenty-second of January last. Highlight and discuss the fragments below. The American Presidency Project. pointing out major America modernist culture ideas. and that it take immediate steps not only to put the country in a more thorough state of defense but also to exert all its power and employ all its resources to bring the Government of the German Empire to terms and end the war. 61-64. Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. selected from the essay “Echoes of the Jazz Age” (1931) by F.presidency. not by the will of their people. Our object now. Woolley. Use Lecture / PPP 3 information from slides: 53. We are at the beginning of an age in which it will be insisted that the same standards of conduct and of responsibility for wrong done shall be observed among nations and their governments that are observed among the individual citizens of civilized states.ucsb. and without being suspected of premature arteriosclerosis. is to vindicate the principles of peace and justice in the life of the world as against selfish and autocratic power and to set up amongst the really free and selfgoverned peoples of the world such a concert of purpose and of action as will henceforth insure the observance of those principles Neutrality is no longer feasible or desirable where the peace of the world is involved and the freedom of its peoples. 99 It is too soon to write about the Jazz Age with perspective. 65-67." April 2. and I do not believe that the thought of the Nation has been altered or clouded by them. and the menace to that peace and freedom lies in the existence of autocratic governments backed by organized force which is controlled wholly by their will. (Citation: Woodrow Wilson: "Address to a Joint Session of Congress Requesting a Declaration of War Against Germany. (…) My own thought has not been driven from its habitual and normal course by the unhappy events of the last two months. http://www.

simply for telling people that he felt as they did. because we were tired of Great Causes. typified by Dos Passos' Three Soldiers. 1929. and fifty years ago the German Guards officer bought his civilian clothes in London. But such matters apart. sat upon the throne of the United States. Presently we began to have slices of the national cake and our idealism only flared up when the newspapers made melodrama out of such stories as Harding and the Ohio Gang or Sacco and Vanzetti. But.of the underнworld. The events of 1919 left us cynical rather than revolutionary. squirming to blackmail in a lifelike way. as if reluctant to die outmoded in its bed. A Stuffed Shirt. Sevenнteenth-century England aped the court of France. there was no more than a short outbreak of moral indignation. During the Renaissance." We were the most powerful nation. A world of girls yearned for the young Englishman. we had things our way at last. We didn't remember anything about the Bill of Rights until Mencken began plugging it. upon the advice of the female Rasputin who then made the ultimate decision in our national affairs. As far back as 1915 the unchaperoned young people of the smaller cities had discovered the mobile privacy of that automobile given to young Bill at sixteen to make him "self-reliant. The first social revelation created a sensation out of all proportion to its novelty. Yet the present writer already looks back to it with nostalgia. a stylish young man hurried over to represent to us the throne of England. the style of man. The ten-year period that. something subtle passed to America. but we did know that such tyranny belonged in the jittery little counнtries of South Europe. It was an age of miracles. Gentlemen's clothesЧsymbol of "the power that man must hold and that passes from race to race. Morgan's loans after all. Francis the First looked to Florence to trim his leg. leaped to a spectacular death in October. It is as dead as were the Yellow Nineties in 1902. in spite of the fact that now we are all rummaging around in our trunks wondering where in hell we left the liberty capЧ"I know I had it"Ч and the moujik blouse. With Americans orderнing suits by the gross in London. we had begun combing the unknown South and West for folkways and pastimes. but presently confidences were . it was an age of excess. When the police rode down the demobilized country boys gaping at the orators in Madison Square. It was characteristic of the Jazz Age that it had no interest in politics at all. it was the sort of measure bound to alienate the more intelligent young men from the prevailing order. the old American groaned in his sleep as he waited to be poisoned by his wife. that something had to be done with all the nervous energy stored up and unexpended in the War. flattered him and gave him more money than he had dreamed of. it was an age of art. If goose-livered business men had this effect on the government. and there were more ready to hand. and it was an age of satire. then maybe we had gone to war for J. P. It bore him up. Who could tell us any longer what was fashionable and what was fun? Isolated during the European War. began about the time of the May Day riots in 1919. the Bond Street tailors perforce agreed to moderate their cut to the American long-waisted figure and loose-fitting taste." At first petting was a desperate adventure even under such favorable conditions.

who believed in a strict public morality and were powerful enough to enforce the necessary legislation. Never did they dream that they had conнtributed to it. for example. and with a whoop the orgy began. But different causes had now brought about a corresнponding state in America Ч though there were entire classes (people over fifty. it became less and less an affair of youth. (Our South. deciding on pleasure. for though the Jazz Age conнtinued. Silver-haired women and men with fine . drink and be merry. preserving their righteousness and losing their children. The sequel was like a children's party taken over by the elders. brusquely shouldered my contemporaries out of the way and danced into the limelight. then music. the generaнtion which had been adolescent during the confusion of the War. A whole race going hedonistic. did not know that they would necessarily be served by criminals and quacks. By 1923 their elders. so when this attempt collapsed our elders stood firm with all the stubbornness of people involved in a weak case.exchanged and the old commandment broke down. leaving the children puzzled and rather neglected and rather taken aback. and do not really believe it to-day. for to-morrow we die. This was the generation whose girls dramatized themselves as flappers. The honest citizens of every class. The younger generation was starred no longer. tired of watchнing the carnival with ill-concealed envy. As early as 1917 there were references to such sweet and casual dalliance in any number of the Yale Record or the Princeton Tiger. had discovered that young liquor will take the place of young blood. is tropical and early maturнingЧit has never been part of the wisdom of France and Spain to let young girls go unchaperoned at sixteen and seventeen. May one offer in exhibit the year igaz! That was the peak of the younger generation. The precocious intimacies of the younger generation would have come about with or without prohibition Ч they were implicit in the attempt to adapt English customs to American condiнtions. Only in 1920 did the veil finally fallЧthe Jazz Age was in flower. not unlike that of big cities behind the lines of a war. the generaнtion that corrupted its elders and eventually overreached itself less through lack of morals than through lack of taste. for example) who spent a whole decade denying its existence even when its puckish face peered into the family circle. Scarcely had the stadier citizens of the republic caught their breaths when the wildest of all generations.) But the general decision to be amused that began with the cocktail parties of 1921 had more complicated origins. It is associated with a state of nervous stimulation. But petting in its more audacious manifestations was confined to the wealthier classesЧamong other young people the old standard prevailed until after the War. Rich righteousness had always been able to buy honest and intelligent servants to free the slaves or the Cubans. as young officers in strange cities sometimes discovered to their dismay. and a kiss meant that a proposal was expected. then dancing. To many English the War still goes on because all the forces that menace them are still active Ч Wherefore eat. The word jazz in its progress toward respectability has meant first sex.

promptly the Hollywood hacks ran the theme into its cinematographic grave. But the generation who reached maturity between 1875 and 1895 continue to believe what they want to believe. There were a few feeble splutters and then Clara Bow in Flaming Youth. The social attitude of the producers was timid. and Sodom and Gomorrah. 1924)." Meanwhile their grand daughters pass the well-thumbed copy of Lady Chatterley's Lover around the boardнing-school and. In 1920 Heywood Broun announced that all this hubbub was nonsense. did not one particle of harm. (1919). the movies of the Jazz Age had no effect upon ils morals. that in fact they devote most of their time to it (The Vortex. 1922). "Isn't it a large enough order to fill out to the dimensions of all that 'a man' has meant in the past? A СHe-man'!") The married woman can now discover whether she is being cheated. and her compensation should be to establish a tyranny of the spirit. still assure each other in the apartment hotels of New York and Boston and Washington that "there's a whole generation growing up that will never know the taste of liquor.old faces. 1922). that it's a damn good thing too (Lady Chatterley's Lover. Perhaps many women found that love was meant to be fun. The majority of the theses were honest and elucidatingЧtheir effect was to restore some dignity to the male as opposed to the he-man in American life. 1926). or whether sex is just something to be endured. keeping up with its most blatant superficialities. people who never did a consciously dishonest thing in their lives. that girls are sometimes seduced without being ruined (Flaming Youth. that older people don't always resist sudden temptations (Cytherea. that even rape often turns out well (The Sheik. that glamorous English ladies are often promiscuous (The Green Hat. know the taste of gin or corn at sixteen. that there are a lot of neglected Anglo-Saxon words (Ulysses. Even the intervening generations were incredulous. 1920). when magazines had already been started to celebrate it and it had long ceased to be news. as her mother may have hinted. no picture mirrored even faintly the younger generation until 1923. This was no doubt due to the censorship as well . 1921). 1920) that adolescents lead very amorous lives (This Side of Paradise. 1928. if they get about at all. even The Sheik written for children in the key of Peter Rabbit. We begin with the suggestion that Don Juan leads an interesting life (Jurgen. 1929). Ohio. and finally that there are abnormal variations (The Well of Loneliness. But very shortly people over twenty-five came in for an intensive education. In my opinion the erotic clement in these works. Throughout the Jazz Age the movies got no farther than Mrs. ("And what is a 'He-man'?" demanded Gertrude Stein one day. then we learn that there's a lot of sex around if we only knew it (Winesburg. Jiggs. Everything they described. behind the times and banal Ч for example. 1922). that young men didn't kiss but told anyhow. 1928). Anyhow the objectors lost their tawdry little case. Let me trace some of the revelations vouchнsafed them by reference to a dozen works written for various types of mentality during the decade. Contrary to popular opinion. and much more. which is one reason why our literature is now the most living in the world. was familiar in our contemporary life.

(I remember a perfectly mated.teams composed. "because don't you think it's sort of undignified when you get much over thirty?") For a while bootleg Negro records with their phallic euphemisms made everything suggestive. One could get away with more on the summer Riviera. AND FRY!" in the electric chair. and sizzle. and whatever happened seemed to have something to do with art. even in small cities. There were signs everywhere: we still won the Olympic games but with champions whose names had few vowels in them . and the sober table learned about the gay table only from hearsay. and simultaneously came a wave of erotic playsЧyoung girls from finishing-schools packed the galleries to hear about the romance of being a Lesbian and George Jean Nathan protested. came across Freud and Jung in seeking their intelнlectual recompense and came tearing back into the fray. This was indicative of something that was taking place in the homeland Ч Americans were getting soft. One of its former to innate conditions in the inнdustry. contented young mother asking my wife's advice about "having an affair right away. the great years of the Cap d'Antibes. The people over thirty. The vacant lots of the Middle-Western cities were built up now . and the other. while his contemporary in prison. had to be hoisted into it by the tabloids . much smaller. the people all the way up to fifty. Pretty much of anything went at Antibes . Once the French became really interested. like the fighting Irish combination of Notre Dame. served by great filling stations full of money. There were very few people left at the sober table. From 1926 to 1929. had joined the dance. The gay elements of society had divided into two main streams. Then one young producer lost his head entirely. Ruth Snyder." though she had no one especially in mind. save for a short hang-over dip at noon.A. the Jazz Age now raced along under its own power. one flowing towards Palm Beach and Deauville. now dined in separate chambers. the less sought-after girls who had become resigned to sublimating a probable celibacy. drank a beauty's alcoholic bath-water and went to the penitentiary. the Davis Cup gravitated automatically to their intensity in competition.except for a short period in school. as The Daily News hinted deliciously to gourнmets. A dozen years later a woman might pack the Green Hat with her other affairs as she set off for Europe or New York. of fresh overseas blood. Society.P. Somehow his pathetic attempt at romance belongs to the Jazz Age. this corner of France was dominated by a group quite distinct from that American society which is dominated by Europeans. but Savonarola was too busy flogging dead horses in Augean stables of his own creation to notice. By 1926 the universal preoccupation with sex had become a nuisance. In any case.she was.) remember the uproar when in 1912 grandmothers of forty tossed away their crutches and took lessons in the Tango and the Castle-Walk. at the most gorgeous paradise for swimmers on the Mediterranean no one swam any more. There was a picturesque graduation of steep rocks over the sea and somebody's valet and an occasional English girl used to dive from them. towards the summer Riviera. about "to cook. we were not . but the Americans were content to discuss each other in the 1929. We graybeards (to tread down F.

until towards the end there was something sinister about the crazy boatloads. had seemed very strenuous of late . I remember a fellow expatriate opening a letter from a mutual friend of ours. another was beaten to death in a speak-easy in New York and crawled home to the Princeton Club to die. another tumbled 'accidently' from a skyscraper in Philadelphia. Americans were wandering ever more widely . still another had his skull crushed by a maniac's axe in an insane asylum where he was confined. 'Thad's luffly. that you remembered from a very cheap novel. who sat behind us at the Russian ballet and said as the curtain rose. we still had all those reserves of ancestral vitality. maybe our restless blood could find frontiers in the illimitable air. The hare and the tortoise. bracing qualities of the native soil.turning out to be an athletic people like the British. In the spring of '27. They were no longer the simple pa and ma and son and daughter. like a nervous beating of the feet. and Central Africa. Shades of Van Bibber! . once considered an effeminate game. I remember a fat Jewess. Persia. inlaid with diamonds. we would all have one more. I remember an Italian on a steamer who promenaded the deck in an American Reserve Officer's uniform picking quarrels in broken English with Americans who criticized their own institutions in the bar. dey ought to baint a bicture of it. It was a strong letter and it affected us both deeply. These are not catastrophes that I went out of my way to look for .an emasculated form appeared and proved just right. By 1927 a widespread neurosis began to be evident.friends seemed eternally bound for Russia. moreover. but it was evident that money and power were falling into the hands of people in comparison with whom the leader of a village . infinitely superior in their qualities of kindness and curiosity to the corresponding class in Europe. something bright and alien flashed across the sky. another purposely from a skyscraper in New York. by the popularity of crossword puzzles. urging him to come home and be revitalized by the hardy. A young Minnesotan who seemed to have had nothing to do with his generation did a heroic thing. faintly signalled. Even golf. Nevertheless. And by 1928 Paris had grown suffocating. But by that time we were all pretty well committed. Of course if we wanted to we could be in a minute. these things happened not during the depression but during the boom. God Utopian ideal. Maybe there was a way out by flying. Abyssinia. A classmate killed his wife and himself on Long Island. and the Jazz Age continued. With each new shipment of Americans spewed up by the boom the quality fell off. until we noticed that it was headed from a nerve sanatorium in Pennsylvania. but fantastic neanderthals who believed something. something vague. One was killed in a speak-easy in Chicago. but one day in 1926 we looked down and found we had flabby arms and a fat pot and couldn't say boop-boop-a-doop to a Sicilian. arid for a moment people set down their glasses in country clubs and speak-easies and thought of their old best dreams. By this time contemporaries of mine had begun to disappear into the dark maw of violence.these were my friends. after all.' This was low comedy.

There were citizens travelling in luxury in 1928 and 1929. It was borrowed time anyhow Ч the whole upper tenth of a nation living with the insouciance of grand dukes and the casualness of chorus girls. though. But moralizing is easy now and it was pleasant to be in one's twenties in such a certain and unworried time. There was the phase of the necking parties. and girls all looked alike in sweater dresses. so there were now many little fish lording it over great big bowls. there was a prize for every one. mere good manners weighed more than money as a social asset. Even when you were broke you didn't worry about money. This was rather splendid. In the second phase such phenomena as sex and murder became more mature. because it was in such profusion around you. and it didn't take long for the flimsy structure to settle earthward. where it was difficult to interest good men in positions of the highest importance and responsibility. Towards the end one had a struggle to pay one's share. Somebody had blundered and the most expensive orgy in history was over. cretins. importance and responsibility far exceeding that of business executives but which paid only five or six thousand a year. But in those days life was like the race in Alice in Wonderland. Now once more the belt is tight and we summon the proper expression of horror as we look back at our wasted youth. and it seemed only a question of a few years before the . bivalves. in the distortion of their new condition. there is a ghostly rumble among the drums. I remember the Judge from some New York district who had taken his daughter to see the Bayeux Tapestries and made a scene in the papers advocating their segregation because one scene was immoral. if much more conventional. Charm. Finally skirts came down and everything was concealed. had the human value of Pekingese. Writers were geniuses on the strength of one respectable book or play. In the theatrical world extravagant productions were carried by a few second-rate stars. and so on up the scale into politics. Let's go - But it was not to be. but things were getting thinner and thinner as the eternal necessary human values tried to spread over all that expansion. an asthmatic whisper in the trombones that swings me back into the early twenties when we drank wood alcohol and every day in every way grew better and better. Sometimes. and people you didn't want to know said 'Yes. Everybody was at scratch now. goats. Middle age must be served and pyjamas came to the beach to save fat thighs and flabby calves from competition with the one-piece bathing-suit. because the utter confidence which was its essential prop received an enormous jolt. The Jazz Age had had a wild youth and a heady middle age.Soviet would be a gold-mine of judgement and culture. and there was a first abortive shortening of the skirts. the Leopold-Loeb murder (I remember the time my wife was arrested on Queensborough Bridge on the suspicion of being the 'Bob-haired Bandit') and the John Held Clothes. who. And after two years the Jazz Age seems as far away as the days before the War. notoriety. it was almost a favour to accept hospitality that required any travelling. just as during the War officers of four months' experience commanded hundreds of men. we have no bananas'. It ended two years ago [1929].

older people would step aside and let the world be run by those who saw things as they were Ч and it all seems rosy and romantic to us who were young then.narod. (http://fitzgerald. because we will never feel quite so intensely about our surroundings any .