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The electrocardiograms (ECGs or EKG's)
it will produce can be analyzed by yourself or your
doctor. We are not suggesting that you practice medi-
cine using this device, but you should find it interest-
ing and educational in monitoring your health. YOLI f

will see some of the unlque techniques used in
medical electronics and you maybe surprised to see =,
how similar medical electronic equipment is to
most other types of electronic equipment.
The eiectr&rdiograph that &&will build pro-
duces ECG's that are essentially identical to those
p r o d u c e d by commercial m a c h i n e s c o s t i n g
$10,000 dollars or more. In order to keep our cost to
a minimum we use a standard PC as an operator
interface and output device. That way you can print
out a hard copy of your ECG or just display it on
your monitor.

Biological theory
In order to understand the electronic operation of
a n electrocardiograph, we need to understand
some basic biological principles. As shown in Fig.
1, the heart consists of four chambers which are
organized as two pumps-the so-called right and
left heart. The right heart collects the blood return-
ing from the body and pumps it to the lungs, while
the left heart collects blood from the lungs and
pumps it to the body.
Each pump has two parts: the upper chambei-
known a s the atrium a n d the lower chamber en an eye on your health and
known a s the ventricle. The atrium collects blood
between cycles and at the appropriate time con- 'learn about medical eleetrbnics
tracts. filling the lower ventricles. The ventricles
then contract and DumD blood to the luilgs or bodv. with the Radio-Electronics
The heart is cdntroiled by a pulse Kenerato;,
known a s the pacemaker, located in the right
atrium, which initiates cardiac action. It is analo- ' B
gous to the clock in a digital system. The pulse it " i I
aenerates is first sent to both atrium which causes
them to contract, filling the ventricles. After a delay
of approximately 150 milliseconds, the ventricles
are then triggered by the same pulse. which causes
them to contract. As in a digital system, the timing
relationships are quite important and much of the i
disease associated with the heart is related to tim- -
ing defects.
Figure 2 shows a typical signal as seen on ail WARNING!/ Thls article deals wlth and involves subject k 'i.,'Fdze
matter and the use of materials and substances that
ECG. The first pulse, called the "P" wave, is gener-
y be hazardous to health and Ilfe. Do not attempt to
ated by the pacemaker. The next pulse, called the lement or use the lnformat~oncontalned hereln un-
"QRS complex." represents the electrical signal less you are experienced and sk~lledw~threspect to
generated by the ventricles contracting. The "T such subject matter, materials and substances.
wave" which follows the QRS complex is generated Furthermore, the lnformatlon contalned In thls artlcle
as the muscles of the ventricles relax, or repolarize. IS being prov~ded solely to readers for educational pur-
A standard ECG consist of 12 channels: each poses Nothlng conta~nedhereln suggests that the
channel "looks" at the heart from a different elec- monltorlng system described hereln can be orshould be
trical axis. The different "views" allow u s to inter- used by the assembler or anyone else In place of or as
pret the activity of different parts of the heart. The n adjunct to professional medical treatment or advlce. jz:;s.3L
timing relationships between different compo- Neither the publisher nor the author make any represen-
nents of the heart will identify defects in the con- tatlons as for the completeness or the accuracy of the
duction pathways. lnformatron conta~nedhereln and dlsclaim any liability
for damages or injuries, whether caused by or arlslng
from the lack of completeness, Inaccuracies of the Infor-
How ECG's are used 7
In patients with high blood pressure, the left matlon, mlslnterpretat~onsof the directions, mlsappllca-
ventricle will become quite large due to its ill- t ~ o nof the information or otherwise. Y

Many ically by arrythymia detectors. determined by noting which channels that store each of the or stress test. known will result in a depressed ST seg- (I) 2 formed which is simply a nega. or repolarize. is due to irregular beats occur. It is a condition known monitoring equipment is used in sure will allow the left ventricle to a s arrythymias. amplitude of the QRS complex. S i m i l a r It is possible to become quite . The right heart collects the blood returning from the body and pumps it to the lungs. It is very vated potassium level will pro. before any damage occurs to the If a portion of the ventricle is tion is known as fibrillation. the normal cardiac cycle. They are low the base line in the affected cation of the damage can be simply ECGs with one or more leads. while the left heart collects blood from the lungs and pumps it to the body. Obstruction of an artery damaged. The first pulse. The irregular ambulances and intensive care return to normal size. called the "QRS complex. it for a r r y t h y m i a s . ment. and 6 chest leads called the V leads. known as the right and left heart. looks primarily at 1 leads contain the Q wave.000 or so beats in one day. left leg. the heart. ring at a time such that they the QRS and the T wave. a so-called "Q wave" is Special ECG systems. an ele. The lo. That is seen duce an extra. + BODY FIG. That is the area between " normalities. 3-TEN LEADS ARE CONNECTED to Latches Lead Offset Data in lC17 the patient in a 12-channel system: they are right arm. beats can be quite dangerous if units for instantaneous analysis nificantly decreases the chance they occur frequently or if they of irregular beats. $ Most normal individuals pro." repre- sents the electrical signal generated by the ventricles contracting. is generated by the pacemaker. or irregular heart used as a ground and as an input to re- a s a significant increase in the beat every now and then. a s Holter monitors. The right leg is creased work load. these irregular beats. 1-THE HEART CONSISTS OF FOUR CHAMBERS which are organized as two pumps. which duce system noise. can detect ment of the ECG-it will fall be- * tive-going QRS complex. That's 80. it is possible to predict ab. 2-A TYPICAL SIGNAL as seen on an ECG. heart. The "T wave" which follows the QRS complex is gener- ated as the muscles of theventricles relax. into a computer which analyzes are becoming clogged. The exercise cardiogram. called the "P" wave. left arm. trical signals in the heart are a researchers believe that the most Another area of particular in- function of chemicals i n the common cause of death in males terest in ECGs is the "ST seg- body. "scramble" the normal electrical predictive of obstructed arteries duce a tall peaked T wave. The the ST portion of the ECG to pre- how a doctor can tell where you data from the Holter is then fed dict if any of the hearts arteries E have had a heart attack. TABLE 1-110 PORT ADDRESS FUNCTIONS 1 Port Address I Control Pulse Function 1 Generates Clock for Multiplexer Sequencer Generates Clear for Multiplexer Sequencer Latches ECG Control Signal Byte In IC16 FIG. timing in the heart-the situa. occur during certain intervals in analysis is performed automat- Since the amplitude of the elec. The next pulse. BODY P-R SEGMENT S-T SEGMENT \ I P-R INTERVAL& I I QRS 'COVPLEX I A O-T INTERVAL ' FIG. which sig. may occur in the top or bottom of Treatment of the high blood pres. For example. Often t h i s of a heart attack.

000 ohms IC23. C36. R15.and plot-software design R1-10 ohms IC16.00. C39.00 shipping and han- dling for all other products. IC15-82C52 UART checkout. lC22-DAC0830 DIA converter s Complete kit of parts.. C24-22 pF. PARTS LIST-CONTROLLER All resistors are %-watt. heat-shrink tubing. Inc. IC27-PS2501A-2 opto~soiator ware (ECG-KIT): $289. ceramlc d~sk IC29-ICL7660 DC-DC converter 29-gauge shielded cable. C41-1 p. C37. Glenwood. and in- C31-220 pF. C29. IC17-74HC573 octal latch specifications (ECG-DP): $27. D5-5 1-volt Zener diode ware. C38. metal fllm IC30--78L06AC voltage regulator clips. 10 volts. design package.F. and design package from Rll-7500 ohms IC20-AD0829 AID converter above (ECG-PC): $74. C30--0 001 p. IC6. C32-10 p. unless IC14-74HC138 1-of-8 decoder maiics.00 shipping and IC7-Altera EP600 PAL Note: The following items are available handling for design package and L 169-27C256 EPROM IC10. pas- R14-10. SIP IC25-74HC14 hex Schm~ttinverter sive components. assembly instructions. I OPTICALLY ISOLATED 8 NOT ISOLATED FIG. Semiconductors XTALI-2 4576 MHz crystal e Case as shown with mounting ICI-Z80 CPU XTAL2-8 00 MHz osc~llator hardware (ECG-CASE): $29. C25. lC11-55257 stat~cRAM from DataBlocks. The system logically divides into the front-end e i e c t r ~ n i c sand the controller. Data communication between the analog and digital portion of the ECG is accomplished through optical isolators.000 ohms IC21. and checkout soft- C1-C22. IC8-Altera EP320 PAL Please include $5. C33. ceramlc disk lC32-7805 voltage regulator structions (ECG-LD): $53. Georgia 2 IC13-74HC688 equallty comparator B Design package including sche. electrolytic Dl-D4-IN914 dlode EPROM containing ECG soft- C35. and otherwise noted. IC12-74HC245 bus S1-SPDT momentary contact sw~tch @ Package of 100 self-adhesive elec- transcelver 501-0825 connector trodes (ECG-EL): $20. 5%. IC31-not used Lead kit consisting of 50 feet of C23. IC24-NE5532A op-amp both PC boards.00. C26. 10 volts. electrodes.-10 p. R2. R12-24. R16-1000 ohms IC19-MC145406 RS232 transce~ver PC board.00.000 ohms > 8. C28. controller R3-R6.F.000 ohms IC18-74HC74 dual D fl~p-flop e front-end PC board. 10 alligator C27.v o l t Zener dlode out software (ECG-PROG): $45. sockets. $10. GA 30428. 10 volts. residents must add sales tax. R7-E10- IC's. ceramlc d~sk lC28.F.00. (912) 568-7101. including R13-30. C34. QI-IRFZ10 N-channel MOSFET e Set of four programmed PAL'S tantalum Other components (ECG-PAL): $67. ECG resident portion of check- tantalum D 6 6 .F. 4-BLOCK DIAGRAM OF THE COMPLETE ECG SYSTEM. Capacitors IC2674HC00 quad NAND gate ECG software. C40. (D 2 . C42-0 47 FF. which helps keep the patient isaiated.00 IC2-IC5.

/1 t- I I 2 i 1 W I 2 FIG. 5-THE FRONT-END ELECTRONICS takes in the signals from the 9 input leads 0 located on the patient. The small signal frcm each of the leads is fed into the quad op $ amps iC7. IC2. BlNO FROM L E F T A 3 H 112 SO5 FF1OY L E F T LEC. and IC3-a. .

BAT +SV 1 .

low-impedance connection be- in an ambulance. electrodes are made -of a silver- ate a full 12-channel read out. the main leads together. One other concern is to prevent ing. A more sophis. The problem. CLK ------ GTLA I FIG. in a typical system. 3). The 3-lead The electrode that connects the systems are used when only the ECG to the patient must make a cardiac rhythm is to be studied. monitoring an tween the system and the pa- athlete. high voltage from entering the . higher amplitudes. harm. That is accom. for example) with much on each lead which prevents a o knowledgeable of ECG's in a mat- $ ter of a few hours. 6-PAL IC8 SEQUENCES THE MULTIPLEXER ADDRESS LINES so that each input signal is sequentially passed to the multiplexer output for processing. Table 1 shows how the sig. The sys. a l2-channel posable silver electrodes. In the right arm minus the sum of our system we optically isolate the voltages at the left leg and left the patient from the rest of the arm. you can become fairly hum. lead concern would be the shock po- "aVR" is equal to the voltage at tential through the electrodes. tient's skin. hat is accomplished in texts are listed in the Sources biological instrumentation in Box of this article. "do no to reduce system noise. electronics. Our system the safeguards in the computers skilled at reading the ECG with. power supply were to fail. is to distinguish the car- entitled Practical Electrocar. More on this later. chloride gel that provides low im- Ten leads are connected to the pedance a n d a minimum patient in a 12-channel system: ~imountof electrical noise with they are right arm. left arm. output. ticated text written by Marriott is then. plished by combining different In the case of an ECG. left the skin. and then digitally tient would still be protected 2 out being a medical expert. The tem that we will build will gener. This timing diagram shows the relationships between the PAL'S input. These cir- The patient is connected to the c u i t s can attenuate the u n - electrocardiogram via 3-12 leads wanted signal by 100 dB or more. Therefore. the pa- cn digitize them. If a detailed analysis of the accomplished by the use of dis- heart is required. In our ECG we That may mix with noise (60-Hz provide a resistor-diode network Q with it. and 6 chest leads called the V One of the fundamental princi- leads (see Fig. The right leg is ples that medicine is based on is used as a ground and as an input from the Hypocrites Oath. in an intensive care u n ~ t . host computer. In particular. much the same way as industrial instrumentatioi~:by the use of Biological interface differential amplifiers. For example. leg. and control signals. using medical instrumentation. @ subject that you will find interest. even if all nals are combined. That is typically etc. amplitude of 1 to 2 millivolts. and there are a number of texts on the combine the signals within the from shock. will collect the data in each lead. Sources for these sigiial. our equipment. try Duben's A typical QRS will have a peak the patient from doing harm to -1 Rapid Interpretation o f EKGs. we will use in our system." That means under no cir- You might well ask how we get a cumstances should there ever be 12-channel system only using 9 a possibility of doing any harm active leads. which system is normally used. diac signal from the unwanted diography.

the ECG traces. a 1-mV test signal and a powered by two 9-volt batteries to by a 220-pF capacitor (Cl-C10) ground input are routed to the X2 isolate the patient from any po. control signals for IC6 are derived the analog-to-digital (AID) con. The multiplexer is made up of two integrated circuits. the diagram. Notice input 9 on Y1. tient through the 10th lead from the outputs of IC8. leads is fed into the quad op. In addition. leads are fed back to the patient 180 degrees out of phase with the original noise. allel. For example. a n d control the signals common to the three limb dress on control lines CO through 2 . and fed back to the pa. The system can be divided non-inverting. Analog- switch IC6 has 8 inputs (XO-X7). to protect the input of the ampli. The Wilson Elec- portion attaches to the patient signals from the body electrodes trode signal is also paired with with 10 lead wires. The output of the technical details of the ma. 5. An example input-lead multiplexer. tentially dangerous power cir. they the output when the control ad- that case up to 400 volts could are an integral part of the system dress is 001.a m p IC3-c a n d routed to the multiplexer to even- tually form the reference against which the nine input signals are compared. In of this construction article. These control lines as well as the section of the ECG also contains inverted. personal computer and printer in nected to X when the control ad- tient is "shocked. 32K of EPROM. IC3-c. in conjunction with the mul- tiplexer-controller IC8. when the control address is 0. voltage should feed back through switched to the outputs. since unwanted programmed to advance the ad- channel offset. Then let's build one! millivolt) signal from each of the Another analog switch. CTLA and isolators. tient. The controller section of the the amplifier. input leads located on the pa. 9 input leads." or defibril. from the Wilson Electrode. d a t a com. IC2. causes the output X to be a high derstanding of the underlying bi. The signal from the Wilson Electrode is again in- verted i n o p . corresponding 1-mV signal pair munication between the analog fier from the high voltages pres. when high. from being loaded down. pedance path to the output (X) according to the 3-bit address ap- front-end amplifiers. Although not a part dress is 000. The PAL is 7 version. as well as for the X3 ground input and digital portion of the ECG is ent during cardiac defibrillation. The addi- appear across t h e electrodes since they provide the display for tional control address C3. the Wilson Electrode. shown in the schematic of Fig. IC7. a s pairs (XO-X3 and YO-Y3). Now that we have a basic un. version circuitry to convert the which is attached to the patients IC8 is a programmable array patient's analog ECG signals to right leg. 4. The controller are summed into op-amp IC3-b. They provide a very high in. is a n coming from the patient. Front-end electronics impedance. the off the eight input signals to the with the ECG. 7-MULTIPLEXER TRUTH TABLE shows how the signals from the PAL are used to nected through a very-low-im- control the sequencing of the input signals to the input of the instrumentation amplifier. pearing on the control inputs where this might be significant Notice that we have included a CO-C2. and so on. the nine signal inputs from the The analog portion of the ECG is fier circuit is shunted to ground patient. also that the input to each ampli. let's look at some of 12-trace ECG is derived from 9 multiplexer chip. The Wilson that each input signal is sequen- t h i s section generates control Electrode signal significantly re. That is. effectively turning ological principles associated As previously discussed. or reference lead. XO is con- would be in the case where a pa. a n d X3 i n p u t s respectively. The composite signal logic (PAL) IC which sequences the digital data required for com. IC6 and IC7. tially passed to the multiplexer signals to sequence the AID con. In addition to the and 1 output. Those components are used Ground is the Y2 input for the cuitry. accomplished through optical and to provide patient protection 'ItYo address lines. The plete ECG system is shown in The op-amps are configured as corresponding input YO comes Fig. after a cardiac arrest. compensate for input in the system. The signal from IC3-a (input 9 ) is a n d the controller. from the three limb leads is called the multiplexer address lines so puter processing. IC6 is routed to one of the inputs chine which we will construct. duces the common-mode noise output for processing. IC1-b and IC1-c outputs X a n d Y respectively. NOTE: Z = OUTPUT IN HIGH IMPEDANCE STATE One of the eight inputs is con- FIG. The small (approximately l to IC7. inhibit which. in- system contains a 2-80 based The output of the three limb puts XO and YO are switched to computer with 32K of RAM and leads from IC1-a. The analog put impedance that prevents the the input to X1. which also helps keep in the unlikely event that high. unity-gain ampli. into the front-end electronics fiers. X1 is connected to lated. on Y3. The XO A block diagram of the com. a n d IC3-a. input is the output from IC6. and two diodes (Dl-D20) in par. has 2 outputs and 4 X-Y input System Theory of Operation amps IC1. In addition. CTLB control which input pair is the patient isolated.

8-THE CONTROLLER CONTAINS A Z8O-BASED COMPUTER and a digital control section which combine to provide all the sequencing. .FIG. timing. and control signals for the ECG.


the a n d t h e o u t p u t is fed back When the reset switch is de- gain is approximately 1000. input voltage changes from zero. a a voltage change across the emit. depressing the reset switch. the output will control section which combine to portions of the front-end that be 2. 5 ) is ing the ECG signal from the is accomplished by powering the one of the key signal-processing emitter of ICl6-c through an ac. nents of the ECG signal are lim. out- put. To from the PAL are used to control IC1-d is also an active low-pass extend battery life. of IC5. signals to select the appropriate dressed. and IC14 decode I10 instructions signal path is the isolation cir. Octal bus the ECG data from the nine pa- ference times the gain. cancel frequency components of completing the return path for pensate for minute differences in the original signal below 0. developing control program. t h e power-on l a t c h The amplifier also has a n input put of IC9-a where it it is used to changes state. about 100 Hz. the LED portion of optoisolator ous bus-control and chip-select Each time I10 port 52 is ad- IC16-c changes. IC10-a and its associated compo. IC16-c.a grammable logic devices (PLD's) ble 1 lists the control pulse gener- changes. ated by each I10 port address. IClO and IC11. a D-type flip-flop sitive t r a n s i s t o r i n t h e op. That causes the collec. the power-on latch. The 280 micro. 8). A 6-volt supply for In this design.IC15. static RAM'S. the system is the sequencing of the input sig. The two 6-volt inputs of the instrumentation based computer a n d a digital supplies are also used to power amplifier is zero. Ta- As t h e v o l t a g e i n t o I C 9 . each ECG sequence initiated by The instrumentation amplifier mented in the final stage by feed. That (IC4 and IC9-b back in Fig. continued on page 46 . hence.1 Hz. 100 Hz. tim. to com. the transmitter (UART). filter. the current through IC6. sion voltage reference. as well as a n As a result. B1. operating system and the ECG puts to the I10 port produce a sin- tor current to change. It is tive low-pass filter consisting of RS-232 port on the PC. DC-DC converter. s t a r t . is pro- put is equal to the difference be. + ulator. ?iNo 32K X 8 gle pulse at the output of IC18-a. 7 shows how the signals In addition to its gain function. by a gain. As the differential provide all the sequencing. MHz oscillator. CLEAR pulse is developed at the CLEAR input to IC8 on the front- o signal is fed through amplifier Power for most of the circuitry end board when the controller a cc IC10-d prior to going to the con. and its associated line transceiver IC19. The 32K clocks IC18-a. a preci. which signal pairs from the mul- tiplexer are fed to the differential inputs of the instrumentation amplifier. troller board are used to generate change from 2 . Power for the controller board the input voltages. in the case from the controller to produce cuitry to the AID converter. regulator. and control signals from the PAL.u p c i r c u i t r y from t h e elements in the ECG design. nents. control pulses that sequence the sists of IC9-a. cated on the front-end board. Pro. ln this application. on the controller board is pro. It con. 5 volts by a n processor (IC1)is clocked by an 8. IC26. In a similar manner. and data buses. The . Addi- tionally. acquisition of the ECG data. A high pass filter is also imple. with mentation amplifier. the output offset ited to a band between 0. address. That voltage follows vide the CPU with 64K of RAM. with a cutoff frequency of powered only during the time re- nals to the input of the instru.1 Hz. V. through IC16-d to the positive in. to a con.1 Hz and the analog circuits on the con- at pin 7 is biased by IC5. C3 one count each time a pulse is TABLE 2-CONTROL SIGNAL DEFINITION received on the clock input. provide bi-directional ca. 5 volts. D5. turning 9 1on and offset adjustment. is provided by the 5-volt reg- output offset capability at pin 7. a When the difference between the The controller contains a 280. W o out- toisolator. IC32. transceivers IC2-IC5 buffer the tient leads. a ' Q phase reversal a n d to compen- sate for bias and gain errors. troller board is provided by IC30. a decode function is pro- grammed in the PAL to control the state of the control lines CTLA a n d CTLB a n d . Controller operation circuitry is provided by IC29. input of IC8 on the front-end the original voltage signal at the Communication with the outside board through IC14. quired for a single ECG. R12. don't require patient isolation.5 volts. memory and I10 chips. To correct the versal asynchronous receiver1 board. pability on the data bus. The pulse is passed to the clock s ter resistor. the frequency compo. and IC8 generate vari. Components IC13 The final stage in the analog microprocessor control. 6 shows the timing relationships of the input. and IC10-d. The PAL timing di- agram in Fig. pro. the control signals and to digitize amount equal to the input dif. x 8 EPROM (IC9)stores the CPU wired to divide by two. for a differential amplifier so its out. ing. and control signals for the The remaining IC's on the con- the output of the amplifier will ECG (see Fig. The multiplexer truth table troller board for AID conversion. vided by a 9-volt battery (BI) lo- in Fig. a n op- input of IC9-a with a 180-degree world is provided through a uni. and. p r e s s e d .6-volt supply for the analog s t a n t voltage n e a r 2 . IC7. toisolator also on the front-end 0 phase difference. XTAL2. which modu. the resulting pulse lates the base of the light-sen. The cutoff frequency for vided by the 5-volt Zener-diode tween its two inputs multiplied the low-pass filter is about 0.

breakdowns! Now the CPU must place our FACT: over 77 million VCRs in use today nationwide! arbitrarily chosen value. The negative IF you possess average mechanical ability. IC11. Notice that the outputs of the octal latch. ECC continued from page 40 addresses I10 port 53. any of the control bits Philips. IC17. 1 2 7 .e. . on the * Viejo's 400 PAGE TRAINING MANUAL (over 500 pho. Once NOT available elsewhere! the correct number is in the Also includes all the info you'll need regarding the ' -I 0 n BUSINESS-SIDE of running a successful service op- eration! FREE INFORMATION CALL TOLL-FREE 1-800-537-0589 latch. After the Toll Free 1-800-368-5719 appropriate bits in IC24 have been activated. other control signals in an inac- tive state. 0 a The same logic applies to the other signals in Table 2. the CPU must write it to the DIA converter. IC17. and have a VCR on which to practice and learn. C 4 90029 Dept. or For Tektronix. the CPU outputs a 2 5 5 to 110 port 54. Leader. . controller board. The "1" at Q 8 of IC16 produces a current flow in the LED of optoisolator IC16-a. To see how this all works to- gether in the circuit. These two pulses control the operation of the ECG signal multiplexer. Hewlett Packard. Latch IC16 is used to derive additional control signals. Kikusui. 2 ISI Or write to: Viejo Publ~cationslnc. able battery input circuit to the . and are familiar with basic electronics (i. . RE C I R C L E 108 O N F R E E INFORMATION C A R D AC 9U C I R C L E 187 O N F R E E INFORMATION C A R D I . all output bits of IC16 must be a 1. completing the tools. ble 1. 5329 Fountain Ave continued on page 88 Los Angeles..then we can supply is now on. Table 2 shows that to turn both batteries on a n d to place the 100 MHz Switchable lx-lox . the CPU must re- turn them to their inactive state C I R C L E 123 O N FRE i INFORMATION C A R D by sending 2 5 5 to I10 port 54. The other two pulses produced a t IC14 when the controller ad- dresses I10 ports 5 4 and 5 5 are used to latch data into octal latches IC16 and IC17. the Any Other Probe Ever Made CPU must output 255 to 110 port * Economical 54. that is accomplished by nance and repair-"real world" information that is writing 127 to I10 port 55.6- to use voltmeter. To subsequently activate. lets assume we need to t u r n on both the positive a n d negative battery- powered supplies on the front- end board. . a n d write a 127 to IC21 o n the controller board. B&K. Substantial savings compared to lower. understand DC electronics). To achieve that.. Guaranteed performance and quality all bits must be high except for the one corresponding to the ac- tivated control signal. OEM probes without disturbing the other bits 10 day return policy or turning off the battery power. . That places a "1" at all outputs of IC16. The en- suing voltage drop across R60 OF THE 1990's IF you are able to work with common small hand turns FET Q1 on. Data latch IC17 stores data for t h e DIA converters IC21 a n d IC22. causing current to flow through its associated transistor. As shown in Ta- tos and illustrations) and AWARD-WINNING VIDEO TRAINING TAPE reveals the SECRETS of VCR rnainte. volt regulator. First.. The positive teach YOU VCR maintenance and repair! supplies are turned on by the "1" FACT: up to 90% of ALL VCR malfunctions are due to simple MECHANICAL or ELECTRO-MECHANICAL on Q7 of IC16. . Averaa~VCR needs service or reoair everv 12 to 18 rnonttis! into the octal latch.

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