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Intrinsic concentration: n2i =N c N v exp ( −EkT

)
G

Mass-action law: n0 p 0=n 2i

N D + √ N 2D +4 n2i n2i
Thermal equilibrium carrier concentrations: n-type: n0= ; p0 =
2 n0
N + √ N 2A + 4 n 2i 2
ni
p-type: p0= A ; p0 =
2 n0

Fermi Level: n0=ni exp ( E kT−E )
F i
p0=n i exp ( E −E
i
kT )
F

Drift current: J drift =J n+ J p=q ( n v n + pv p )=q ( nμ n + pμ p ) Eel =σ Eel

dn dp
Diffusion current: J drift =J n+ J p=q D n −q D p
dx dx

kT kT
Einstein relations: Dn=μ n =μ n V t ; D p=μ p =μ p V t
q q

Δ Δ
Net recombination: U= τ n for p-type and U= τ p for n-type semiconductor.
n p

∂p 1 ∂Jp ∂n 1 ∂Jn
Continuity equations: =G ext −U − and =Gext −U−
∂t q ∂x ∂t q ∂x

Charge density: ρ=q [ p−n+ N +D−N −A ]

∂p 1 ∂Jp x2 ρ( x)
Gauss' law: =Gext −U − → Eel (x2 )−E el (x 1)=∫x ε dx
∂t q ∂x 1

dV d Ψ x2
Electric potential: = =−Eel → V (x 2)−V (x 1)=−∫x E el dx
dx dx 1

d2V d2 Ψ ρ
Poisson's equation: 2
= 2 =− ε
dx dx

1 d Ei
Curvature of bands: Eel =
q dx

Ei
Electrostatic potential: Ψ=−
q

Thermal equilibrium: E F (x )=constant and J p (x)=J n (x)=0 for any x