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The Hypodermic Needle theory is a theory that the mainstream media has a

powerful and direct control on its audiences. One example of this is in the media
between the 1940s and 50s; the media were perceived as a considerable
influence on behavioural change. This behavioural change was a key factor for
the rising popularity of modern technology, for example, TV and Radio. Another
way the media changed behaviour is using propaganda techniques, which was a
key part of WWII. This technique was called injecting the audience with influence
and messaging that would activate quickly, hence the name being The
Hypodermic Needle theory. Triggering a desired response from the audience is
an effective way to influence their behaviour. This relates to video games since
the designers of the game can Implement content to captivate the player to
enjoy and continue to play.
The Uses and Gratifications theory is a theory that analyses the needs and wants
of audiences and why they seek out the things they do whilst understanding how
this process happens. This theory will only work with active consumers that seek
out content, based on what they like and not what the media does. This process
in video games would relate to a consumer enjoying the game when they want,
rather than feeling like they should, as if they were forced to. There has been
some stigma over the theory as the criticism points out that the consumer does
not have much control over the media. But in this era of easy consumption of
media, the consumer can now freely choose what they want to look at.
The Reception Study is a theory that outlines the interpretation from the
consumer to make meaning from literary text. This originated from the work of
Hans-Robert Jauss in 1965-70. Many reception models represent this theory in
action, one of them being the dominant model. This model shows the reader
shares the texts codes and reproduces the same view. Another model is
Oppositional where the reader does not agree with the views of the text and
maintains their own view.
Passive and Active consumption is theory of classifying consumers into two
groups. An active consumer will seek media and discuss how media will affect
people. A passive consumer will not engage with the media and will allow the
media to influence them without questioning messaging.