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2 May-June 2008 Bottles and Extras

has been widely reported as having been
The Knox Glass Bottle Co. taken over by the former concern. R.
R. Underwood of the Knox company
By Bill Lockhart, Pete Schulz, Carol Serr and Bill LIndsay states that while that company is not
interested, he is personally interested
One of the authors (Lockhart 2004) sold 95 of the machines to the Carr-Lowrey and that it is quite possible that the
wrote his first study about glass marks of Glass Co., Whitall-Tatum Co., Owens- Knox company will purchase a goodly
the Knox conglomerate, identifying the Illinois Glass Co., and used two itself at portion of the Marienville company’s
T-in-a-keystone mark as the logo used by the Knox, Pennsylvania, factory (American output (Glass Industry 1925:136).
the Knox plant in Palestine, Texas. Because Glass Review 1929b:15; Glass Industry
it was based on preliminary research, the 1929b:251). By at least 1935, the company By 1926, all four Knox affiliates used
study was lacking many details. The was known as Knox Glass Associates, Inc. Lynch machines with Miller feeders and
following is a greatly improved version. Roy’s younger brother, Chester, joined were gradually phasing out hand shops
Lockhart was fortunate to interview the Knox management and eventually (American Glass Review 1926:15). In
Jack Underwood, nephew of the founder of began a southern expansion of the company, 1927, Marienville made “flint
Knox, in 2004. Underwood shared beginning with the Knox Glass Bottle prescriptions, vials, patent, proprietary,
memories of his father, Chester, and of Company of Mississippi at Jackson in 1932. liquors and flasks” at one continuous tank
Knox after 1932. He also provided a copy Chester opened a second southern plant at with three rings. The list was amended to
of the Knox News, the newsletter of the Palestine, Texas, in 1941. After Roy’s death include amber glass the following year,
corporation. on October 16, 1951, Chester took over the although the products remained constant
operation of Knox (Glass Industry (American Glass Review 1927:139;
History 1951b:568; Toulouse 1971:271-272). 1928:141). The Marienville Glass Co.
Knox Glass Bottle Co. (1917-1968) – However, he found himself in a difficult became officially affiliated with Knox in
Overview position. The company was in financial 1929 1 (Ceramic Age 1933c:119).
Roy Underwood was the power behind trouble and he began selling off some of A series of explosions, followed by a
the Knox Glass Bottle Company. Born on the Knox plants to retain solvency. The fire, destroyed the Marienville factory (for
July 27, 1887, he began his career in glass other stockholders executed a proxy raid the fourth time) on June 2, 1930.
as a boy at the Crescent Glass Bottle and ejected Chester from power. Along Rebuilding began almost immediately
Company and soon learned glass blowing. with his sons, Dick and Jack, Chester (McKean County Miner 1930:6), with the
He organized the Marienville Glass started the Underwood Glass Company in new plant expanded to two continuous
Company in 1914. Just three years later, New Orleans, Louisiana, in 1956 (Toulouse tanks with six rings. In 1932, the plant
in 1917, he moved to Knox, Pennsylvania, 1971:294, 297; Underwood interview). added fruit jars. With the repeal of
and organized the Knox Glass Bottle In 1956, Knox Bottle was renamed the Prohibition, the plant converted primarily
Company (Glass Industry 1951a:562; Knox Knox Glass Co., Inc. and divided into to the production of beer bottles in April
News 1951a:1-2; Toulouse 1971:293). northern and southern sections (Toulouse 1933. Marienville was intended to handle
Early on, Knox had several “affiliates,” the 1971:297). Knox officially became a the bulk of beer bottle orders for Knox. The
earliest of which were the Wightman Bottle subsidiary of Hunt Foods & Industries, Inc., factory increased to eight rings in 1935 and
& Glass Mfg. Co., the Knox plant, on October 15, 1965 (Modern Brewery Age made “flint and amber, proprietary, beers,
Marienville, and the Eden Glass Co. Later, 1965:3). The Glass Container Corporation liquors and specialties.” By 1942, the plant
Knox purchased existing plants and built acquired the ten remaining Knox- used ten rings and noted “8 feeders.
new ones. organization plants in 1968 (Toulouse Machine” in 1944 (American Glass Review
Toulouse (1971:294) suggested that it 1971:297). See Table 1 for the list of 1930:92; 1932:75-76; 1935:88; 1942:103;
was “generally assumed that in most of [the factories. 1944:103; Ceramic Age 1933c:119; New
additional factories] local money was Castle News 1933:2; McKean County
teamed with Roy R. Underwood’s Factories Democrat 1933). The operation cut back
management and promotion ability in Marienville Glass Co., (1914-1968) to a single furnace in 1947and was
exchange for stock.” Apparently, this Roy Underwood established the producing wine bottles, glass jugs and wide-
exchange of stock eventually resulted in Marienville Glass Co. in 1914 (Knox News mouth containers in 1954 (Toulouse
complete Knox takeovers. Having “Glass 1951b:6). Although the plant burned in 1971:295; Oil City Derrick 1955).
Bottle Co.” as part of the name almost early 1922, it was completely rebuilt by
became a Knox trade mark. February 1923 (Glass Worker 1923:9). Knox Glass Bottle Co., Knox,
In 1929, Knox joined with Frank Marienville was originally unrelated to Pennsylvania (1917-1968)
O’Neill of the O’Neill Machine Co., Knox, even though Underwood was the On March 10, 1917, the Warren Mirror
Toledo, Ohio, to make the Knox-O’Neill president of both corporations. Underwood announced the formation of a new
machine. The Glass Industry noted that made the position of Knox toward corporation with a capital of $35,000. With
“the new machine is said to incorporate all Marienville clear in 1925: W. I. McDowell as president and Roy R.
the advantages of suction feed and do away Underwood as secretary and general
with many of the disadvantages of the gob The Knox Glass Bottle Company, Knox, manager, the Knox Glass Bottle Co. in
feeder” (Glass Industry 1929a:18). By Pa., is not connected in any way with Knox, Pennsylvania, was expected to begin
October, the Knox-O’Neill Glass Co. had the Marienville Glass Company which blowing glass on June 1. The plant began

but the plant had new unit for making emerald green glass In 1927.Bottles and Extras May-June 2008 3 Table 1 . producing affiliates used Lynch machines with Miller preservers. A 1928 Underwood opened a new plant on a new Knox Glass Bottle Co. perfumery. although the plant . 1951). Baltimore. Colorado 1943-1951 Midwest Glass Co. expansion at Knox continued. although this may actually 1929a:1). Lincoln. 1953b. of noted that Knox had grown from one to six per day. Indiana 1951-1968 Knox Glass Co. It also production was estimated at seven carloads The Wightman Bottle & Glass Co. Sheffield. Among the machines were two Parker’s Landing. 1943:102). (both in Knox. Tank capacity was 130 tons. The same listing continued until at bottles (Oil City Derrick 1953a. Pennsylvania 1943-1947 Denver Glass Bottle Co. After a nine-month shutdown. Illinois 1942-1952 Seaboard Glass Bottle Co. dropped from the list. Pennsylvania. the Knox facility was still other source. Pennsylvania (1921- By the following year. Underwood was to 1928:138-139). packers and concentrating on amber ware. liquor. Knox. By 1926. and Pennsylvania (1952-1968) milk bottles in amber and flint glass. Fruit jars in 1958 (Food Packer 1958:37). New Jersey 1935-1949 Knox Canada. One of the Knox locations put in a 1926:15). Ltd. the plant had added After a three-year shutdown. only listed in Knox. Jersey City. with According to the Knox News (1951b:6). Pittsburgh. Connecticut 1958-1968 Knox Glass Co. of Parker. Pennsylvania) made the erection of a large new warehouse and the company built a second plant in the city miscellaneous bottles (Oil City Derrick eleven new batch silos for storage of raw of Knox in 1922. On the first full Knox affiliate in 1921. Pennsylvania 1921**-1968 Eden Glass Co. The operation Glass Worker 1917:1). Parker’s Landing. Texas 1941-1985 Lincoln Glass Bottle Co. There must be a and tavern-style no-deposit beer bottles” prescription ware (Glass Industry 1942:93. the Knox Glass Bottle Co. Parker’s Landing. at that point on a single continuous tank.. Knox. The demand for Knox Bottles bottles. Parker ad noted that Knox specialized in site at Knox shortly before his death in (formerly Parker’s Landing). milk bottles had been 1955). Oshawa. became a factories since 1917. bleach and pharmaceutical feeders and were gradually phasing out 1929. refer to the Eden Glass Co. Ontario 1939-1940 Knox Glass Bottle Co. Maryland 1961-1968 * Marienville was affiliated with Knox in 1926 (Toulouse 1971:298). prescription bottles and Knox No. Co. Pennsylvania. the listing for materials. Knox No. Oil City. Mississippi 1932-1968 Metro Glass Bottle Co. Gas City. proprietary. In have not found that date referenced by any “prescription and proprietary ware. 1936:93. all four Knox and amber beverages. 1952) 2 another tank and listed milk bottles. bottle specialties. Pennsylvania 1925-1928 Pennsylvania Bottle Co. with a single four-ring tank that serviced has developed our small beginning into a bottles were augmented by pint juice bottles “eight hand blow shops” making national institution. The became a new listing in 1943 (American Knox plant made “prescriptions and vials” Glass Review 1929b:100.Knox Plants and Dates to the Knox Sale in 1968 Company Location Dates Marienville Glass Company Marienville. and 1951. We Knox plants in general was enlarged to the new facilities opened in early 1953. Pennsylvania 1914-1968* Knox Glass Bottle Co. (see below). of Mississippi Jackson. the following year. D. was added carbonated beverages. Denver. closed again. of Mississippi Palestine. Wightman Bottle & Glass Mfg. Atlanta. 1 specialized in as the company was eliminating other ran the company (Toulouse 1971:298). while “the national Knox W. 2 plants. Co. but even retain his position until 1935 and actually In 1929. By 1942. Georgia 1961-1968 Knox Glass Co. pint wine flasks and quart black Knox affiliate in 1921. Danielson. “four-ounce peroxide retained its name and identity became a an extent. At the same time. Pennsylvania 1930-1952 Knox Glass Bottle Co. although the plant demand for bottles has not increased to such day of operation. reason” (American Glass Review 1927:137. machines. prescription. hand shops (American Glass Review least 1936. flint 1954. milk jars” in beer. Pennsylvania 1917-1968 Wightman Bottle & Glass Mfg. Pennsylvania 1927-1952 Oil City Glass Bottle Co. (Oil City Blizzard.

while the remaining 80% was controlled In 1925. 532). Knox Knox unit. and not discovered the changed products. bottle specialties” by machine at Derrick 1927b:1. at Sheffield. the plant was up to six rings. private mould work” (American years of the Great Depression (Glass The plant was built primarily for the Glass Review 1942:106). W. Milller feeder was making “flint glass wide mouth and The Oil City and Jackson plants were and five hand shops. The factory added another machine . at Oil Derrick 1932:11). (McKean County Democrat 1935a:3. after an earlier fire in 1925. 1926. at Sheffield and Wilcox. The new milk jars.. 333-334. $100. A 1927 Engineering Co. all four bankrupt. the Eden Glass Co. the name was changed to the Knox has a very satisfactory labor situation: City Derrick 1926:11). Underwood and his Knox Eden Glass Co. The plant was almost new. The Williamsport Gazette and Bulletin 1937:2). this December 22. (1925-1927) transferring the work to the Oil City unit. Although Underwood’s use of local capital to enlarge renamed the Knox Glass Bottle Co. (Olean Herald 1929:8). R. K. in 1926 replacing the former. Rolland. Pennsylvania Knox closed the decorating plant in 1935. Unfortunately. again rebuilt the factory in 1928 (Oil City name (Toulouse 1971:295). when Knox sold Oil City Glass Bottle Co. 1927. Ohio. A single tank. described why Knox chose Oil glass” (Glass Worker 1925:12). The no reference to the closing of the Wilcox Herald 1929:1). the plant had seven rings and 1930 (Oil City Derrick 1929a:1-3). and the Marienville Glass Co. were gradually phasing out hand shops one on February 17. Mfg. and the plant began set up to make amber bottles and “a Mfg. Wilcox. Underwood. J. The Oil City Glass Bottle Co. a friendly cooperative on the company’s operations in the city.000 tank that one continuous tank with five rings. The Simplex Pennsylvania (1927-ca. having “financially strained. The renewed miscellaneous line of drugware” (Oil City “affiliated companies. Under Knox... but Knox began construction on the new Pennsylvania Bottle Co. Underwood as president in the been rebuilt by the Sheffield Glass Bottle the remains and rebuilt the factory as a 1928 edition. By 1926. the Sheffield plant pioneered City. but it was listed 25.. making “prescription ware. low industrial original Eden and Knox plants in reports Toulouse 1971:295.” The ad also operation used a single tank to supply six Derrick 1927a:3). of Sheffield. 1927 (Oil year. Pennsylvania. 1932.. Thereafter. of the process was never popular for production by building new factories. still retaining the Wightman flint beverages.. the plant was bottles (Ceramic Age 1933a:86). a local manufacture of “laboratory and amber face of “a sharp curtailment of orders due investor. After “colored inscriptions” on prescription this is an excellent example of Roy the 1952 reorganization.. Co. (Oil City Derrick 1932:11). The plant used three claimed that Knox made “Just Good O’Neill feeders and automatic machines O’Neill feeders and automatic machines Bottles. the Owens-Illinois Glass Co. the factory was already listed both the Wightman Bottle & Glass April 20. This rates on power . Pennsylvania. milk to sell the milk production to the Thatcher bottle production ceased. as operations on May 17. By Warren Tribune 1928:5). both in continuous tank with three machines in Pennsylvania Bottle Co. associates would only own 20% of the stock.” The following The location was chosen because “Oil City company” effective January 1. the plant listing continued to be the same until at plant. bottles. Pennsylvania. Co. machines each with a Wm. Oil City. in the Industry 1942:93). packers and preservers. In 1932.4 May-June 2008 Bottles and Extras retained its name and identity (Cole 2003. Knox built an addition to the prescriptions. Knox affiliates (including Wightman) used had destroyed the older factory on January Lynch machines with Miller feeders and 29. completed the new When Knox moved into the Wilcox ad (American Glass Review 1927:136) installation in time to light the first fire on plant in June 1927. Co. and Columbus. The Knox decision 1928:94. a Knox The plant was reopened in May 1937 3 by local people.. December 1929. two Knox-O’Neill suction machines was adjacent to the original Knox plant. operating affiliate. ammonia because of their construction in the early tank (American Glass Review 1926:15).. 1931:88). “Knox laid City as a site. a The Parker’s Landing plant burned in The plant did not appear in the 1927 disastrous fire destroyed the unit on July June 1929 and the company became Glass Factory Year Book. 1932) (American Glass Review 1926:15). Underwood met with local factory in 1956 (Goldinger & Fetters named the method Applied Color Lettering businessmen at Oil City and created a new [1999]:58). However.” Underwood bought with R. 1926. Pennsylvania. In 1951. in 1932 required a change of that portion of the business to the Thatcher Pennsylvania (1930-1952) product at the Wightman plant (Oil City Mfg. Co. Sheffield.. but the city was not listed in ads after made amber glass bottles and milk bottles least 1936 (American Glass Review 1927. We have found doubled the output of the unit (Titusville 1931..” company to the Knox Glass Bottle acquisition in Gas City. He noted that for Knox. opened at Knox. Sheffield Glass Bottle Co. expected to begin production on May 1. but the factory excellent transportation facilities . it was Glass Bottle Co. excellent power facilities . On to unstable business conditions. In Parker. Fire after the purchase (Warren Mirror 1928:5). was built in 1930.” (Glass Industry 1926:181). we have In 1933.” This was the full narrow mouth food packers and preservers known as the “Depression Factories” productive capability for the continuous ware. liquor ware. (Glass Industry 1926:181). Pennsylvania Bottle Co. beer bottles. Knox. plant originally operated “two Lynch By 1942. Knox 1931. factory included a $150. the following year and it became the corporation with a capital stock of standard for labeling soda and milk bottles. Warren Mirror 1927:12. was probably another plant sold in the spirit towards incoming industries” (Oil unpopular 1952 decision by Chester City Derrick 1929b:1). immediately closed the Columbus plant Knox News 1951b:6). usually impossible to distinguish the closed in 1953 (Warren Times-Mirror 1951. the stockholders voted off about 100 workers and shipped three of was “merely a step in an expansion program “to transfer all property and assets of the the plant’s seven machines to the new they have outlined for several years ahead. however.000. The Oil City plant made “flint Pennsylvania (1926-1952) Sheffield Glass had consisted of three prescription and proprietary ware” at one Underwood next opened the plants.

1948). purchased the property on May cosmetic bottles. of Mississippi. The factory added two Canadian Knox Glass Co. Louis. 1943:174. Illinois (American Glass Review Jackson. opened drinks. 1935:87. “four Lynch 10 machines. the main backer of (Food Packer 1958:37). continuous tanks (American Glass Review St. In machine and on five section Hartford.). the entire output of the plant Mississippi made “bottles and containers. until 1942 (King 1987:151. Texas (1941-1968) 105. the list had Industry noted: “On a plot of ground that 455). Terner. of Mississippi.T. Knox actually obtained a federal Co. Hamilton as an officer.” Chester moved to Jackson and in Canada. New through six forehearths and feeders. The list operated the factory until 1947 and tore it was amended to “packers and preservers Knox Glass Bottle Co. Denver. 298). in 1916 and pharmaceuticals. Co. extracts. and. On February 1. This was the first charter on February 1. Oil City Derrick 1955). chemicals. The eighth in the sequence of and jars in sizes ranging from ½-ounce to Glass Review 1934:95. soda. The alone. Local interests. East Knox Glass Bottle Co. and rented the Seaboard Glass Bottle Co.” still at two sold to the Obear-Nester Glass Co. Underwood announced plans for the Seaboard Glass Bottle Co. The company milk jars” at one continuous tank. Canadian Knox Glass Co.. the 1931:87. By 1942. and a Lynch J P M machine being constructed (Glass Industry Metro Glass Bottle Co. Indiana (formerly the Slick Glass Co. at Lincoln. Ltd. Flint and Amber. and a fourth by 1957 Bottle Co. Ontario (1939-1940) and rebuilt the former Dixie Glass Mfg. began operating a small hand plant in 1931. Hamilton 1933b:119. Company plant.. sauce and modern forming machines. private mold work” Palestine. 1933:69. 1939. The now (Glass Industry 1942:93. in fact. By 1942. Lincoln. Knox sent several and reportedly was making liquor. Knox plants. backing Terner. 298. 1971:296. A second plant was Oil City Derrick 1955). and the list remained the same In 1942. Illinois. This was a typical Underwood plant broke ground in June 1957 to build a in 1968 (Toulouse 1971:296. (Oil City Blizzard 1952. 342-343). to form the Metro Glass Bottle Co. Mississippi (1932-1968) 1942:104).” The Palestine.Bottles and Extras May-June 2008 5 in 1933 and two more by 1942 for a total organization. wines 1971:296. for $618. He fell in love with Jackson. 156). Indiana factory in 1935. until at least 1936. Pennsylvania (1943-1947) new machines in 1933 (Ceramic Age Ontario. Dominion Although Seaboard was a separate In 1934. Knox Metro. and liquors. fruit jars. a jobber. changed to “prescription and proprietary at this time last year was a cotton field. on October unpopular 1952 decision. closed on December 10. made a “general line of wide mouth and amber beer bottles for Anheuser Busch and Toulouse 1971:298). a reporter for the Glass 1943:2. Palestine’s furnace supplied 32-ounce containers. Oil City Derrick 1942:10. Lincoln Glass Bottle Co. was sold through Knox. 4 The branch used a single independent factory renamed itself the Oil 1971:296. became part of Knox in 1951 and remained 1935b:2). as well as The Midwest Glass Company. Using local financing. in April 1939 (Glass Packer Knox purchased the J. one Lynch 10 one continuous tank and four machines. 298). Toulouse 1971:290-291. added a Knox established the Lincoln Glass branches sold in Chester Underwood’s third tank in 1950. as well as wide addition sported a 90-ton furnace. 296. purchased (1942-1952) Mirror 1959:2). Pittsburgh.” The 1926:351. Ltd. New Jersey. to a good start (McKean County Democrat twelve years later (Glass Industry 1942:91.. the plant was enlarged to two tanks. vinegar. Colorado (1946-1951) private mould work. The factory was became president of Knox upon his mayonnaise bottles. The new plant made a number plant had two continuous tanks with operated the Southern plants until he of wine. Rocky Mountain News March Jersey (1935-1949) unit produced containers for “soft 12. citizens and became the town’s most with a larger furnace supporting “three the new corporation built a new plant with important industry. including beers was open from 1942 until 1952 when it was and liquors. Knox plant built “under the Underwood aegis buildings to establish the Knox presence retained J. foods. Mississippi. glass Knox bought the company and built a new containers of every description” in 1942 Midwest Glass Co. plant there in 1932. Emanual M. 1942:104-105). 1951 (Toulouse at Jersey City. The Palestine until the sale to the Glass Container Corp. the plant The Metro Bottle Co. bottle specialties. fired by factory made amber and colorless bottles mouth and miscellaneous ware (American natural gas. the Knox Glass Bottle Co. 1940. 1946. Gas City. bottle specialties. S. 298). Glass Industry 1942:93. wine and days of construction. Despite all the fanfare. a Lynch J P being contemplated while the first was still machine. Jersey City.T. plant provided jobs for almost 500 local closed the plant in 1948 but reopened it a Knox associate. 1944:169-170. Roy Underwood worked with special factory for making amber glass of six (American Glass Review 1930:93. now ware. fruit. cosmetics. beverages. Texas. Metro continuous tank with five machines to make City Glass Co. Oshawa.” In 1954 the factory plant opened on July 5. at Oshawa. interview).270. 1939:237). after only 95 The Denver plant opened at 35th and was credited with liquor. Eventually. Oil City Derrick in 1935.. of continued to sell the existing stock of bottles corporation. wine and (1951-1968) Marienville employees to Jersey City in pharmaceutical bottles. Illinois Empire I. 1942. 298. 1939. but the Dominion already equipped to make perfume and brother’s death in 1951 (Toulouse Glass Co. The pharmaceutical bottles.. 271-272). 298. The latest Knox Wazee Streets on May 12. 93. & A.. Toulouse 21.. Gas City. as well as milk containers.. . packers and preservers. down (American Glass Review 1943:104- ware. 14. Underwood for a good location for a new Knox plant. narrow neck containers. 1941. 1942:102. beverages. early October to help the new plant get off miscellaneous and wide-mouth containers. Machine” (Warren Times. Oil City was one of the the plant back from Knox in 1949.. Knox W-D machines.. flint stands a modern Knox Glass Bottle Denver Glass Bottle Co. 1943 and renamed it Toulouse 1971:296. Chester Underwood searched the South Toulouse 1971:296..

*** Internet 1969-present S Seaboard Glass Bottle Co.6 May-June 2008 Bottles and Extras Dover Glass Bottle Co... “Knox” (with an initial capital. Oil City. plant in August 1964 Knox Glass Co.*** Pittsburgh. 1925 O Oil City Glass Co. Delaware (1951) At the time of Roy Underwood’s death in 1951. Plans for the factory Containers and Marks range extended from 1924 to 1951. PA 1943-1947 T Knox Glass Bottle Co. slight variations of the jar (Figure 2). however. PA 1940-1952 M Metro Glass Co. The Figure 1: Knox Mason Figure 2: Knox K-in-a-Keystone Mason and Figure 3: company constructed the initial plant at (Creswick 1987:79) Knox-in-a-Circle Genuine Mason (Creswick 1987:79) Danielson. MS 1932-1952 K Knox Glass Bottle Co. The factory was wholly owned by Knox in 1929.* Parkers Landing. Future projections.F. Lincoln. then Table 2 . Wilcox. Denver. PA ca. Roller Connecticut. 1920-ca. TX 1941-1952 U Pennsylvania Bottle Co. Sheffield. PA ca. ** These are tableware marks. Wholesale Glass Dealers. and work was probably discontinued during Chester Underwood’s downsizing in 1952. Ray Rich. PA 1864-1937 R C. PA 1930-1952 P Honesdale Cut Glass Co. chairman Georgia green (for Coke bottles) and in at least three formats. We have found no other record of the factory. *** Not Knox. was reported as being under construction (Glass Industry 1951a:562). (American Brewer 1964:40). IL 1942-1952 LP Pennsylvania Bottle Co. a plant in Dover.*** Jersey City.. Maryland 1983:186) (Figure 1). of Mississippi Palestine.** Honesdale. Baltimore. Dover. but the plant did not become a Knox affiliate until 1921.Known Keystone Manufacturer’s Marks and Dates Used Mark Company Location Dates D Denver Glass Bottle Co. Connecticut in 1958 to produce a “broad line” of flint glass containers amber glass.L. Knox Glass Co. Pittsburgh. of Mississippi Jackson. *** Grapeville. Georgia (1961. Atlanta. Creswick (1987b:79) noted four Knox opened a new plant in Atlanta. PA 1892-? R Helen & Phil Rosso. Rumpp & Sons** *** Philadelphia. Danielson. Delaware. CO 1946-1951 F C. PA 1930-1952 W Westmoreland Glass Co. in 1959 5 and made in the 1930s to 1940s (Roller 1968) renamed the plant as its own (Glass 1983:186). . Industry 1960a:68). Maryland. Baltimore. the 1930s (Creswick 1987b:79. slanted) / Mason” in script letters. PA 1932-1968 L Lincoln Glass Bottle Co. Knox (Food Packer 1958:37). the Toulouse 1971:298).. According to Toulouse (1969:175). NJ 1935-1949 N Newborn Glass Co. Inc. Georgia in 1961 (Simpson 1962:64. Knox.. PA 1930-1952 P Wightman Bottle & Glass Co. Knox Glass Co. “KNOX / {K in a keystone} / MASON. 1914-ca. (1959-1968) A “rounded square” jar was embossed Knox acquired the Buck Glass Co. Flaccus Glass Co.*** Royersford. during to break ground for the new Danielson. Connecticut (1958-1968) This was the first plant built during the second surge of Knox expansion. 1920 J Knox Glass Bottle Co. was joined by the emerald green glass (Glass Industry made. included two furnaces intended for flint and A list of marks is presented in Table 2. embossed with “Knox (upwardly governor of Connecticut and a labor leader 1960b:156). PA 1910-1986 * The Wightman family had been in the glass business since at least 1841. A round jar was and president of Knox. Using a unique included an increase in capacity to produce The “Knox” logo appeared on fruit jars three-handled shovel.

It is with the K-in-a-keystone mark typical of virtually certain that all of them only used Knox but it also had a J-in-a-circle mark the K-in-a-keystone mark that was beside the keystone. Roller use of the mark began in 1932. Pennsylvania: 1932-1968. J in a Circle (ca. Jones (1965:[22]) noted the K-in-a-keystone mark as being used by the Marienville plant. In her earliest table of on bottles. Figure 5: J-in-a-Keystone mark. Jackson. and . Underwood of the Knox Glass Co. both the “D” and the their new plant. but on another “rounded square” variation Chester Underwood was ousted. Georgia (built in 1961) Hazelhurst Bottling Works during the ca. In our sample. Patent Office 1944). Knox. (Figure 5) from its inception in 1932 mark for all Knox plants.6 The mark 1983:186). Patent Office. The initials stand for both The Knox Glass Bottle Co.. 1924.175) by R. Pennsylvania.S. plants at Danielson. The base was embossed Maryland. Knox trademarks compiled by Owens-Illinois renewed the trade mark on August 19. which opened in 1946. so the J-in-a-circle mark interview). on jars from 1943 to 1947. all surviving plants ca. was certainly used until the sale to the Glass Container Corp. and the “D” bottles substituted for those from the main plant Underwood in 1952 (Underwood lacked the typical three-part code used by as soon as possible. and all Peterson used trade mark data from the U. 1952- F in a Keystone (ca. plant were probably Figure 4: D-in-a-Keystone mark. plant. that joined Knox in 1961. The L-in-a-keystone mark was used by Some soft drink bottles are embossed Engravers at the Jackson branch probably the Lincoln Glass Bottle Company. The company used the keystone were a bit cruder than those on baseplates with J in a keystone were mark until the ousting of Chester most Knox bottles.” Neither author was embossed above “Genuine / MASON” (Toulouse 1971:271) until 1952.. to Toulouse (1971:298). on August 19. manufacturer’s marks. K in a Keystone (Knox. used by the C. Knoxall Toulouse did not mention any Knoxall was trade marked (No. Toulouse in Lockhart et al (2007b:41). however. reported a bottle used by the 1959) and Atlanta. According 1932. According to Jack Underwood. Pennsylvania Glass made the bottles. The trade mark keystone mark after it became part of Knox was stenciled on cases rather than embossed (Berge 1980:83). Connecticut (built in Mississippi. sent down from the main Knox plant with L in a Keystone (1942-1952) D in a Keystone (1946-1952) the K-in-a-keystone mark already on them.. Lummis and Pennsylvania (see next entry). the Knox factory Figure 7: L-in-a-Keystone mark. or for the former Buck Glass Co.S. 1944 noted that Marienville used the K-in-a- (U. in 4).. was used by the Pennsylvania Bottle Co. 1936-1938 period. HOM-PAK was used in conjunction with LP in a Keystone (1940-1952) the S-in-a-keystone mark (described Toulouse noted that LP in a keystone below). Unfortunately. It is also likely that new 1942 (Figure 7). surrounded by a circle. Baltimore. she did not name her source. (1971:293) dated the mark 1924 to 1968 and added that it was later the “general HOM-PAK (1943-1947) The HOM-PAK was used by the Seaboard Glass Bottle Co. a 1964 table of glass Glass Bottle Co. Jack Underwood apparently mandated to all Knox plants suggested that the initial molds used by the about 1952. (Figure 3) that was made during the 1940s plants switched to K in a keystone. manufacturer’s mark for the Marienville 188. from J in a Keystone (1932-1952) 1940 to 1952. Mississippi. L. 1914-at least 1920) 1968) F in a Keystone. It is therefore likely that the or 1950s (Creswick 1987b:79. and this is addressed Glass in 1932 (Figure 6). 1932) No specific marks are known for the Robert Wagner. Jackson. R. a Knox on the bases with D in a keystone (Figure added the J-in-a-circle mark to distinguish plant established in Lincoln. Sheffield and Wilcox.Bottles and Extras May-June 2008 7 lower-case letters). at Pittsburgh. but it may have been the same table. Peterson (1968:49) claimed that the K- Flaccus Glass Company was unrelated to in-a-keystone mark was first used by Knox the Knox factories. Knox closed the plant in 1951. used the J-in-a-keystone mark Figure 6: K-in-a-Keystone mark. when cited the source for his information. Hazelhurst. Mississippi. the combined with the K-in-a-keystone mark bottles were probably made by the Denver was probably only used during the first year. Illinois.

(Toulouse 1971:342). bottles not distributed by Lummis (see next Pennsylvania. from 1930 to Bottle Co. not represented on the N in a Keystone (ca. However. used an glassware. script “Lustre”in a N in a Keystone was used by the Newborn keystone found on the shoulders of some Glass Co. According to Pullin remained in business for at least three years (American Glass Review 1943:109) (1986:275). were actually made by decorative glass a primary function of any the Pennsylvania Glass Co. Pittsburgh. not seen or heard of actual examples of the Pullin (1986:257) claimed the P-in-a- block LP-in-a-keystone mark. The mark was used on cut glass ca. Philadelphia. Inc. a wholesaler in The Oil City Glass Bottle Co. 1920-ca. P in a Keystone (1930-1952) Pennsylvania Glass may have distributed Toulouse (1971:293) noted that the some of its own bottles prior to the 1952 P-in-a-keystone mark was used by the reorganization. 1890-ca. O-in-a-keystone mark from its inception in The company sold a jar embossed LUSTRE 1930 until the company became on the front with a lid marked Toungues independent of Knox in 1952 (Toulouse Lustre Jar (Creswick 1987a:108). It seems keystone mark was also used by the likely that the plant used the “U” mark for Honesdale Cut Glass Co. have been Review 1942:109). the plant used an Glass Dealers. Wholesale that the manufacturer. 1900) Another mark. themselves. Hamilton (1943) to the factory’s closure in 1947 (Figure 11). until Knox sold the plant in 1949 mark is Helen and Phil Russo. the use by Wightman was The Lummis Glass Company of New much later. F. Figure 8: LP-in-a-Keystone mark. It was used until the 1952 used the U-in-a-keystone mark. used the M. The companies. the is an upwardly slanted. advertised itself as “sole distributors for in-a-keystone mark from its inception in Pennsylvania.. . E. Lummis Figure 9: Lummis ad. After 1949. located in of the block-letter mark (American Glass “M” in a horizontally elongated hexagon Southern Pennsylvania. We have reorganization. Pittsburgh. The couple. had no need (Figure 10). wholesaling hen-on-nest glass dishes since 1969. Another unrelated mark is a glass Lummis was a distributor for the rooster marked with an “R” in a keystone. fruit jars. 2005). in business from 1864 to entry). lamp chimneys. The mark could have been used by LP in a Keystone (1940-1952) both companies. [Whitten] LUSTRE in a Keystone (ca. Another mark unrelated to Knox. 1971:398-399). have begun use. there was no 1952. However. Knox plant. Tongue O in a Keystone (1930-1952) & Bros.T. used the S-in-a- keystone mark from the date Knox purchased it from J. Toulouse (1971:506) plant.” suggesting 1935. Figure 11: S-in-a-Keystone mark. Rumpp & Sons. Honesdale. 1952 (Toulouse 1971:335). 1925) table because it had no connection to Knox. although the R in a Keystone (ca. 1937. This was probably used from about 1890 to about 1900 by R. and pottery. Pennsylvania Bottle Company and not an That does not fit any of the possible Knox actual manufacturer (Figure 9). S in a Keystone (1943-1947) The Seaboard Glass Bottle Co. Figure 10: M-in-a-Keystone mark. 1916. Since Wightman became a Knox reason for the “L” until Lummis was acquisition in 1929 and Knox rebuilt the organized in 1940. 1930 is a likely year for the mark to also stated that the Pennsylvania Bottle Co. the R-in-a-keystone mark was after the Pennsylvania Bottle Co. used the LP-in-a-keystone mark from 1940 to 1952. Pennsylvania. & A. New York. 1892) (1969-present) letters were in italics (Figure 8). began in 1927. itself. York. A more recent user of the Pennsylvania Bottle Company. Although the Pennsylvania Wightman plant.8 May-June 2008 Bottles and Extras Lummis was the distributor. closed in M in a Keystone (1935-1949) registered in 1892 for tableware by C. of Philadelphia. Lummis The Metro Glass Bottle Co.. They contract with various glass companies to manufacture the pieces under the Russo keystone trademark (Russo & Russo 2004. nor were tableware or bottles.

[Most manufacturer’s mark on soda bottles and A complicating piece of evidence is the of the foregoing jars made at the factory. Thatcher “purchased on bottle bases. the Massachusetts seal as the mark 2007a:60-61. Roy Underwood was undoubtedly a a date range from the 1920s to the late embossed on the heels of milk bottles. about 1910. Landing. capital letter marks were used by Knox plants prior to 1932:11. the K9 will remain a mystery discovered a Underwood confirmed that the Palestine. analysis it can only be said that K9 milk in a circular plate mold on the shoulder. container (e. adopted in 1918. 1910-at least 1986) manufacturers was set in place. The T-in-a. appear described by Pullin (1986:33) as used by notation. 10 = 10 ounces). of mold numbers the mark of the Sheffield. to emboss a “seal” on each bottle from 1909 mark of ABC2. sections: a two- 1934) the K-in-a-keystone was not adopted until and good-will..). of Knox. Fidelity Glass Co. The number “9” Several companies used the keystone state required each dairy to have embossed was assigned to Knox.” The specific “seal” These marks are found in at least three jars. If to the manufacture and sale of milk bottles. this usage.g. The numbers were Massachusetts K9 the plant was more likely sold in 1952.” for example.9 are found on shoulder seals only in the “MASS / K9 / The history of Knox is very straight bottles. The manufacturer’s marks during the 1950s or Pennsylvania. This was codes – but are not. it is coincidental rather than of his more prominent plants. Bottles with an set of molds. used from 1929 to 1953. Bottles followed by another dash. published in Bottle & Glass Company. 1930:91).” number “1. or 67). molds and name-plates. when the entire have found for milk bottle production by Knox Codes Knox system adopted the K-in-a-keystone Knox was 1930 (American Glass Review Jack Under- mark. the components of U in a Keystone (1930-1952) The resolution of these apparently the Knox system Toulouse (1971:293) noted that this was conflicting lines of evidence is fairly simple. This system continued in to 1947. although bottle machines. in the 1928 Massachusetts originally “P” was already in use by the Wightman Bulletin (Schadlich and Schadlich 1989). especially on on its bottles a “seal. 54-B-10). containers to dairies within its jurisdiction purchased the company and began using a We have not yet deciphered their meanings. was assigned to 1960s (such as A53. and a final one- that time. bottles. (Milk Dealer early date is also probably a year early. “registered circa 1910. 1932. with giant of the glass industry and a tremendous 1930s. The The “K” in the mark obviously the first two digits seem to denote a year obvious connection is to Underwood. it is unlikely that any other keystone Co. mark were presumably made by Knox two numerals signify the capacity of the Toulouse failed to explain his reasons for before the Thatcher purchase. The company’s marks are common marks but finally concluded. or K. exhibiting both the K9 designation and a or two-digit numeral (e. A more success. A57. a a date code.” the letter represents the type (see LP in a Keystone above) and may have embossed K9 but lacking any Thatcher of container (B = Beverages). although it had to have begun at wood explained least two years earlier. and the final been used until 1952.” (Oil City Derrick followed by a dash. Pennsylvania. These bottles lack date codes. these codes in conjunction with bottle manufacturers selling milk its bottles FG2 until the Atlantic Bottle Co. the “J” mark are obviously not date codes. but it was used consistently by have a date code to the right of the the Westmoreland Glass Co. virtually all milk bottle manufacturers. This replaced the system used sequential order to at least 52 (the L52 mark Other Keystone Marks during the preceding decade whereby the used by Lamb Glass Co. except the West Coast. adopted the K-in-a-keystone mark The State of Massachusetts required the LGCo mark. Since the Lockport Glass Co.. a single. Although this line of inquiry has drink bottle). The certain Hartford Empire licenses relating embossed in three seal. Some bottles with the Unrelated to Knox. The earliest listing we plant from 1941 until 1952. “K9” is found on Massachusetts Discussion and Conclusions Marks of K9. We have not Both Jimmy Odom and Jack Beyond that. of Knox Glass Bottle digit numeral 1930. In December. yet to be fully researched. national numbering system for milk bottle Other two-digit codes appear to be date W in a Keystone (ca. like the rest K9 used by that company in conjunction with of Knox. this mark was probably not an official federal government J-in-a-keystone mark. mark with no enclosed letter. at Parker’s Blodget (2006:8) also identified “K9” in Lockhart et al. Grapeville. although it was used by conglomerate and its eventual decline and although Giarde (1980:118-119) suggested at least 1914 (Figure 12). Pennsylvania. . for example. The “T” in the listing of the mark as belonging to the Knox discussion was keystone probably stood for Texas. etc. plant. Figure 12: plant. and was consistently the Jackson. since the Glass Bottle Co. Mississippi. marked in 1952.. Porter 1935:1518). K-9.] keystone mark was used by the Palestine identifying Knox.” specific reason for Texas.Bottles and Extras May-June 2008 9 T in a Keystone (1941-1952) bottles should be attributed to Thatcher. Even if assigning this mark to Sheffield.g. plant used the T-in-a-keystone The researchers have arrived. “In the final unusual configuration is “SEALED / K9” on bottles throughout the United States. The This is a more likely initial mark for Thatcher mark were clearly made by first two-digits identify the “number for the the plant than the block LP in a keystone Thatcher after 1932. but it indicated Knox. Giarde attempted to explain the and without the Massachusetts seal. both with or without a Thatcher SEAL” format. but the number “9” is less (as in the 54 example from an El Paso soft seems he would have used the mark on one obvious. until some researcher finds the answer. Pa. a configuration officially forward. Unfortunately. showing the development of a mark. The mark is also sale. used by Knox contained the “K9” locations and configurations on milk designation.

mark connected to the Sheffield factory.” Glass Industry 6(6):135- 136.” Glass Industry 1942 Glass Factory Yearbook and Directory. Schedule. Seaboard) or the city of operation (J for Creswick. obvious and uncharacteristic. American Brewer webpage. if Lummis 1931 Glass Factory Yearbook and Directory. Museum of Beverage Containers and Advertising.. Karen.” Glass Industry 26(7):351.” American Brewer 2003. 41(2):67-68. May manager.” Minnetrista Cultural Center keystone is generally fairly obvious. P for Parker’s Landing). distributed products for Sheffield.htm the name of the plant (M for Metro. Pennsylvania. put us in touch with Jack Ceramic Age [1999] Butler County: The Second Hundred Years. were identical (K for Knox. Glass Industry 23(3):91-93). http://fruitjar.” Glass Worker We want to thank David Andrews Archaeology in Western Utah. American Glass Review. the letter “U” in the keystone was a third Pennsylvania. why would he not have selected American Glass Review. It is possible that the “U” mark American Glass Review. keystone. Vol.. 1987b The Fruit Jar Works.10 May-June 2008 Bottles and Extras The choice of letters to insert in the Cole. 1987 Glass in Canada. Acknowledgments Berge. Food Packer 1958a Advertisement: “How Planned Progress at 1929a Glass Factory Yearbook and Directory. Most letters reflect 1964 “New Diggings for Knox. Pittsburgh. Volume 5. Pittsburgh. The LP for both Lummis Grand Rapids. Ceramic Age 21:86. and U American Glass Review. Knox Mississippi bottles with us. Millersville. Thomas B. Pennsylvania. Paul. Glass Industry 32(11):562). An entirely separate mark American Glass Review. different.org/Standardization. Ralph and Audrey Fetters Jimmy. for Lummis. in turn. the original Marienville plant or the one at 1960a “The Glass Industry – 1959. American Glass Review. American Glass Review. Roy Underwood. Knox. and the Pennsylvania Glass Co. Interactive Book. Packer 39(3):37. 18(4):237. Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania. Listing Jars Made Jackson.” 1934 Glass Factory Yearbook and Directory. February although inconsistent. why would Machine. 1923 “The Week in Review. make sense. Pennsylvania. unable to find an actual example of either American Glass Review.. Pennsylvania.” Glass Industry 10(1):18. Privately printed. 6.” Glass Industry 41(3):159. nephew of the Knox founder. 1929a “New Knox-O’Neill Suction Feed Bottle distributed the Sheffield glass. New Glass Co. Mexico. although 1926 “The Newest Bottle Plant in the East. Commoner Publishing Co. Made Circa 1900 to Modern. a jobber. Utah. Pennsylvania. 1933a “Increases Operation in Decorating Division. Pittsburgh. the T for the Palestine plant likely 1927 Glass Factory Yearbook and Directory. & Tom 1917d “Building a New Bottle Plant. while 1928 Glass Factory Yearbook and Directory.” The connection to Roy Underwood is both 1935 Glass Factory Yearbook and Directory. 1930 Glass Factory Yearbook and Directory. 1980 Simpson Springs Station: Historical 1925 “Plan New Glass Factory. Michigan. American Glass Review 48(52):15. Underwood. Underwood Killed in Auto Crash. Knox Glass Increases Customer Satisfaction. Volume II. Bottle Machine. and later owner of the Underwood 1933b “To Expand Glass Works. Bureau of Land Management. directing us to Jimmy Odom. in 1940. sometimes both the city and plan names American Glass Review 45(41):15. An 35(36):1. Pennsylvania. for sharing his information on the early 1933c “Glass Company Adopts Full Production King. Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania. Pittsburgh.” Circa 1820 to 1920’s. Michigan. Pittsburgh. According to Toulouse – who did American Glass Review. Cultural Resource 44(23):12. the italicized LP in a keystone makes sense. Pittsburgh. At this point. Richard H. and it may not exist. Underwood to Head Knox Glass Underwood wished to display his ego in that 1936 Glass Factory Yearbook and Directory. Pennsylvania. . 1951a “R.” Food However the use of LP. Knox plant. LP. Listing Jars American Glass Review. Thanks also to Robert Wagner 21:119. However.” Glass Industry 10(10):251- 1933 Glass Factory Yearbook and Directory.” Glass Worker 1992 Handbook of Painted Label Soda Bottles. the company need a second mark? If it did 1932 Glass Factory Yearbook and Directory. Pittsburgh. 252.” Glass Industry speculation. First. Includes reprint of the Glass Trade Directory for 1945 “Knox Announces Two New Plants and New not explain the reason for his assertion – 1904.” Glass Industry 7(8):181-185. Texas.” Glass Industry 32(11):568. is also pretty obvious. 1926 “New Plant of Sheffield Glass Bottle The block LP is more difficult to justify. Pittsburgh.. Boston Mills Press. Pennsylvania. Pittsburgh. worker at the Palestine. L for Lincoln). Since the Lummis Glass Co. a former Knox plant Jones. – all for the Sheffield. Alice American Glass Review 1987a The Fruit Jar Works. series of marks for Sheffield just does not 1960b “Companies . 1925 “Trade Activities. a former Series No. Pennsylvania. we have been 1943 Glass Factory Yearbook and Directory. Pennsylvania. plant – requires a bit of discussion and 1929b “Knox-O’Neill Company Expansion Plan. use another mark – presumably for products American Glass Review. Dale L.R. the flagship factory for the firm? The American Glass Review. Pittsburgh. 1929b “Knox-O’Neill Discusses Vacuum Bottle it distributed for itself. Ontario. Douglas M.” Glass Packer the block LP in a keystone or the U in a 1944 Glass Factory Yearbook and Directory. fashion. I. 1942 “From Cotton Field to Bottle Plant in 95 Days. R. Glass Packer 1939 “Knox Group Enters Canada.” Ceramic Age 21:119. Pittsburgh. Leybourne.” Glass Worker 42(21):9. S for 97(8):40). Pittsburgh. Pittsburgh. Pittsburgh. References: 2003 “Standardization.” Privately published. Muskegon. would seem more appropriate. Company.” Ceramic Age 1965 The Bottle Trail.. Goldinger. Tenn. Associates. First published in Glass Chatter. N. was only used by Sheffield from its Glass Worker inception until the introduction of Lummis Bates. why include the “L” Machine Situation. indicated Texas. American Glass Review. If 1951b “C. Nara Vista.

” Oil 1944 “Trade-Mark 188. and Thomas Wightman. Wallace-Homestead. ‘Horatio Alger of Glass Co. New Castle News Titusville Herald 1933 “Glass Company at Marienville Will Make Beer 1929 “Glass Company Plant Near Oil City to Be however. 1 Toulouse (1971:298) placed the date Lockhart. 1990] “Milk Bottles Marked by Manufacturers 1927. present glass furnace holds out. The company 1930 “Glass Bottle Plant Wrecked by Blast is to be 1983 Standard Fruit Jar Reference.” Oil City Warren Tribune Derrick.” Knox News Williamsport Gazette and Bulletin November:1-2. noted that the factory had been Bottles. from 1893 to 1916.” 1927 “Sheffield. placed the date of acquisition at 1961. Bottles and Extras 18(4):53-65.” Boost. 1928 “To Reopen Factory. March 10.. Pete Schulz. Paris. . January 19. 1953:14.” Warren Times-Mirror. December 31.” Oil 1949 “Knox Planning Reopening of Oil City Plant. Wightman. When the Co. Jr. Maryland. plants.” Warren Tribune. June 5.” Oil City 1971 Bottle Makers and Their Marks. 1955:A10. November 6. Julian Harrison from the factory. 4 City Blizzard. Feb. 1968 400 Trademarks on Glass.S.” Engineering Staff in 1954. Warren Times-Mirror. January 3. In 1840 or 1841. June 27. The younger Wightman Names from the Seventeenth to the Twentieth struck out on his own as Thomas Wightman 1935b “Bottle Factory Employes (sic) Leave for Century.” 1953b “Glass Bottle Company Plant Resumes of connection with Knox at 1926.” Oil City Footnotes: Derrick. the sons. July 26.” Pullin. Moses Lorenz 1933:3. Takoma. Rocky Mountain News News March 12. 1951a “Roy Underwood. teamed up with 1935a “Sheffield to Lose Glass Decorating Plant. Plant. Doubles mysterious. Dick Glass Co. January 20.” Oil City Derrick. all currently dated beginning 1930. Wightman Olean Herald.” Oil City Derrick. Warren Times-Mirror article.” Warren Mirror. and 1927a “Knox Glass Bottle Works Takes Over Wilcox 1917 “Glass Company at Knox. The Gazette and Bulletin. Bill.” McKean County Democrat.” 1962 “The Glass Industry – 1961. Glass Industry (1942:93) put the year (incorrectly) at 1941.” Bottles and Extras 18(6):40-43.Bottles and Extras May-June 2008 11 Knox News 1943 “Knox Associates Purchases Plant of Hamilton February 3. Bill 2004 “Knox Glass and the Marks Toulouse Missed. New Jersey. we have not 1928 “Plant Starts.” Warren Tribune. Arthur G. 1929 “Glass Plants to Expand in Pennsylvania. December 23. Co. Pending further research. 3 There is a bit of confusion here. and Bill Lindsey 1955 “Knox Glass Bottle Boosts Capacity. 1948 Advertisement “Every Knox Container a 1937 “Sheffield Glass Plant to Re-Open. Washington in 1854.” Milk [ca. Operations. Glass Bottle Company During 1952. McKean County Democrat joined Frederick Lorenz as Lorenz & 1933 “Marienville Bottle Plant Starts Making Peterson. March 1.” Unpublished manuscript.S. and they apparently broke up Bottles. Thomas Toulouse (1971:298) erroneously Blizzard. However.” U. Flaccus Glass Olean Herald Pittsburgh glass plants.” McKean County Miner. This probably means that the decorating plant was a separate unit Oil City Blizzard Toulouse.” Titusville Herald July 8. and Jobbers.” Warren Mirror. Louis Wightman Bottle & Glass Mfg.” Oil City Derrick. of the Knox keystone marks were used until City Derrick. Oil City Derrick. In 1863.” Oil City Derrick. College Press. Dealer 23(6):27-28. Camden. Wightman. July 31. December 31. Patent Office. March 28. The Modern Brewery Age Simpson. 1951 “Knox Glass Bottle Plant is Reopened. this only affects marks Warren Mirror used by the Oil City. Rebuilt. 1951:8. Wightman was a junior partner in William McCully & Co. 1953:22. Anne Geffken Alexander Nimick to form another Lorenz McKean County Democrat. partnership from 1883 to 1893 and operated under the name of the Thomas Wightman McKean County Miner Roller. 6 Oil City Derrick U. & Co.175.” McKean County Democrat. October 3. 43(2):63-67. 1929b “Advantages of Oil City are Recited. about 1934 Advertisement: “Thatcher Bottles. All others 1927b “Plant of Knox Glass Bottle is Destroyed. June 21.” Oil City Derrick. the owners of several 2007b “The Dating Game: The C. Illinois. Industry’ Dies October 16th. 19. Pennsylvania Bottle Co.” Oil City Derrick. Pennsylvania. 1932. January 19. Acorn Press. in 1874. H. 4. The firm became a limited Jersey City.” New Castle News March 24.” partnership dissolved in 1851. Thomas Nelson & Sons. February 2. 1929a “Knox Glass Bottle Co. 1986 Glass Signatures Trademarks and Trade & Wightman. idle since 1932. July 10. May 30. became the Wightman Bottle & Glass Co.” Oil 1969 Fruit Jars. Memorial of Roy’s Leadership Ability. December 10. 1951b “Knox Network of 12 Plants is Living Williamsport Gazette and Bulletin March 29. 1932 “150 Will Get Jobs as Plant Here Reopens. Thomas 2007a “The Dating Game: Thatcher Glass Mfg. were already dated at 1932 or later. 2 Bottles & Extras 15(1):62-63. in 1916 and changed a final time to the Milk Dealer Schadlich. July 27.” likely one or two weeks. Carol Serr. 5 1952 “Sale of Plant Confirmed Here. Nelson.” City Derrick.. Oil City Derrick. Radnor. Democrat stated that the Sheffield plant 1965 “Hunt Foods Closing Knox Glass Deal. 65. 1948. Rebuilt. New York. to Locate Plant Here changed dates on the three factories in this Soon. The position of the Wightman plant in the Knox scheme is somewhat Lockhart.” Glass Industry would continue production “as long as the Modern Brewery Age 72(15):3. April 20. 1952:1.” Knox News 1953a “Extensive Expansion Project Started by Knox November:6. Co. Patent Office This makes it highly likely that none 1926 “Eden Glass Knox Glass Trade Stock.E. 1942 “New Knox Glass Plant Opened. 1951:10.L.” 1951 “Pleasant Township.