Circuit Fundamentals
Shilpi Gupta
Dept. of Electrical Engineering
IIT Kanpur
Jan 10, 2017
1
Examination Schedule
Tutorial miniQuiz (10 minutes) every Tuesday in the first 10 minutes
of the tutorial.
1st Major Quiz: Tuesday, Jan 24, 2017, 5.056.00 PM during tutorial
hours in the respective tutorial classrooms.
Midsemester examination: Week of Feb 27Mar 4, 2017
2nd Major Quiz: Tuesday, Feb 14, 2017, 5.056.00 PM during tutorial
hours in the respective tutorial classrooms.
3rd Major Quiz: Saturday, Apr 1, 2017, 5.056.00 PM during tutorial
hours in the respective tutorial classrooms.
Laboratory Examination: Week of Apr 1721, 2017
Endsemester Examination: Week of Apr 24 May 3, 2017
2
Recap
Current is time rate of flow of electrical charge
The units are amperes (A), which are equivalent to
coulombs per second (C/s)
Current has a magnitude and a direction
I
1016 electrons flow per second
Direction of current flow is opposite to direction of electron
flow 3
Recap
DC current: current is constant with time
AC current: current with varying with time, reversing direction periodically
Voltage
Voltage difference is a Source of current flow
DC and AC voltage sources
12V
0V
Electrical Circuit
Connection of several circuit elements in
closed paths by conductors
Recap
Resistance
v
R
Conductance G = 1/R i
i
G
v
Recap
A
B
6
Recap
Dependence on Physical Parameters
Any electrical element which obeys ohms law can be modeled as a resistor
7
Power and Energy
12V
Q
X
How much energy did the charge Q lose?
0V Ans: Q x 12 Joules
This energy is taken from the voltage source and delivered
to the circuit element
8
12V
I
X
In 1 second, how much charge flows through
0V the element X?
Ans: Q = I
Every time a charge Q goes from 12V to 0V it transfers energy
Qx12 J to the element X
Total Energy transferred in 1 second = I x 12 J
Power = Energy/time P = I x 12 Watts
Joules/second = watts P=IxV
9
A charge of 1 coulomb receives or delivers an energy of 1 joule in moving
through a voltage of 1 volt.
Let w represent energy
10
Power
V1
I
X
V2
If V1 > V2 then P is positive and it means that power is being
delivered to the electrical element X
If V1 < V2 then P is negative and it means that power is being
extracted from the electrical element X.
X is a source of power !
11
Note on direction of current
2A X 2A
X
12
Examples
12V
1A P= ?
X
6V
12V P= ?
1A
X
Power is supplied by element
6V
X instead of dissipation 13
6V P= ?
1A
X
12V
power is being delivered to the
electrical element X
14
There is only one battery in the circuit. Can you find which
element is a battery?
A battery is a source of power, so Power dissipated is negative
Answer is C
15
Power dissipated in a Resistor
+ i
v

16
Circuit Analysis
What is current in R2 ?
Procedure:
Use Kirchhoff's voltage law (KVL) and Kirchhoff's Current law
(KCL) to transform the circuit into a set of equations whose
solution gives the required voltage or current value
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Engineering Analysis
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Nodes and loops
Node: A point where 2 or more circuit elements are connected.
19
A loop is formed by tracing a closed path through circuit
elements without passing through any intermediate node more
than once
This is not a valid loop !
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Kirchhoff's Current Law (KCL)
Sum of currents entering a node is equal to sum of currents
leaving a node
Conservation of charge!
21
Kirchhoff's Current Law (KCL)
Net current entering a node is zero
Current entering a node is considered positive and current
leaving a node is considered as negative
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Examples:
23
Examples:
24
Example
25
KCL: More general formulation
The sum of currents entering/leaving a closed surface is zero.
i2
i1
R1 R3
VS R2 R4 IX
i3 i4
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Series Circuit
Two elements are connected in series if there is no other
element connected to the node joining them
A, B and C are in series
The elements have the same current going through them
27
A and B are in series E, F and G are in series
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Kirchhoff's Voltage Law (KVL)
The algebraic sum of the voltages equals zero for any
closed path (loop) in an electrical circuit
Conservation of energy!
29
Example
30
Parallel Circuits
Two elements are connected in parallel if both ends of one
element are connected directly to corresponding ends of
the other
A and B are connected in parallel
D, E and F are connected in parallel
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The voltage across parallel elements are equal (both
magnitude and polarity)
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Example
33
+ v1 
i1 +
V2
i2

Step 1
KVL
Step 2
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Step 3: Find currents i1 and i2
i1
i2
35
I1 = ?
+ + +
0.5A 1A
5V 5V 5V
  
Apply KCL at the indicated node
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