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ESc201: Introduction to Electronics

Circuit Fundamentals

Shilpi Gupta
Dept. of Electrical Engineering
IIT Kanpur

Jan 10, 2017
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Examination Schedule
Tutorial mini-Quiz (10 minutes) every Tuesday in the first 10 minutes
of the tutorial.
1st Major Quiz: Tuesday, Jan 24, 2017, 5.05-6.00 PM during tutorial
hours in the respective tutorial classrooms.
Mid-semester examination: Week of Feb 27-Mar 4, 2017
2nd Major Quiz: Tuesday, Feb 14, 2017, 5.05-6.00 PM during tutorial
hours in the respective tutorial classrooms.
3rd Major Quiz: Saturday, Apr 1, 2017, 5.05-6.00 PM during tutorial
hours in the respective tutorial classrooms.
Laboratory Examination: Week of Apr 17-21, 2017
End-semester Examination: Week of Apr 24- May 3, 2017

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Recap
Current is time rate of flow of electrical charge

The units are amperes (A), which are equivalent to
coulombs per second (C/s)

Current has a magnitude and a direction
I

1016 electrons flow per second

Direction of current flow is opposite to direction of electron
flow 3
Recap
DC current: current is constant with time
AC current: current with varying with time, reversing direction periodically

Voltage
Voltage difference is a Source of current flow
DC and AC voltage sources

12V

0V

Electrical Circuit
Connection of several circuit elements in
closed paths by conductors
Recap
Resistance

v
R
Conductance G = 1/R i
i
G
v
Recap

A

B

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Recap
Dependence on Physical Parameters

Any electrical element which obeys ohms law can be modeled as a resistor

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Power and Energy

12V
Q

X

How much energy did the charge Q lose?
0V Ans: Q x 12 Joules

This energy is taken from the voltage source and delivered
to the circuit element
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12V
I

X

In 1 second, how much charge flows through
0V the element X?
Ans: Q = I
Every time a charge Q goes from 12V to 0V it transfers energy
Qx12 J to the element X

Total Energy transferred in 1 second = I x 12 J
Power = Energy/time P = I x 12 Watts
Joules/second = watts P=IxV
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A charge of 1 coulomb receives or delivers an energy of 1 joule in moving
through a voltage of 1 volt.

Let w represent energy

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Power
V1
I

X

V2

If V1 > V2 then P is positive and it means that power is being
delivered to the electrical element X

If V1 < V2 then P is negative and it means that power is being
extracted from the electrical element X.
X is a source of power !

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Note on direction of current

2A X -2A
X

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Examples
12V
1A P= ?

X

6V

12V P= ?
1A

X

Power is supplied by element
6V
X instead of dissipation 13
6V P= ?
1A

X

12V
power is being delivered to the
electrical element X

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There is only one battery in the circuit. Can you find which
element is a battery?

A battery is a source of power, so Power dissipated is negative

Answer is C

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Power dissipated in a Resistor

+ i
v
-

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Circuit Analysis

What is current in R2 ?
Procedure:

Use Kirchhoff's voltage law (KVL) and Kirchhoff's Current law
(KCL) to transform the circuit into a set of equations whose
solution gives the required voltage or current value
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Engineering Analysis

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Nodes and loops

Node: A point where 2 or more circuit elements are connected.

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A loop is formed by tracing a closed path through circuit
elements without passing through any intermediate node more
than once

This is not a valid loop !

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Kirchhoff's Current Law (KCL)

Sum of currents entering a node is equal to sum of currents
leaving a node

Conservation of charge!
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Kirchhoff's Current Law (KCL)

Net current entering a node is zero

Current entering a node is considered positive and current
leaving a node is considered as negative

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Examples:

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Examples:

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Example

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KCL: More general formulation

The sum of currents entering/leaving a closed surface is zero.

i2
i1

R1 R3
VS R2 R4 IX

i3 i4

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Series Circuit

Two elements are connected in series if there is no other
element connected to the node joining them

A, B and C are in series

The elements have the same current going through them

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A and B are in series E, F and G are in series

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Kirchhoff's Voltage Law (KVL)

The algebraic sum of the voltages equals zero for any
closed path (loop) in an electrical circuit

Conservation of energy!
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Example

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Parallel Circuits
Two elements are connected in parallel if both ends of one
element are connected directly to corresponding ends of
the other

A and B are connected in parallel

D, E and F are connected in parallel

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The voltage across parallel elements are equal (both
magnitude and polarity)

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Example

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+ v1 -

i1 +

V2
i2
-

Step 1
KVL

Step 2

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Step 3: Find currents i1 and i2

i1

i2

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I1 = ?

+ + +
0.5A 1A
5V 5V 5V

- - -

Apply KCL at the indicated node

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