# ESc201: Introduction to Electronics

Shilpi Gupta
Dept. of Electrical Engineering
IIT Kanpur

Jan 18, 2017
1
Recap: Techniques of Circuit Analysis
Nodal Analysis
1. Identify and number the nodes
2. Pick Ground node/Reference node wisely, if it is not already specified
3. Writing KCL Equations in Terms of the Node Voltages

Mesh Analysis
1. Assign mesh currents i1, i2
2. Apply
the mesh currents.
3. Solve the resulting n simultaneous equations to get the mesh currents.

Superposition Method for Linear Circuits
The superposition principle states that the total response is the sum of the responses to
each of the independent sources acting individually.
Recap: Thévenin Equivalent Circuits
Network of resistors
and sources

In i
Vm
+
v i
- External excitation

Determine v using external excitation i
By superposition

Setting Setting Setting
i=0 i=0

Voltage independent of external excitation
vt

Reference: MIT 6.002 Circuits and Electronics, Spring 2007 (Anant Agarwal)
In
Vm
+
v
-

+

v

-
Recap: Thévenin Equivalent Circuits
What is Vt ?

+ +

voc voc

What is Rt ? - -

isc
Examples
+

voc

-

6
7
Finding the Thévenin Resistance Directly

Suppose we make all independent sources zero in the circuit

Circuit with no
Independent sources

8
Finding the Thévenin Resistance Directly

Circuit with no
Independent sources

1.Turn off independent sources in the original network:

-A voltage source becomes a short circuit

-A current source becomes an open circuit

2. Compute the resistance between the terminals 9
10
11
Find Thevenin resistance for each of the circuits shown below

10 20 20
isc .
5 (10 || 20) 20 10 35

12
Find Thevenin resistance for each of the circuits shown below

13
Find Thevenin resistance for each of the circuits shown below

14
Circuit with dependent Sources

IZ

VZ

15
Any circuit

Any circuit

16
Any circuit Any circuit

How do we find IN ?

17
Any circuit
Any circuit

How do we find RN ?

+ +

Voc Voc
-
-

18
19
20
Rt = 6.15
22
Examples

Solve for Rt

23
in the circuit shown below. Hence find i.

24
Use Superposition

25
Source Transformation

26
Example
Use source transformation to solve for the indicated currents

28
Maximum Power Transfer for dc circuits

I

What value of RL will give rise to maximum load power ?

29
Maximum power is delivered to the load when RL = R

30
General Case

Maximum power is delivered to the load when RL = Rt

31
Summary Voltage division

Series/Parallel resistances
Current division

Mesh Analysis
1. Assign mesh currents i1, i2
n meshes.
2. Apply KVL to each of the n meshes. Use
Super node
Nodal Analysis:
1. Identify and number the of the mesh currents.
nodes 3. Solve the resulting n simultaneous
2. Choose a reference node equations to get the mesh currents.
3. Write KCL for each node
such that
Source Transformation
Sum of currents leaving a node is
zero.

The superposition principle states that the
total response is the sum of the responses to
each of the independent sources 32 acting
Thevenin & Norton individually.