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Shilpi Gupta
Dept. of Electrical Engineering
IIT Kanpur
Jan 18, 2017
1
Recap: Techniques of Circuit Analysis
Nodal Analysis
1. Identify and number the nodes
2. Pick Ground node/Reference node wisely, if it is not already specified
3. Writing KCL Equations in Terms of the Node Voltages
Mesh Analysis
1. Assign mesh currents i1, i2
2. Apply
the mesh currents.
3. Solve the resulting n simultaneous equations to get the mesh currents.
Superposition Method for Linear Circuits
The superposition principle states that the total response is the sum of the responses to
each of the independent sources acting individually.
Recap: Thévenin Equivalent Circuits
Network of resistors
and sources
In i
Vm
+
v i
 External excitation
Determine v using external excitation i
By superposition
Setting Setting Setting
i=0 i=0
Voltage independent of external excitation
vt
Reference: MIT 6.002 Circuits and Electronics, Spring 2007 (Anant Agarwal)
In
Vm
+
v

+
v

Recap: Thévenin Equivalent Circuits
What is Vt ?
+ +
voc voc
What is Rt ?  
isc
Examples
+
voc

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7
Finding the Thévenin Resistance Directly
Suppose we make all independent sources zero in the circuit
Circuit with no
Independent sources
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Finding the Thévenin Resistance Directly
Circuit with no
Independent sources
1.Turn off independent sources in the original network:
A voltage source becomes a short circuit
A current source becomes an open circuit
2. Compute the resistance between the terminals 9
10
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Find Thevenin resistance for each of the circuits shown below
10 20 20
isc .
5 (10  20) 20 10 35
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Find Thevenin resistance for each of the circuits shown below
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Find Thevenin resistance for each of the circuits shown below
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Circuit with dependent Sources
IZ
VZ
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Any circuit
Any circuit
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Any circuit Any circuit
How do we find IN ?
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Any circuit
Any circuit
How do we find RN ?
+ +
Voc Voc


18
19
20
Rt = 6.15
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Examples
Solve for Rt
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in the circuit shown below. Hence find i.
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Use Superposition
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Source Transformation
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Example
Use source transformation to solve for the indicated currents
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Maximum Power Transfer for dc circuits
I
What value of RL will give rise to maximum load power ?
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Maximum power is delivered to the load when RL = R
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General Case
Maximum power is delivered to the load when RL = Rt
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Summary Voltage division
Series/Parallel resistances
Current division
Mesh Analysis
1. Assign mesh currents i1, i2
n meshes.
2. Apply KVL to each of the n meshes. Use
Super node
Nodal Analysis:
1. Identify and number the of the mesh currents.
nodes 3. Solve the resulting n simultaneous
2. Choose a reference node equations to get the mesh currents.
3. Write KCL for each node
such that
Source Transformation
Sum of currents leaving a node is
zero.
The superposition principle states that the
total response is the sum of the responses to
each of the independent sources 32 acting
Thevenin & Norton individually.
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