You are on page 1of 49

ESC201A

Introduction to Electronics

Shilpi Gupta
Department of Electrical Engineering
IIT Kanpur
Acknowledgements
Prof. Baquer Mazhari, EE department
Prof. A. R. Harish, EE department
Prof. S.S.K. Iyer, EE Department
Prof. Yogesh Singh Chauhan, EE Department
Prof. A. Banerjee, EE department
Prof. K. V. Srivastava, EE Department
Prof. Pradeek Kumar, EE Department

2
3
4
Modern world has been and is being rapidly transformed by ELECTRONICS

Electronics offers capabilities that can be exploited by almost all engineering
branches
Why has Electronics Revolutionized
our lives?
Every action requires energy and Electricity is
one of the most useful forms of energy

It is easy to generate, easy to transport, can be
easily converted into other forms of energy

It can be precisely Controlled

6
7
Revolution?
Add an electrical sub-system
Example

wikipedia wikipedia asme.org

Pre-industrial era 1853 Now!

System: Mechanical
Lift/elevator used by us Source of Energy: Electrical
Controlling System: Electronics
9
Aircraft Control
Fly-by-wire
Electronics and Health
13
Performance Enhancement?
Example: Hair cells

Nature 413, 194-202(13 September 2001)

Hearing aid

15
16
Course Objectives
Number of
Topics
Lectures
Circuit Analysis Techniques
5
Nodal, Mesh, Superposition, Thevenin, Norton
Transient Analysis of RL and RC Circuits 2
Sinusoidal Steady State Analysis 3
Transfer Function and Frequency Response 2

Reference Book:

Engineering Circuit Analysis by W. Hayt, J. E. Kemmerly
and S. M. Durbin, TATA McGraw Hill
Number of
Topics
Lectures
Semiconductors, Diodes and diode Circuits 4
Transistors and Amplifiers 4
Operational Amplifiers and waveform
5
Generation

Reference Book:

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory by R. Boylestad
and L. Nashelsky, Prentice Hall of India
Microelectronics Circuits, by Sedra/Smith, 5th edition,
Oxford University Press
Microelectronics by Millman, Grabel, 2nd edition, Tata
McGraw Hill.
Number of
Topic
Lectures
Numbering system, logic gates, Combinational
4
circuits
Flip-flops, Sequential Circuit Design 5
Data Converters 3

Reference Books:

Digital Design by Mano, Ciletti, 4th edition, Pearson

Digital Principles and Applications, by Leach, Malvino, 5th edition,
Tata McGraw Hilll.
Course Schedule
Venue Days Time
Lectures L7 Mon, Wed, Thu
5 to 6 pm
Tutorial T103-112 Tue
CL 102/105 Mon, Tue, Wed,
Laboratory 2 to 5 pm
Core Labs Fri

21
CL 102B

22
Tutorials
Homework Assignment sheets will be given every week.
For proper learning it is expected that you would attempt to
solve all the problems prior to tutorial.
You are not required to submit homework solutions.
During the first 10 minutes of the tutorial, you would be
asked to solve a problem related to the homework
assignment, which will be graded and used in tutorial
assessment.
Solutions to homework assignments will be discussed during
tutorials.
Solutions will also be posted on ESc201 website.
Website

http://www.iitk.ac.in/esc201/index.html
24
Instructors
Instructor: Dr. Shilpi Gupta
Office: ACES-224
Phone: 6231
Email: ShilpiG@iitk.ac.in

Lab Instructor: Dr. K. S. Venkatesh
Office: ACES 207
Phone: 7468
Email: venkats@iitk.ac.in
Tutors List

210
211

26
Marks Distribution
S.No. Description Marks
1. Tutorial mini-quizzes (10-minutes) 20 marks
2. Two major-quizzes (45 minutes 30 marks
each; Best Two of Three)
3. One Mid-Semester Examination 40 marks
4. One End-Semester Examination 70 marks
5. One Laboratory Examination 20 marks
6. Weekly Laboratory Performance 20 marks
Total 200 marks

27
Laboratory Schedule
S.No. Day of the week Sections
1. Monday M1, M2, M3

2. Tuesday T1, T2, T3
3. Wednesday W1, W2, W3

4. Friday F1, F2, F3

You will come to know about your sections soon.

28
Policy Regarding Missed Examinations/Laboratory Sessions
If you miss an examination due to approved medical leave or you have
your leave approved by the competent authority at IIT Kanpur, following
policy will be applied.
Missed mini-quizzes (10 minutes): No make-up examination.
Missed major Quiz-1/Quiz-2/Quiz-3: No make-up examination.
Marks taken from best of two quizzes.

Missed Mid/End-semester examination: You will be allowed to sit
in a make-up examination. However, the makeup examination will take
place within a fortnight after the missed examination. It is your
responsibility to contact the instructor (Shilpi Gupta: e-mail:
ShilpiG@iitk.ac.in) for the make-up examination. If you fail to appear in
the make-up examination, you will be awarded zero marks. The
syllabus for the make-up examination will be the material covered upto
one day before the makeup examination.

Missed Laboratory sessions: You will be allowed to complete the
experiment in the designated make-up laboratory sessions. However,
if you do not appear in the makeup laboratory sessions, you will be29
awarded zero marks for that experiment.
No tutorial and No lab next week (Jan 9-13, 2017)

30
31
Circuit Fundamentals

32
Concepts
Charge, Current, Voltage, Power, and Energy

KCL
KVL

33
Electrical Current

The time rate of flow of electrical charge

The units are amperes (A), which are equivalent to
coulombs per second (C/s)

André-Marie Ampère
1775-1836
34
Flow of electrons through a wire or other electrical conductor
gives rise to current

The charge per electron is -1.602 10-19 C

I

1016 electrons flow per second

How much current flows?

35
Current has a magnitude and a direction
I

1016 electrons flow per second

Direction of current flow is opposite to direction of electron
flow

Large number of electrons have to flow for appreciable current

Exercise 1: For q(t) = 2 - 2e-100t, t > 0 and q(t) = 0 for t < 0,
find i(t)
36
Direct Current (DC) & Alternating Current (AC)
When current is constant with time, we say that we have
direct current, abbreviated as DC.

~

On the other hand, a current that varies with time, reversing direction
periodically, is called alternating current, abbreviated as AC
37
Voltage
Voltage difference is a Source of current flow

Units of Voltage: Volts (V)

Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio
Anastasio Volta 1745-1827

12V
12V

0V
12V
38
Voltage Sources

39
DC and AC voltages

40
Electrical Systems are made of Voltage sources, wires and a
variety of electrical elements

Resistor Capacitor Inductor

Diode
Transistor
41
Transformer
Current flows in a loop

Electrical systems are called electrical circuits

42
Electrical Circuit

Connection of several circuit elements in closed paths by
conductors

Before we learn how to analyze and design circuits, we must
become familiar with some basic circuit elements.
43
Resistance

The constant, R, is called the resistance of the component and
is measured in units of Ohm ( )

Resistor Symbol:
44
Conductance

Ernst Werner von Siemens
G = 1/R is called conductance and its unit 1816-1892
is Siemens (S)
45
46
Resistance Related to Physical Parameters

Resistance is affected by the dimensions and geometry of
the resistor as well as the particular material used

is the resistivity of the material in ohm meters [ -m]
Conductors (Aluminum, Carbon, Copper, Gold)
Insulators (Glass, Teflon)
Semiconductors (Silicon)
47
Any electrical element which obeys ohms law can be modeled
as a resistor

Can we model an electric bulb as a resistor?
48
Electrical Bulb

Even though characteristics are non-linear, over a certain
range, the bulb can be thought of as a resistor
49