# ESc201: Introduction to Electronics

Shilpi Gupta
Dept. of Electrical Engineering
IIT Kanpur

Jan 12, 2017
1
Recap
Independent Sources Dependent Sources

12V
+
-

Concept of equivalent circuits
Two circuits are equivalent if they have the same current-voltage behavior
Series combination Parallel combination

Voltage Division
A voltage applied to resistors connected in series is divided among them

Current Division
The total current flowing into a parallel combination of resistors is divided among them
Limitations

Although series/parallel equivalents and the current/voltage
division principles are very important concepts, yet they are
not sufficient to solve all circuits !!

3
Circuit Analysis

Goal is to find voltages, currents and power in the circuit

If we know voltage and current then power can be easily
determined

If we determine the voltages, then we can determine the
currents using the models of circuit elements

Or if we determine the currents, then we can determine the
voltages using the models of circuit elements

4
i2

v0

If we determine the voltages v1, v2
the currents as well

5
i1

i2 i3
i4 i5

If we determine all the currents, then we can determine the
voltages as well

6
General Circuit Analysis Method: Nodal Analysis

In nodal analysis, the variables used to describe the circuit
(Recall Nodes!)

Nodal voltage are the voltages of each node with respect to
a pre-selected reference node

Usually the reference node has many branches connected
to it

The reference node is also called ground

The node voltages are selected as being positive with
respect to the reference node

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Nodal Analysis will give values of node voltages v1, v2 and v3 with
respect to the reference node

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How to calculate node voltages?
1. Identify and number the nodes
2. Writing KCL Equations in Terms of the Node Voltages
Sum of currents leaving a node = 0

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Circuit Analysis
Transformation of circuit into equations

Solution of equations

Node 2

Node 3

Node 1
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Circuits with Independent Current Sources

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Example

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Example contd..
How many unknown node-voltages? Node 3: v3 = 10 V

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Exercise:

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Assignment 1
Find V0 using Nodal Method Problem 6
Circuit with Voltage Sources

v1 v3
v2

KCL at node 1

KCL at node 2
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v1 v3
v2

Node 1 and node 2 are merged together into a super node. KCL
is applied to the super node
Sum of currents leaving a super node is zero

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Example

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What if you could pick placement of the reference/ground?
Node-Voltage Analysis with a Dependent Source

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Node-Voltage Analysis with a Dependent Source
At Node 1

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Summary: Node-Voltage Analysis
1. Select a reference node and assign variables for the unknown node
voltages

2. Write network equations

connected between nodes, use KVL to write additional equations

3. If the circuit contains dependent sources

voltages

only the node voltages as unknowns

4. Put the equations into standard form and solve for the node voltages

5. Use the values found for the node voltages to calculate any other
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currents or voltages of interest
Example
Find ia using nodal analysis Choose a reference node wisely

10V

Write KCL at nodes and
1 solve the resulting
equations
v1 v1 10 10
1 0 v1
10 5 3

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2 1

KCL at super node:

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Example

Which should be the
reference node?

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Esc 201A
Expt. 1
(Jan 16-20, 2017)
Esc 201 Lab Objectives
Observe the phenomena taught in the class
Have fun building and debugging simple circuits
Get a flavour of design
Instructions Important ones
Maintain individual laboratory record
Come prepared:
website) before coming to lab
You should have a pre-lab writeup [objective, basic concept, circuit
diagrams, components required, measurements to be done,
calculations to be done, etc] for the experiment that you will perform
(40% weightage).
At the end of the lab session, show your lab record with
sketches, graphs, deign etc. to your tutor/TA and ensure that
No one will be allowed into the lab after 2:10pm.
Do not use mobile phones in the lab. Bring calculators along.
Digital Multi-meter (DMM)
DC Power Supply
Sine/square/triangular wave Duty cycle of wave

Any DC component

Function Generator (FG)
Function Keys

Digital Storage Oscilloscope (DSO)
Coaxial Cable
BNC Connector
Type 2 Type 1
Trigger
AC and DC mode
Function Keys
XY mode

Digital Storage Oscilloscope (DSO)
2

3

1 1

2

3

1

1

A Potential Divider
How NOT to make
one!!
Can you spot the bug?
What next?
Read handout carefully and watch video