# ESc201 : Introduction to Electronics

Shilpi Gupta
Dept. of Electrical Engineering
IIT Kanpur

Jan 23, 2017
1
Recap

Capacitors

A capacitor under dc or steady state acts like an open circuit

Inductors

An inductor under dc or steady state acts like a short circuit

Circuits containing inductors or capacitors have a memory
2
Recap: Two important concepts
Voltage across a capacitor cannot change instantaneously
dvc
ic C
dt
Instantaneous change in voltage
implies infinite current!

Current through an inductor cannot change instantaneously

Instantaneous change in current
implies infinite voltage!
3
Recap
Discharging of capacitor

Charging a capacitor

4
Recap:

t
e

5
RC Circuit

Input voltage

6
RC Circuit

vc ( ) 1V ; vc (0 ) 0;

2
vc (2) 1 e 2
0.63V 7
RC Circuit

2
vc (4) 0.63 e 2
0.23V
8
time t is in ms
RC Circuit

t vc(t)
(ms) (V)
0 0
2 0.63
4 0.23
6 0.72
8 0.265
10 0.73
12 0.269
14 0.731
16 0.269
9
Vmax
vc(tB)

vc(tA) vc(tC)
Vmin
tA tB tC
10
vc(tB)

vc(tC)
vc(tA)

tA tB tC 11
tB t A
vc (t B ) Vmax vc (t A ) Vmax e

tA tB tC
Determine vc(tA) and vc(tB) in terms of Vmax and V12min
ESc201: Expt_RC

Determining:
13
How do we solve more complex circuits containing a single
inductor or a capacitor?

14
Method for circuits containing a single capacitor or inductor
Circuit for t > 0

Where x is capacitor voltage or inductor current

15
Example-1

Circuit for t > 0

16
Initial condition

Circuit for t < 0

17
Determine the capacitor voltage as a function of time.

Circuit for t < 0

18
Circuit for t > 0

Determine the Thevenin equivalent, as seen by the capacitor:
We next find voltage long after
Equivalent resistance closing the switch

V
19
Final Solution:

V

V

V

20
How do we find voltages and currents elsewhere in the circuit?

21
Find current in 8 resistor as a function of time after the switch
is opened

A

i(t)

No current will flow in 5
resistance for t < 0

For t > 0

22
A

i(t)

A

23
Can we solve this 2 capacitor problem using our present
approach?

Circuit for t > 0

24
Can we solve this 2 capacitor problem using our present
approach?

R2
Circuit for t > 0
+ C2
vC2=? R3
-

25
R1 R2

+
VS vC2(0) R3
-

26
Will our approach work here?

No, because circuit for t > 0 has two capacitances

As long as the circuit has single capacitor or inductor for the
time interval for which the analysis is being carried out, the
stated approach will work fine.
27
What happens when there is more than one storage element?

i1 i2

d 2 vc 2 dvc 2
R1 R2C1C2 ( R1C1 R1C2 R2C2 ) vc 2 28
VS
dt 2 dt
Important Announcements

1. Major Quiz tomorrow (Jan 24, Tuesday): 5:10 pm onwards in
respective tutorial rooms.
Section F2: TB210
Section F3: TB211

2. Mobile phones not allowed. Bring calculators.

3. Assignment-2 solutions posted on course website.

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