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# ESc201 : Introduction to Electronics

Transient Analysis of Capacitive and Inductive
Circuits

Shilpi Gupta
Dept. of Electrical Engineering
IIT Kanpur

Jan 19, 2017
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Capacitance

Two sheets of conductors separated by a layer of insulating
material

The insulating material is called dielectric. This could be air,

metal

dielectric

metal
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3
Coulombs Volt

t
1
v (t ) idt v (to )
C to
For dc or steady state when the voltage does not vary with time
A capacitor under dc or steady state acts like an
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open circuit
v

1 1 1 1
Ceq C1 C2 C3 5
Inductance

A time varying flux causes voltage to appear across the device
terminals

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Henry

For dc or steady state when the current does not vary with time

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An inductor under dc or steady state acts like a short circuit
Typical Inductors

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1 1 1 1
Leq L1 L2 L3
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Two important concepts
Voltage across a capacitor cannot change instantaneously
dvc
ic C
dt
Instantaneous change in voltage
implies infinite current!

Current through an inductor cannot change instantaneously

Instantaneous change in current
implies infinite voltage!
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What is current through the inductor or voltage across the
capacitor ?

the past state of the circuit
Suppose we are told that circuit has been in this state for a very very long time

i=1A

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Or suppose we are told that circuit was switched at t= xx
i=0

Circuit before switching
i=0

Circuits containing inductors or capacitors have a memory
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Example

Find voltage and current immediately after closing the switch

t = 0+ 0
0

Current through an inductor Voltage across a capacitor
cannot change instantaneously cannot change instantaneously
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An inductor under dc or steady state acts like a short circuit
A capacitor under dc or steady state acts like an open circuit

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Determine the current IX immediately after switch is opened.
Circuit for t>0

First find voltage VC(0-)
Circuit for t<0

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Discharge of a capacitor through a Resistor

How long will it take for capacitor voltage to fall to half its
initial value?
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iC iR

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First Order Differential Equation

Solution:

Constant K is often found from the initial condition

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We know:

Voltage across a capacitor cannot change instantaneously

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Time 2 3 4 5

V(t)/Vi 0.368 0.135 .05 0.018 0.0067

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Charging a capacitor

Application of KCL at the indicated node gives

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Solution:

Use initial condition:

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A capacitor under dc or steady
state acts like an open circuit

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t=0
R

+
VS C vC
-

We use the fact that voltage across a capacitor cannot change
instantly
If the capacitor does not have any initial charge, then

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Time 2 3 4 5

V(t)/Vi 0.632 0.865 .95 0.982 0.993
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Important Announcements

1. No lab on Saturday, Jan 21

2. Major Quiz-1 on Tuesday, Jan 24

3. Please check course website for
announcements and information

4. Assignment-2 uploaded on course website
http://www.iitk.ac.in/esc201/index.html
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What is i ( ) ?
Inductor in steady state is like a short circuit

We also note that inductor current cannot change instantly
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Current through an inductor cannot change instantaneously

If

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What about voltage across the Inductor?

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ESc201: Expt. 2
(Jan 23-27)
After feeling the power of a DSO
Resistor Classification
Composition

Power rating

Tolerance
Capacitor Classification
Electrolytic
Above 1µF
Polyester
0.001 to 10µF
Paper
0.001 to 10µF
Mica
0.001 to 10µF
Ceramic
Less than 1µF
Electrolytic Capacitors
Ceramic Capacitors
Circuit to display the I-V characteristics
of R, C, L

Device Under Test

Choose RM such that V0 >>VM
CH1

CH2
FG

GND
V, I
1.5
Capacitor
1
V
I
0.5

0
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1

-0.5 Time

-1

-1.5
I and V are independently normalized for display purpose here.
1.5

Inductor V
1
I

0.5

0
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1

-0.5 Time

-1

-1.5

I and V are independently normalized for display purpose here.