You are on page 1of 37

# ESc201 : Introduction to Electronics

Shilpi Gupta
Dept. of Electrical Engineering
IIT Kanpur

Feb 1, 2017
1
2
General Rule

For a resistor PF = 1, while for inductor and capacitor it is 0

is phase difference between voltage and current 3
4
5
6
Maximum Power Transfer for sinusoidal input

For maximum load power : XL = -X

Choose RL = R to maximize load power
complex conjugate of source impedance 7
Maximum Power Transfer for sinusoidal input
conjugate of source impedance

8
Maximum Power Transfer for sinusoidal input when load is
Resistive complex

Maximum power is transferred to the load when

9
Frequency Domain Response

10
Time domain vs. Frequency domain analysis

Signal

11
12
Speech signal

13
System What does this circuit do ?

5V

0V

14
Suppose the capacitor is reduced to ~21pF.

It is hard to find out what impact the change in capacitor has on circuit behavior
15
Frequency domain analysis
VO

Input vs

Output Vo

16
Measure response at many different frequencies for a constant input amplitude

f=1KHz

Input vs

Output Vo

f=10KHz 17
Measure response at many different frequencies for a constant input amplitude

f=100KHz

Input vs

Output Vo

f=1000KHz
18
Plot the amplitude and phase as a function of frequency

Amplitude as a function of frequency

One can clearly see the frequency selective (often called a filter) nature of the
circuit

19
Phase as a function of frequency

20
Suppose the capacitor is reduced to ~21pF.

21
Analysis of signals and systems in frequency domain
often provides useful insight into their behavior.

22
Frequency domain analysis

Transfer function is a useful tool for finding the frequency
response of a system

Phasor (V or I) Phasor (V or I)

Transfer function has a magnitude and a phase
23
24
Because of the wide dynamic range of frequency, plotting
frequency on log axis is often more revealing !

25
Logarithmic frequency scale

1 octave

f (Hz)
1 101 50 102 103 104

26
behavior

27
The magnitude of transfer function is often specified in decibels

Because power is proportional to V2 or I2, voltage gain and
current gain in decibels is specified as

28
Decibel Scale
|H| 20Log10(|H|)
1000 60
100 40
10 20
2 6
2 3
1 0
1/ 2 -3
0.5 -6
0.1 -20
0.01 -40
29
dB Scale

1
0.1

0.01

0.001

A plot of the decibel magnitude of transfer function versus
frequency using a logarihmic scale for frequency is called a
Bode plot
30
500

400

300

200

100

0
0 2 4 6 8 10
4
31
500

400

300

200

100

0 1 2 3 4 5
10 10 10 10 10
32
60

40

20

0

-20

-40 1 2 3 4 5
10 10 10 10 10
33
How to determine the transfer function?

34
Plot Magnitude

35
HdB
3dB 0
10 3dB -20 -20 dB per decade
100 3dB -40

36
3dB point 1
3 dB
RC
10
corner frequency or half
HdB power frequency
0 HdB
3dB 0
-10 10 3dB -20
100 3dB -40
-20

-30

-40 1 2 3 4 5
10 10 10 10 (rad/s) 10
37