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ESc201 : Introduction to Electronics

Shilpi Gupta
Dept. of Electrical Engineering
IIT Kanpur

Feb 1, 2017
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General Rule

For a resistor PF = 1, while for inductor and capacitor it is 0

is phase difference between voltage and current 3
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Maximum Power Transfer for sinusoidal input

For maximum load power : XL = -X

Choose RL = R to maximize load power
Maximum power is transferred to the load when load is
complex conjugate of source impedance 7
Maximum Power Transfer for sinusoidal input
Maximum power is transferred to the load when load is complex
conjugate of source impedance

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Maximum Power Transfer for sinusoidal input when load is
Resistive complex

Maximum power is transferred to the load when

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Frequency Domain Response

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Time domain vs. Frequency domain analysis

Signal

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Speech signal

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System What does this circuit do ?

5V

0V

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Suppose the capacitor is reduced to ~21pF.

It is hard to find out what impact the change in capacitor has on circuit behavior
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Frequency domain analysis
VO

Input vs

Output Vo

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Measure response at many different frequencies for a constant input amplitude

f=1KHz

Input vs

Output Vo

f=10KHz 17
Measure response at many different frequencies for a constant input amplitude

f=100KHz

Input vs

Output Vo

f=1000KHz
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Plot the amplitude and phase as a function of frequency

Amplitude as a function of frequency

One can clearly see the frequency selective (often called a filter) nature of the
circuit

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Phase as a function of frequency

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Suppose the capacitor is reduced to ~21pF.

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Analysis of signals and systems in frequency domain
often provides useful insight into their behavior.

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Frequency domain analysis

Transfer function is a useful tool for finding the frequency
response of a system

Phasor (V or I) Phasor (V or I)

Transfer function has a magnitude and a phase
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Because of the wide dynamic range of frequency, plotting
frequency on log axis is often more revealing !

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Logarithmic frequency scale

1 decade
1 octave

f (Hz)
1 101 50 102 103 104

2 decades

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Decibel scale often reveals more information about
behavior

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The magnitude of transfer function is often specified in decibels

Because power is proportional to V2 or I2, voltage gain and
current gain in decibels is specified as

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Decibel Scale
|H| 20Log10(|H|)
1000 60
100 40
10 20
2 6
2 3
1 0
1/ 2 -3
0.5 -6
0.1 -20
0.01 -40
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dB Scale

1
0.1

0.01

0.001

A plot of the decibel magnitude of transfer function versus
frequency using a logarihmic scale for frequency is called a
Bode plot
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500

400

300

200

100

0
0 2 4 6 8 10
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(rad/s) x 10
500

400

300

200

100

0 1 2 3 4 5
10 10 10 10 10
(rad/s)
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60

40

20

0

-20

-40 1 2 3 4 5
10 10 10 10 10
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(rad/s)
How to determine the transfer function?

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Plot Magnitude

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HdB
3dB 0
10 3dB -20 -20 dB per decade
100 3dB -40

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3dB point 1
3 dB
RC
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corner frequency or half
HdB power frequency
0 HdB
3dB 0
-10 10 3dB -20
100 3dB -40
-20

-30

-40 1 2 3 4 5
10 10 10 10 (rad/s) 10
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