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# ESc201 : Introduction to Electronics

Filters

Shilpi Gupta
Dept. of Electrical Engineering
IIT Kanpur

Feb 6, 2017
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Recap: Bode Plot segments

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Filter -pass a band of frequency and reject the remaining

Low pass High pass
|H(f)| |H(f)|

f f
Band pass
Band Stop
|H(f)| |H(f)|

f f
3
C
vO(t)

vS R

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3dB Frequency of single capacitor filters

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One can often tell the type of filter by looking at behavior at very low
and very high frequencies and keeping in mind that capacitor offers
very high impedance at low frequencies and very low impedance at
high frequencies.

Low f High f

Vo ~0
Vo ~0
Bandpass filter 6
Bandpass Filter
High-pass low-pass

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Example: Band Pass filter

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Bandstop Filter

low-pass High-pass

Will this work?

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What does this circuit do?

Low f
High f

Vo ~Vin Vo ~Vin 10
What does this circuit do?

Bandstop or Notch Filter

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R-L Circuits (Filters)

High pass filter

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R-L Circuits

Low pass filter

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Different radio channels are separated by very narrow frequency interval.

For example, one may want to receive a 450KHz signal but reject 460KHz or
440KHz
450KHz

460KHz

-60dB

This implies an attenuation of -6000 dB/decade !!
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Series Resonant Circuit
Resonance is a condition in which capacitive and inductive
reactance cancel each other to give rise to a purely resistive
circuit

Resonant frequency:

Current and voltage are in phase (power factor is unity) and
current is maximum ! 15
1 and 2 are called half-power frequencies
since P I2

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Vm
I( )
2 1 2
R ( L )
C

1and 2 are called half-
power frequencies since P I2
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Quality (Q) factor: Sharpness of resonance

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Hence Q represents sharpness of resonance

For high Q circuits:
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OL
Q
R

Passband
Insertion loss
Stopband
Attenuation
R-L-C filters

R L
vO(t)

vS C

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How much Q do we need to pass 450KHz but reject 460KHz by
60dB?

Assuming VIN = 1V and noting that Q = OL/R

For = O, VO = 1 so the signal simply passes
1
VO ( ) through !
2
1 Q2 ( 2
1)2
O 23
For an attenuation of -60dB or 10-3 at : Q=23,000

This is a large value of Q!

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Parallel Resonance

R

vS C L

Resonant frequency:

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For high Q: 27
What is the resonant frequency ?

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Mini-Quiz 3 and tutorial tomorrow (Feb 7, 2017) at 5:10 pm

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