Diodes
Shilpi Gupta
Dept. of Electrical Engineering
IIT Kanpur
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Diode
Anode
Cathode
2
PN Junction Diode
Inside a PN junction at equilibrium (zero applied voltage), there
is builtin voltage with N region being positive and Pregion
negative.
  + +
P   + + N
  + +
The builtin voltage (also called potential barrier) prevents
electrons and holes to give rise to current. 3
Simplified Picture
4
Extrinsic Semiconductors
Adding small amounts of suitable impurity atom can drastically alter number of
electrons and holes in a semiconductor !
Addition of a group V element impurity to Silicon should increase electrons
while addition of group III element impurity should increase number of
holes
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Doping
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B
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N and Ptype Semiconductors
Ntype : n>p
A Semiconductor such as Silicon doped with a donor impurity such as
Phosphorous or Arsenic from group V of periodic table. The donor impurity
donates an electron to conduction band thereby increasing their concentration
Ptype : p>n
A Semiconductor such as Silicon doped with a Acceptor impurity such as Boron
from group III of periodic table. The acceptor impurity increases number of
holes in valence band.
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No. of silicon atoms per unit volume ~
Impurity concentration :
1 in 400,000 Silicon atoms is replaced by Boron
Very small amounts of impurity atoms can cause a drastic change
in electrical property of a semiconductor.
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PN Junction Diode
Inside a PN junction at equilibrium (zero applied voltage), there
is builtin voltage with N region being positive and Pregion
negative.
  + +
P   + + N
  + +
The builtin voltage (also called potential barrier) prevents
electrons and holes to give rise to current. 10
Forward and Reverse Bias
Forward Bias: P is biased at a higher voltage compared to N.
It lowers the builtin potential and allows current to flow.
Reverse Bias: N is biased at a higher voltage compared to P.
This increases builtin potential and very little current flows. 11
0.20
Diode : 1N4001
0.15
0.10
0.05
0.00
0.05
Reverse Bias Forward Bias
0.10
0.15
0.20
2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
Voltage (V)
The pn junction only conducts significant current in the
forwardbias region. 12
Breakdown
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Diode : IV Characteristics
Is : Reverse Saturation Current
id:diode current; vd: applied voltage
n is called ideality factor and is equal to 1 for ideal diodes 14
Forward Bias
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Reverse Bias
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17
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Analysis using nonlinear diode model is not easy
I
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Iterative Method:
Assume
Calculate
Recalculate
Convergence:
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VO = 0.5 VO = 0.711 VO = 0.707
I = 1.5 x 103 I = 1.289 x 103 I = 1.293 x 103
VO = 0.711 VO = 0.707 VO = 0.707
VO nVT ln(I IS 1)
CONVERGENCE 21
VO = 1.0 VO = 0.7 VO = 0.707
I = 1.0 x 103 I = 1.3 x 103 I = 1.293 x 103
VO = 0.7 VO = 0.707 VO = 0.707
VO nVT ln(I IS 1)
CONVERGENCE to the same Result 22
Graphical Method: Method of Load Line
I
VS/R
solution
VS VO
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How about something that is
simple & easy to work with
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Analysis using a nonlinear diode model is relatively difficult and
time consuming.
It also does not give a symbolic expression that can provide
insight and help in the design of the circuit.
Need SIMPLER and LINEAR Device Models
V rf
V>V
V<V
open circuit 25
I PieceWise Linear Model
Slope = 1/rf
V V
V is called cutin or turnon voltage and depends on nature of
diode and range of current considered
For most of our analysis, we will take V = 0.7V and rf ~10 26
Even Simpler Diode Models
I
V V
Constant voltage drop model
V
I
V>V
V<V
open circuit V 27
V
Even Simpler Diode Models
Ideal diode model
I
V
V
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Diode Models
Simplicity
Accuracy
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Analysis using ideal diode model
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Analysis with a constant voltage diode model
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Analysis with a constant voltage plus resistor
diode model
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Example
Find the current
through the diode
using ideal diode
model
Is the diode forward biased? Not Sure!!
Assume that it is forward biased
Carry out analysis and then check if current through the diode is in
appropriate direction.
If not, diode is reverse biased and we carry out the analysis
again!! 33
Example
Assume forward bias
10V
iD
2mA 5K
Current is positive, so our
assumption is correct 34
Example Find the current through the 5K resistor using ideal
diode model
Assume forward bias
5K
5K
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5K
iD
This is not possible.
Therefore, our assumption
is incorrect 5K
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5K
Assume reverse bias
V1 V1 10
2mA 0
5k 5k
V1 V2
V1 0
5K
V2 10V
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Announcements
1. Assignment5 uploaded on course website.
2. Major Quiz2 on Feb 14, 2017 (Tue) during tutorial slot.
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DC Power Supply
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Half wave Rectifier circuit
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vO
vS
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Transformer
+
Vin

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Half Wave Rectifier
+
Vin

VO
0.7V
VIN R
For VO to be 12V, the input VIN should be
~12.7V 43
V0=VIN  0.7
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Zoomed view
V0=VIN  0.7
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N1 N2
VO
D
VS R
Want to hold that voltage
during negative half cycle
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