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# ESc201 : Introduction to Electronics

Transistors

Shilpi Gupta
Dept. of Electrical Engineering
IIT Kanpur
Feb 20, 2017
1
Announcement
• Mini-quiz tomorrow (Feb 21, 2017) during
tutorial slot.
RECAP Ideal Transistor Characteristics
I0
I0
I1
+ +
+ +
Vi V0 gm v i
Vi V0
- -
- -

I0
I0
Vi Vi3
Vi2
Vi1
V0

3
I0 I0

Ideal transistor Vi
Vi3 RECAP
Vi2
Vi1
V0

I0
I0
Device X Vi3
Vi2
Vi Vi1
V V0

Device Y I0
I0
Vi3
Vi2
Vi Vi1
V
Vsat V0
4
How do we use elements such as X, Y etc to make amplifiers?
Amplifier Schematic for Device Y RECAP
I0
I0
Vi3
I02 Q-point Q-point
Vi2
Vi Vi1
V Vi2
Vsat V0

VCC

RC
CC

CB v0
Y
+
RL
vi
RB
-
vs
VB

5
Device Z RECAP
I0
Simple Solution
Vi
V=1V VCC

RC
I0 CC
Vi=1.03V R1 v0
Vi=1.02V
CB
10mA Z
Vi=1.01V
+
V0 CE RL
0.2V 2V vi
R2
-
vs RE

6
Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT)

E
N P N C E P
P N C

B B
C C
E: Emitter
B E: Emitter B B: Base
B: Base C: Collector
E C: Collector E

NPN PNP
Dc current-voltage Characteristics of NPN Transistor

C IC  I B  I E
B Two independent currents
Let them be IB and IC
E

There can be three voltages: VBE ,VBC ,VCE
Again, only two are independent. Often VBE and VCE are chosen.

VBE  VB  VE ;VBC  VB  VC ;VCE  VC  VE

VBC  VBE  VCE VCE  VBE  VBC
Dc current-voltage Characteristics of NPN Transistor
C
B
( IC , I B ) ; (VBE ,VCE )
E

IB4

IB3

IB2

IB1
Modes of operation
C
+ VBC-
B
C VBC
E
N Reverse Active Saturation
(R,F) (F,F)

B P
VBE

N Cut Off Forward Active
(R,R) (F,R)
E
+ VBE -
IC
 F
IB
IB4 40mA
7.6 mA
Forward Active Mode IB3 30mA

5.6 mA
IB2 20mA
3.7 mA
IB1 10mA
1.7 mA

~0.2V
Forward Active Mode
Base Emitter (BE) junction is forward biased and Base
Collector (BC) junction is reverse biased
5V IC
C
Current Gain
N IC
 F
B IB
P
0.7V
IB

VBE  0.7V
+
N

E
IE
Forward Active Mode
IB IC
C B C
B F.IB

E
E

C

N IB IC
B
B C
P
0.7V F.IB
+
N

E

E
VBC

Reverse Active Saturation
(R,F) (F,F)

VBE

Cut Off Forward Active
(R,R) (F,R)

I B  0; IC  0; I E  0

Transistor acts like an open circuit
Saturation Mode

Both BE and BC junctions are forward biased

0.2V
C

N
VBE  0.7V
B
P
VBC  0.5V
0.7V
IB

VBE  VBC  0.2V
+
N

E
IE
I Csat
  forced   F
IB IC
 F IB4 40mA
IB
Saturation
IB3 30mA

I Csat IB2 20mA

IB1 10mA
IB IC
B C
VCEsat=0.2
IB4
Saturation
E IB3

IB2

IB1

IB IC
~0.2VB
C
0.7V VCEsat=0.2

E
PNP Transistor

C
E P N P C
B
B
E
VCB

Reverse Active Saturation
(R,F) (F,F) IB IC
B C
F.IB

VEB

E
Cut Off Forward Active
(R,R) (F,R)
Transistor Circuit Analysis
Dc Transistor Circuit Analysis Example-1

Find IC and VCE

 F  100

Base current is flowing into the transistor so transistor cannot be
in cutoff mode.
Therefore transistor can be either in forward active or saturation
mode of operation.
Let us assume that transistor is in forward active mode and carry
out analysis.
Need to check if our assumption is correct.
 F  100 VCC
IC
IB

I B  10m A

IC   F I B  1mA
VCE  5  IC  RC  4V
How do we check if transistor is indeed in forward active mode?

We check if VCE > 0.2V

Since this is true for our circuit, the analysis is correct and

~0.2V
VCE  VCC  I C RC
IC

VCC/RC

Q Point

VCC
VCE
Changing IB
VCE  VCC  I C RC
IC

VCC/RC

Q Point

VCC
VCE
Changing RC
VCE  VCC  I C RC
IC

VCC/RC1

VCC/RC2

Q Point
VCC/RC3

VCC
VCE
Example-2 Find IC and VCE

 F  100

Let us assume that transistor is in forward active mode and carry
out analysis but we must check later on to make sure that our
assumption is correct.
IB IC
+
+ VCE
VBE - -

VBB  VBE 5  0.7
IB    21.5mA
RB 200 k
IC   F I B  2.15mA
VCE  5  IC  RC  2.85V
Since VCE > 0.2V, our analysis is correct and Tr. is in active mode.
Example-3

It is same as example-2
except that RC has been
 F  100 increased to 3K.

As before we assume that transistor is in forward active mode
and carry out analysis
IB IC
+
VCE
+ -
VBE -

VBB  0.7 IC   F I B  2.15mA
IB   21.5m A
RB VCE  5  IC  RC  1.45V
Since VCE < 0.2V, our assumption is incorrect and transistor is
actually in saturation mode.
IB IC
In saturation mode: IC   F I B B C
0.7V V

The transistor model in saturation is
E

5  0.2
IC   1.6mA
IB 3K
IC
Base current is same as before:
I B  21.5mA

I C 1.6mA
 forced    74.4
I B 21.5mA
Example-4 Find IC and VCE

 F  100
Example-4 Find IC and VCE

 F  100

VBB  I B RB  0.7  I E RE  0
I E  (   1) I B VBB  0.7
IB   14.29m A
RB  (1   ) RE
I C   F I B  1.429mA
I E  (  F  1) I B  1.443mA

VCC  IC RC  VCE  I E RE  0
VCE  2.129V
Example-5 Find IC and VCE

16V

3.6kW

470kW IC
+
VCE
1
-
510W
16V
IC+IB 3.6kW

IC + C I  I B  (   1) I B  121I B
470kW
VCE
IB - 1
IC+IB 510W

 16  (121I B )3.6k  I B 470 k  0.7  (121I B )510  0
16  0.7
IB   0.0158 mA
121  3.6k  470 k  121  510
I C  I B  120  0.0158 mA  1.9mA
16V
IC+IB 3.6kW

470kW IC + I B  0.0158mA
VCE
IB - 1 I C  1.9mA
IC+IB 510W

I B 470k  0.7  VCE  0
VCE  0.0158  470  0.7  8.13V