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# ESc201 : Introduction to Electronics

Transistor Amplifiers

Shilpi Gupta
Dept. of Electrical Engineering
IIT Kanpur
Feb 22, 2017
1
Forward Active Mode
Base Emitter (BE) junction is forward biased and Base
Collector (BC) junction is reverse biased

Current Gain
IC
 F VBE  0.7V
IB
Cut off Mode
Both the junctions are reverse biased

I B  0; IC  0; I E  0 Transistor acts like an open circuit

Saturation Mode
Both the junctions are forward biased

VBE  0.7V VBC  0.5V VBE  VBC  0.2V
Let us analyze this circuit
• Choose RC = 1 k
• Vi < Vg VCC
– Transistor in cut off 5V

– IB=0; IC=0 IC RC
– V0=VCC RB V0
47 k +
VCE
Vi +
-
IB VBE
-
Vo vs Vi
6
5
4
Vo (V)

3
2
1
0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
Vi (V)
Vo as Vi increases …
• RC = 1 k
• Vi > Vg VCC
– KVL in the BE loop: 5V
IC RC
Vi  I B RB  VBE
RB V0
47 k +
Vi  VBE VCE
IB  Vi +
-
RB IB VBE
-

Vi > V g
Vi  VBE
IB    100
RB
I C  I B VCC
5V
IC RC
• KVL in the CE loop:
VCC  I C RC  VCE RB V0
47 k +
V0  VCE  VCC  I C RC +
VCE
Vi -
IB VBE
-
• As Vi increases …
Vo as Vi increases …
How low can it go?
V0  VCE  VBC  VBE
VBC  VBE  VCE VCC
When VCE  0.2V 5V
IC RC
VBC  0.5V
Both CB and BE junctions are forward RB V0
47 k +
biased and the transistor enters into
VCE
saturation +
Vi -
IB VBE
-
Display this on the DSO

Verify
forced < F
Vi > V g
Vi  VBE
IB    100
RB
I C  I B VCC
5V
IC RC
• KVL in the CE loop:
VCC  I C RC  VCE RB V0
47 k +
V0  VCE  VCC  I C RC +
VCE
Vi -
IB VBE
-
• As Vi increases …
What happens if RC increases?
Slope represents
gain in active
region VCC
5V
IC RC

RB V0
47 k +
VCE
Vi +
-
IB VBE
-

What is the transition point if Rc=15k?
Amplification VCC

RC
VOut
RB
Vout vs. VB
5V VB

vs
How do we amplify the weak signal?
5V

10K
VOut
200K

1.1V

vs

Vout vs. Vin
Transistor biased in saturation also does not result in Amplification

Vout vs. VB
Active Saturation
Cutoff
Transistor as a Switch

RB

Choose value of RB such that, the transistor is driven into
saturation when it is on
IC IC
  forced   F 1
IB F IB
Transistor Circuit Analysis
Transistor Circuit Analysis

Circuit VO+vo

VIN(dc)

vin

dc Circuit VO small signal Circuit vo

VIN(dc)
vin

dc analysis Small signal analysis
Small Signal Model (ac Model) for a DIODE
?

?
???

??? ?

? Δ??? ??? ?
??? = =
? Δ???
Equivalent small signal model ?
?
??? ? = ?? (? ?? - 1)
??
??? = ?? ? − ?????
?? 1 ??
= ? + ??
?? ??
??
? ? ??? =
?? ? ???
~ ~ 26 mV at 300K
?? ??
DC current at Q-point
Small Signal Model or ac Model for a Transistor

b c IB4
IB3
IB2
+ IB1

r vv gmv r0
- not completely flat

e I CQ
VT VT gm 
r    VT The small signal model
I BQ I CQ
is valid only when
kT
v  VT   26mV at 300 K
q
This model is valid for both npn and pnp transistors
Complete Analysis: dc +ac
Example 1

v0

vin

Capacitor is like an open
1. Dc analysis circuit under dc

V0
1. Dc analysis
VCC  0.7
I BQ 
RB
V0
ICQ    I BQ
=100
VO (dc)  VCC  ICQ  RC

I BQ  0.0215mA

I CQ  2.15mA

V0  2.85V Can you plot the load line?
Small signal Analysis

DC voltage sources
are shorted and dc
v0
current sources are
open circuited
vin

v0 v0
vin

Analysis is done at frequencies for which impedance due to
capacitor is small so that capacitor can be considered as short.
Small signal Analysis

v0

vin

b
c
Next, the transistor is
+
replaced by its small
r v gmv
signal model -

e
Small signal Analysis

v0
vin

RB 200K RC 1K

c vvout
b + 0
vvinin r v gmv
-
e
RB 200K RC 1K

c vout
b +
vin r v gmv
-
e

Simplify vo   g mv  RC
c vvout
b + 0
vvinin RB r v gmv RC
-
e
vo v  vin
  g m RC
vin
c vvout
0
b +
v gmv
vvinin RB r
-
RC

e

vo
  g m RC gm  
I CQ
2.15mA
 0.086 S
vin VT 25mV

v0
  g m RC  0.086 1000  86
vin
Example 2

Analysis:
1. DC
2. AC (small signal) VCC

R1 RC
v0
CB
CC
RL

VvSin R2 CE
RE
Analysis:
1. DC
2. AC (small signal)
VCC

R1 RC
CB
v0 CC
RL

VvSin R2 CE
RE
DC Analysis 1. Draw the dc equivalent circuit

VCC
VCC
R1 RC
R1 RC
CB

vin
VS R2 CE
RE
R2
RE
dc Analysis
2. Apply Thevenin’s theorem

VCC VCC VCC
R1 RC
R1 RC

R2 R2
RE
RE
dc Analysis
2. Apply Thevenin’s theorem
VCC
VCC VCC
RC
R1 RC

RB
R2 RE
VB
RE

R2
RB  R1 R2 VB  VCC 
R1  R2
VCC
Assume transistor is in forward Active
Mode
RC IC F  1
VBE  0.7; I B  ; IE  IC
F F
1
I EQ  I CQ  I BQ  (1  ) I CQ
F
RB APPLY KVL
RE
VB VB  I BQ RB  VBE  I EQ RE
I CQ 1 F
RB  ( ) I CQ RE  VB  0.7
F F
VB  0.7
I CQ 
RB 1   F
( ) RE
F F
Small Signal (or ac) Analysis

1. Short dc voltage source and open circuit dc current
source
VCC
VCC
R1 RC
R1 R1 RC RC
CB CB CB

VS VS R2 R2 CE CE
vin RE RE
VvSin R2 CE
RE
Small Signal Analysis

2. Redraw the circuit and Simplify

RC
R1 RC RC
CB
CB CB

VS R2 R1 CE
RE
R2 vSin RB
VvSin CE V
RE
CE
RE
3. For analysis at sufficiently high frequencies, the capacitors
can be considered as short.

RC
CB RC
RB
VvS
RB in
vin
VS
RE
CE
4. The transistor is replaced by its hybrid-pi small signal model

RC
RB
v
VSin

v  vin vo

RC
+ gmv
RB r v
VvS 
in

vo   g mv  RC
v0
Av    g m RC
vin
Common Emitter (CE) Amplifier

VCC
vo
R1 RC b c
RC
CB +
RB r v gmv
VS
vin 
e
vin
VS R2 CE
RE

Emitter is the common terminal between input and output ports !
Common Emitter (CE) Amplifier

Example 3 22 V
VCC

56 k R1 RC 6.8 k
CB
F=90

vinS
V R2 CE
RE
8.2 k 1.5 k
dc Analysis
2. Apply Thevenin’s theorem
VCC
VCC VCC
RC
R1 RC 6.8 k

7.15 k RB
R2 RE
RE 2.81 V VB 1.5 k

56k  8.2k
RB  R1 R2   7.15k
56k  8.2k R2 8.2
VB  VCC   22  2.81V
R1  R2 64.2
VCC
2.81  I BQ 7.15k  0.7  I EQ1.5k
RC
6.8 k I CQ 1
I BQ  ; I EQ  I CQ (1  )
F F
7.15k  1 
RB 7.15 k 2.11  I CQ  I CQ 1  1.5k
RE 90  90 
VB
2.81 V
1.5 k I CQ  1.32mA

I CQ1.32mA
gm    0.0528 S
VT 25mV
RC RC
CB
RB
VS
vin
RB
VvSin CE
RE

vo

6.8 k RC
+ gmv
RB r v
VvSin 

v0
Av    g m RC  0.0528  6800  359
vin
22 V
6.8 k
56 k

F=90

8.2 k

1.5 k

How will gain get affected if ?? is removed?
No change in the DC circuit,

I CQ1.32mA
gm    0.0528 S
VT 25mV
VT 25mV
r   90  1.705k
I CQ 1.32mA

How will gain get affected if ?? is removed?