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ESc201 : Introduction to Electronics

Operational Amplifier
Part -1

Shilpi Gupta
Dept. of Electrical Engineering
IIT Kanpur
Mar 6, 2017
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Tutorial tomorrow (March 7th)
No mini-quiz
Discussion on Major Quiz-2 and Midsem
problems
Collect Major Quiz-2 answer-scripts

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Amplifier Design requires specialized knowledge

It is not possible for every user to design his/her own amplifier !

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make it available to everybody else !

Although this is done, it does not satisfy all the users due to
diverse requirements

Custom

Semi-Custom
Design

Standard

Semi-custom: partially competed design which is customized by the user

Opamp is a good illustration of the advantages of semi-custom approach
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Difference Amplifier
-An amplifier that is sensitive to difference in input voltages
and insensitive to what is common.

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vi1
vo
vi2

Whatever is common is rejected and whatever is different is
amplified ! 6
Operational Amplifier

A special kind of difference amplifier

1. Very High Differential-mode voltage gain
2. Very High Common mode Rejection ratio
3. Very High Input Resistance
4. Very Low output Resistance
5.
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Ideal Operational Amplifier

1. Infinite Differential-mode voltage gain
2. Infinite Common mode Rejection ratio
3. Infinite Input Resistance
4. Zero output Resistance
5.

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Example: LM 741

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Inside the opamp, there is a complicated circuit containing several transistors
and resistors.

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Simple equivalent circuit model of an opamp

~10

~105
~106
This assumes very high CMRR 11
vo
VCC

vi

-VCC
Opamp is said to be saturated

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+ve

+ve

-ve
+ve

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How do we amplify this signal?

+ 12 V

- 12 V

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+ 12 V

- 12 V

R0
vS vo
+
vi +
Ri - AOL vi
-

But opamp voltage is limited to

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Simulation Results

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How do we amplify this signal then ?

1. Attenuate the signal to 0.1mV and then amplify ?
2.
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A Better Solution

Amplifier has feedback

If the feedback signal helps the input voltage we have positive
feedback, otherwise negative.
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Feedback

vIN AV vout

vIN
AV vout

Feedback
network
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Negative and Positive feedback

vIN + VIN - Vfb
AV vout
vfb -

Negative feedback
Feedback
network

vIN + VIN + Vfb
AV vout
vfb +

Positive feedback
Feedback
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network
Opamp circuits classification

Negative feedback

Closed loop
Or feedback

Opamp circuits Positive feedback

Open loop

Most Opamp Circuits employ negative feedback
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Inverting amplifier
R2

R1

VS VO

R2

R1 R0
vS vo
-
Ri vi +
- AOL vi
+

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Nodal Analysis

This is called the Virtual Ground property
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This implies that :

No current flows in or out of either inverting or non-
inverting terminals of an ideal opamp
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i i

+
Vi=0
-

Hence the name Virtual ground

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Virtual Ground Property

In an opamp with negative feedback, the voltage of the inverting
terminal is equal to the voltage of the non-inverting terminal if
the gain of the opamp is sufficiently high

This property does not hold under certain conditions such as
open loop,
positive feedback
or if the opamp is saturated.
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Two important property for analyzing ideal opamp circuits
under negative feedback

i1

i2

At the input side opamp appears to be like a short and an open
circuit simultaneously ! 27
Inverting amplifier

Re-analyze inverting amplifier with these properties

0

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Non-Inverting Amplifier

VS

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Examples

R2
R1

1mA

0

0
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