ESc201 : Introduction to Electronics

Operational Amplifier

Shilpi Gupta
Dept. of Electrical Engineering
IIT Kanpur
Mar 8, 2017
1
Recap: Difference Amplifier
-An amplifier that is sensitive to difference in input voltages
and insensitive to what is common.

2
Recap: Operational Amplifier

A special kind of difference amplifier

1. Very High Differential-mode voltage gain
2. Very High Common mode Rejection ratio
3. Very High Input Resistance
4. Very Low output Resistance
5.
3
Recap: Simple equivalent circuit model of an opamp

~10

~105
~106
This assumes very high CMRR 4
Recap:

vo
VCC

vi

-VCC
Opamp is said to be saturated

5
Recap: Feedback

Amplifier has feedback

If the feedback signal helps the input voltage we have positive
feedback, otherwise negative.
6
Recap: Virtual Ground Property

In an opamp with negative feedback, the voltage of the inverting
terminal is equal to the voltage of the non-inverting terminal if
the gain of the opamp is sufficiently high

This property does not hold under certain conditions such as
open loop,
positive feedback
or if the opamp is saturated.
7
Recap:
Two important property for analyzing ideal opamp circuits
under negative feedback

i1

i2

8
Recap: Inverting amplifier

Re-analyze inverting amplifier with these properties

0

9
Recap: Non-Inverting Amplifier

VS

10
Adder

0

0 vo vs1 vs 2
is1 is 2
Rf R1 R2

11
Alternative Analysis

12
Design Example
Design a circuit that would generate the following output given
three input voltages vs1, vs2 and vs3.

Rf

R1 R2
VS1
VO
VS2
R3
Choose :
VS3

13
Adder

14
Adder

Rf

R4

R1 VO

VS1 R2 R3
VS2

Complicated expression !!!!!

Simple expression !

15
Design Example
Design a circuit that would generate the following output given
two input voltages vs1and vs2.

DIY!
16
vo1 (vs1 vs 2 )
Have we made some assumption here ? 17
Example

18
BUT

Where is the error ?

Circuit- -2 and its output vs. input
characteristics get modified. 19
Loading Effect

Vo in general gets altered when we connect a load to it

Under what conditions is change in VO small upon
connection of a load ?

20
Example

After connection of load:

We can describe this effect in terms of output resistance

21
Loading Effect

Whenever output resistance of a circuit is much smaller than
the load resistance, the loading effect is minimal.

22
vo1 (vs1 vs 2 )
The assumption made here is that there is no loading which is
reasonable because opamps have very low o/p resistance 23
Example

24
Subtractor

R3 R3
vs 2 vo vs1 vs 2
R2 R3 R2 R3
Rf R1
25
26
Subtractor: Alternative Analysis

Inverting amplifier

Use superposition theorem

+
Non-inverting amplifier

Analysis is made simpler by Re-Using results derived
earlier
27
Adder/Subtractor

+ +

+
28
Adder/Subtractor

+ +

+
29
Rf
Example R2

VS2 R1

VS1 R3 VO

VS3 R4 R5
VS4

Choose :

Choose :
30