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PCN/AERO Appendix Z1 issue 2 dated 1 January 2016 – NDT Training Syllabi

Contents Page
1 Scope ................................................................................................................................. 2
2 Introduction, Terminology, Purpose and History of NDT ............................................ 2
2.1 The Task of NDT ............................................................................................................... 2
2.2 The Task of NDT personnel ............................................................................................. 2
2.3 The History of NDT ........................................................................................................... 2
2.4 Terminology of NDT ......................................................................................................... 3
2.5 General safety considerations ........................................................................................ 3
A Radiographic testing level 1, level 2 and level 3 ........................................................... 4
B Ultrasonic testing level 1, level 2 .................................................................................. 20
C Eddy current testing level 1, level 2 and level 3 .......................................................... 26
D Penetrant testing level 1, level 2 and level 3 ............................................................... 32
E Magnetic particle testing level 1, level 2 and level 3 .................................................. 36
F Syllabus visual testing level 1, level 2 and level 3 ...................................................... 41

Introduction

ISO/TC135 and CEN/TC138 are proud to present to the worldwide Non Destructive Community their recommendations for minimum requirements of technical
knowledge of NDT personnel; these recommendations provide means for evaluating and documenting the competence of personnel whose duties require the
appropriate theoretical and practical knowledge.
As part of the efforts to streamline and harmonize the training and certification of NDT personnel, ISO/TC135 - CEN/TC138 have been actively involved in
developing guidelines for training syllabus and guidelines for NDT training organisations. These guides serve to those involved in training and are useful to achieve
a uniform level of training material and consequent competence of personnel.
These documents represent 2 years of efforts of ISO/TC135 and CEN/TC138 working groups to promote harmonisation and mutual recognition of minimum
requirements of the different existing certification schemes.
The content of this first edition has been based on the experience of the experts as well as comments of the end-user industries and the last publication of the
ICNDT recommended guidelines.

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Aero Appendix Z1 Page 1 of 46 Issue 2 dated 1 January 2016

1 Scope

This document defines guidelines with the intention to harmonise and maintain the general standard of training of non-destructive testing (NDT) personnel for
industrial needs. Associated guidelines for NDT training organisations have been produced for the general part of training courses.
The guidelines also establish the minimum requirements for effective structured training of NDT personnel to ensure eligibility for qualification examinations leading
to third party certification according to recognized standards.
This document enclose a clause about NDT in general and a clause specific to each of the following NDT method: acoustic emission testing, eddy current testing,
leak testing, magnetic particle testing, penetrant testing, radiographic testing, ultrasonic testing and visual testing,.

2 Introduction, Terminology, Purpose and History of NDT

2.1 The Task of NDT

Non-destructive testing (NDT) gives an important contribution to the safety and the economic and ecological welfare of our society.
NDT is the only choice for the test of an object which must not be destroyed, modified or degraded by the testing process. This is generally required for objects
which will be used after testing, for example safety parts, pipelines, power plants and also constructions under in-service inspection, but even for unique parts in
archaeology and culture.
NDT is based on physical effects at the surface or the inner structure of the object under test. Often the outcome of the test needs to be interpreted to give a useful
result; sometimes different NDT methods must be combined, or verified by other test methods.

2.2 The Task of NDT personnel

NDT personnel have a high responsibility not only with respect to their employers or contractors but also under the rules of good workmanship. The tester shall be
independent and free from economic influences with regard to his test results, otherwise the results are compromised. The tester should be aware of the importance
of his signature and the consequences of incorrect test results for safety, health and environment. Under legal aspects, the falsification of certificates is an offence
and judged according to the national legal regulations. A tester may find himself in a conflicting situation about his findings with his employer, the responsible
authorities or legal requirements.
Finally the tester is responsible for all interpretations of test results carrying his signature. NDT personnel should never sign test reports beyond their certification.

2.3 The History of NDT

NDT started with visual checks in prehistoric times. In medieval centuries, test methods like simple leakage tests and hardness checks were introduced. The
th th
breakthrough for NDT came with industrialisation in the 19 and 20 century: X-ray and Ultrasonic Testing for inner defects, Penetrant and Magnetic Particle
Testing for surface cracks. During the last few decades sophisticated, mostly electronically linked methods like Eddy Current Testing, RADAR, Computer
Tomography and Thermography were developed. NDT methods found application in a wide range of industry from civil engineering and industrial plants to space
and defence technology.
The history of NDT is linked to many famous researchers and inventors like Röntgen, Becquerel, Curie, Oerstedt, Faraday and even Leonardo da Vinci. They
discovered the physical principles and demonstrated early applications. All together, approximately 5000 scientists worldwide made contributions to the present
state of NDT.
NDT is a global technology. Since NDT tasks and related technical problems are similar in all developed countries, improved solutions and new equipment are
spread around the world within a few months. Many international conferences and standard committees contribute to a steady and consensual development of NDT
for the benefit of safety, economy and the environment.

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Aero Appendix Z1 Page 2 of 46 Issue 2 dated 1 January 2016

2.4 Terminology of NDT

Correct Terminology is a necessary demand for a worldwide-applied technology. It is needed for communication between contracting parties, testers and certifying
bodies. Terms like “Indication”, “Imperfection”, “flaw” and “defect” need a precise and unequivocal definition to avoid any confusion and misinterpretation of results.
The European Standards EN 1330–1 and –2 (for different NDT methods) and the synonymous International Standards (partly drafts) give the agreed denominations
and short definitions of terms.

2.5 General safety considerations

2.5.1 Non-destructive testing is often applied in conditions where safety of the operator may be in danger due to local conditions, or where the application of the
particular NDT method or techniques may in itself compromise the safety of operator and others in the vicinity.
An essential element of any course training for NDT personnel must therefore be safety and the duration of the training for this subject should be adequate and
provided addition to the technical training associated with the particular NDT method.

2.5.2 General safety considerations may include but are not necessarily limited to:
 Environmental conditions: heat, cold, humidity;
 Toxicity: of NDT materials, tested products, atmosphere;
 Radiation safety: NDT materials,products, local regulations
 Electrical safety: NDT equipment, lethal voltages, EMC;
 Potential of personnel injury: working at height or in other dangerous environments;
 Personnel protection equipment: closing, radiation dosimeters.

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Aero Appendix Z1 Page 3 of 46 Issue 2 dated 1 January 2016

Contents Level 1 Level 2 Level 3

A. Radiographic testing level 1, level 2 and level 3

1.0 1.0 History 1.0 History 1.0 History
Introduction, Purpose Purpose Purpose
Terminology
History of NDT
1.1 Terminology 1.1 Terminology 1.1 Terminology
Electromagnetic radiation Wave-length EN 1330-3
Energy Dose
Dose Dose rate
Dose rate Intensity
Dose rate constant

2.0 2.0 Properties of X- and gamma 2.0 Properties of X- and gamma 2.0 Properties of radiation
Physical principles of the radiation radiation
X-radiography
method and associated
Relevant standards: Photon
Knowledge Gamma radiography
BS EN ISO 5579: Basic rules
Process of ionisation
Neutron radiography
Straight line propagation photochemical effects
biological effects Electron radiography
Effects of radiation
fluorescent effects
Capability of penetration
Energy Process of ionization
photochemical effects
biological effects
fluorescent effects

2.1 2.1 Generation of X-radiation 2.1 Generation of X-radiation 2.1 Generation of X-radiation
Function of X-ray tubes Function of X-ray tubes Function of X-ray tubes
Tube current I Spectrum Spectrum
intensity intensity
High voltage U
max. energy max. energy
effects on dose rate and energy of
effective energy effective energy
radiation
change of spectrum by tube current change of spectrum by tube current
and tube voltage and tube voltage

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Aero Appendix Z1 Page 4 of 46 Issue 2 dated 1 January 2016

Contents Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Inherent filtering Characteristic radiation Inherent filtering Hardening effect 2.2 Origin of γ-radiation Radio isotope Ir 192. Co 60. Co 60. Co 60.2 Origin of γ-radiation 2.2 2. Yb 169 half life energy decay curves maximum activity Activity A activity source size source size Characteristics of γ-sources Characteristic of Gamma ray half life decay curves maximum activity Dose rate constant source size Spectrum and effective energy Characteristic of Gamma ray Dose rate constant Spectrum and effective energy st Aero Appendix Z1 Page 5 of 46 Issue 2 dated 1 January 2016 . Se 75. Se 75. Se 75 Radio nuclide Natural and artificial decay Isotope Ir 192. Yb 169 Activity Decay series half life Activity A Radio nuclides for NDT characteristics of γ-sources Characteristics of γ-sources life time Isotope Ir 192.2 Origin of γ-radiation 2.

3 Interaction of radiation with matter 2.3 Interaction of radiation with matter Attenuation Attenuation Attenuation vs.3 2.Contents Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 2. energy photo effect photo effect absorption coherent scattering coherent scattering primary radiation Compton scattering Compton scattering scattered radiation pair production pair production Influence of: penetrated thickness Attenuation coefficient Attenuation coefficient Type of material Scatter radiation Scatter radiation Energy Specific contrast Specific contrast Half value layer Radiation contrast Radiation contrast Tenth value layer Effects of filtering Effects of filtering Beam hardening Beam hardening Klein-Nishina law st Aero Appendix Z1 Page 6 of 46 Issue 2 dated 1 January 2016 .3 Interaction of radiation with matter 2.

Contents Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 2.4 Properties of film systems.4 Properties of film systems and 2. BS EN source to object distance Source film distance 12579 Source film distance Requirements for optimisation by: Determination of the focal spot Geometric unsharpness. speed granularity Classification of detector systems influence of film processing contrast application sensitivity optical density granularity film system class detail perceptibility Film screens Classification of film systems according to.4 2. current.4 Properties of film systems and 2. screens screens screens and digital detection systems Construction Construction additional to level 2 base. emulsion.5 Geometry for radiographic exposures 2.5 Geometry for radiographic exposures exposures Geometric unsharpness object to film distance Geometric unsharpness Additional to level 2 focus size d object to film distance Method of focal spot measurement source to object distance focus size d according to EN 12543. silver bromide grain size Latent image information origin New detectors and distribution storage phosphor imaging plates Photo process Processing flat panels Properties of film systems x-ray intensifier Properties of films characteristic curve line detector sensitivity film gradient. activity st Aero Appendix Z1 Page 7 of 46 Issue 2 dated 1 January 2016 . total size of Gamma sources unsharpness Focus size. voltage Source size. type of film screens BS EN ISO 11699-1 intensifying effect filtering effect Film screens film to screen contact type of screens film screen contact inherent unsharpness intensifying effect of filtering screens for Co 60 and Linac 2.5 Geometry for radiographic 2.5 2. film contrast.

1 3.3 Influence to detectability type of defect.and γ-rays Thickness ranges for x.0 3. to Type of weld seam and weld seam Additional to level 2 capabilities of the EN ISO 6520 preparation Introduction to fracture method and its derivate mechanics working load Techniques Welding process origin Materials properties Type of discontinuity according to EN ISO 6520 Origin of defects Further NDT methods 3.2 3.2 Typical defects in aircraft structures 3.1 Defects in castings Types of defects Casting process Casting process Types of cast imperfections and their origin Type of cast imperfections and their origin Structural indications Structural indications Beam direction to detectability Working load Materials properties Production caused defects 3.2 Typical defects in aircraft structures 3.3 Influence to detectability 3.and γ-rays Number of exposures Number of exposures vs. distortion angle st Aero Appendix Z1 Page 8 of 46 Issue 2 dated 1 January 2016 .0 Weld imperfections 3.Contents Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 3. beam direction beam direction size geometric distortion geometric distortion orientation increase in wall thickness increase in wall thickness Imaged thickness range Imaged thickness range Imaged thickness range Number of exposures Thickness ranges for x.1 Defects in castings 3.2 Typical defects in aircraft structures 3.1Typical defects in castings 3.0 Typical weld defects imperfections 3.3 3.3 Influence to detectability 3.0 Weld imperfections Product knowledge and Type of discontinuity according.

oil Linac Rotary anode tubes Focal spot Construction High voltage.1 Design and Operation of Gamma ray Devices Devices Devices container. shielding Additional to level 1: Same as level 2 class: P. water.and metal-ceramic tube pre-filtering x-ray flash devices rod anode devices Design of tubes Devices for special applications micro focus devices standard tube micro focus tubes high voltage devices rod anode tube enlargement technique short anode tube radioscopy Line focus tubes Cooling: Gas. mobile unit Additional to level 1: Additional to level 2 Tubes inherent filtering beam opening characteristics glass.0 4. M crawler for pipelines type: A. B (transportation) special device for testing of heat source holder and source capsule exchanger tubes Enclosed radioactive material manipulation device connections accessory remote control collimation fittings Operation instructions Reference to national requirements and safety regulations st Aero Appendix Z1 Page 9 of 46 Issue 2 dated 1 January 2016 . max.Contents Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 4.0 Design and Operation of X-ray Equipment Machines Machines Machines Stationary systems.1 Design and Operation of Gamma ray 4.1 Design and Operation of Gamma ray 4.1 4. current Field of application Exposure time Typical dates Diaphragm Safety circuit Operation instructions 4.0 Design and Operation of X-ray 4.0 Design and Operation of X-ray 4.

Contents Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 4. radiation protection equipment st Aero Appendix Z1 Page 10 of 46 Issue 2 dated 1 January 2016 .2 4.2 Accessories for radiographic testing equipment lead tape measure holding magnets lead screens shielding rubber bands etc.

dimensions. isometrics Test class of standard Selection of standards for specific testing number of parts applications Equipment to be used field of application kind of manufacture European standards Exposure arrangement catalogue of defects Application standards Extent of testing (20 % inspection) overview Test conditions marking purpose accessibility technical contents and systematic infrastructure particular test conditions Product specific standards for special industrial sectors Applicable standards for welding Overview for casting for pipes Standards assigned to the test object pressurised equipment directive Preparation of written instructions ISO standards American standards: overview ASME-Code overview ASTM-Standards st Aero Appendix Z1 Page 11 of 46 Issue 2 dated 1 January 2016 .Contents Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 5.0 Information about the test object and Information prior the Test national requirements Information about the test object Identification or designation Object dimensions Additional to level 2: Material.0 5.0 Information about the test object 5.0 Written procedures are given 5.

0 6.1 6. x-ray voltage penetrated thickness range for gamma penetrated thickness range for gamma penetrated thickness range for gamma rays rays rays special options special options special options Film and screen choice Film and screen choice Film and screen choice film system classes. x-ray voltage max.0 Developing process Testing Darkroom Additional to Level 1: Principles design Processing equipment. BS 6.Contents Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 6.1 Explanation and discussion of BS EN EN ISO 17636 parts 1 & 2 to BS M34 EN ISO 17636 parts 1 & 2 to BS M34 ISO 17636 parts 1 & 2 to BS M34 Scope Scope Scope Test classes Test classes Test classes basic and improved techniques basic and improved techniques basic and improved techniques Test arrangements Test arrangements Test arrangements number of exposures BS EN ISO 17636 number of exposures BS EN ISO number of exposures BS EN ISO parts 1 & 2 17636 parts 1 & 2 17636 parts 1 & 2 Choice of Energy Choice of Energy Choice of energy max. adjustment Processing equipment.0 Developing process 6. x-ray voltage max.1 Examination of welded joints acc.1 Examination of welded joints acc. film system classes. film system classes. adjustment developer checking: checking: water bath storage of unexposed films storage of unexposed films fixing bath darkroom light test darkroom light test final water bath fog test fog test drying clearing time clearing time Preparation and regeneration of baths tally sheet tally sheet Use of filmstrips according to BS EN ISO Process-controlling in accordance with BS Use of filmstrips according to BS EN ISO 11699-2 EN ISO 11699-2 11699-2 Film processing faults 6. BS 6. type and thickness of screens type and thickness of screens type and thickness of screens Minimum optical density Minimum optical density Minimum optical density Minimum source-to-object distance Minimum source-to-object distance Minimum source-to-object distance st Aero Appendix Z1 Page 12 of 46 Issue 2 dated 1 January 2016 .0 Developing process 6.

EN 12681 to BS M34 to. Use of enlargement Increase of covered thickness range type and thickness of screens Double film technique Double film technique wall thickness compensation wall thickness equalization Minimum optical density use of higher Energy. x-ray voltage max.# Examination of aircraft structures to 6. EN 12681 to BS M34 EN 12681 to BS M34 Scope Scope for complex shaped objects Scope for complex shaped objects Test classes Classifications Classifications basic and improved techniques basic and improved techniques basic and improved techniques Test arrangements Test arrangements Test arrangements number of exposures number of exposures number of exposures special geometries special geometries Choice of Energy average wall thickness Choice of Energy Choice of Energy max.2 6.# Examination of aircraft structures to 6. film system classes. EN 13068 Definition of exposure value Stereo technique exposure time Image detectors: Round about technique fluoroscope Correction of exposure time for different Testing of corrosion damage flat panels Film-focalspot-distance FFD x-ray intensifier optical density Enlargement with micro focus camera and TV-systems relative film exposure factor Real-time technique st Aero Appendix Z1 Page 13 of 46 Issue 2 dated 1 January 2016 .2 Explanation and discussion of to.2 Examination of castings according 6.3 Direct radiography and radioscopy according to.2 Examination of castings according 6.Contents Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 6.3 Special Technique 6.3 6.3 Working with Exposure charts 6. Minimum source-to-object distance film hardening hardening Film and screen choice Film and screen choice film system classes. x-ray voltage rays penetrated thickness range for gamma penetrated thickness range for gamma special options rays rays special options special options Film and screen choice film system classes. x-ray voltage average wall thickness average wall thickness penetrated thickness range for gamma max. type and thickness of screens type and thickness of screens minimum optical density minimum optical density minimum source-to-object distance minimum source-to-object distance 6.# Examination of aircraft structures to BS M34 BS M34 BS M34 6. use of higher Energy.

4 Special Technique Stereo technique Round about technique Testing of corrosion damage Enlargement with micro focus Special aspects for radiography of materials with high and low density Low voltage radiography Radiography of art objects light alloys plastics pre filtering High voltage radiography concrete testing Film – screen –systems pre filtering intermediate filtering heavy walled casting special radiation protection. picture archive special materials Limits of the method: resolution dynamic signal-to-noise-ratio modulation transfer function Basic image processing monitoring documentation 6.4 6.Contents Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 fluorescent screens Applications: radioscopy serial production testing computed radiography dynamical testing documentation. contamination st Aero Appendix Z1 Page 14 of 46 Issue 2 dated 1 January 2016 .

instructions and reports combination with other NDT-methods position of markings on the object Organization of simple test procedures Integration of internal priorities Test objects Choice of testing method ambient conditions time of testing reference documents. to BS EN ISO 19232 parts 1-5 1-5 1-5 Definition of Image quality number Additional to Level 1: Same as Level 2: design of IQI Image quality number for other materials Relevance of image quality indicators IQI position of different exposures acc.6 6. zero point. specifications.5 Image quality indicators according to 6. according. to BS EN ISO 19232 parts according. to BS EN ISO 19232 parts 1-5 6.6 System of marking 6.5 Image quality indicators according to according. to BS EN ISO 19232 image quality classes International image quality indicators parts 1-5 image quality number Detection of unsharpness with duplex- indicator acc.Contents Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 6.5 6.5 Image quality indicators 6. to ASTM list of required accessories st Aero Appendix Z1 Page 15 of 46 Issue 2 dated 1 January 2016 .6 Drafting an NDT procedure for the testing of aerospace products testing of aerospace products object to film assignment welding and castings welding and castings permanent marking of the object.6 Drafting an NDT instruction for the 6. incremental count direction. Use of BS M38 – Guide to compilation of Complete organization of test procedures in marker tape. according. to BS EN ISO 19232 parts according. radiation protection standards equipment choice of radiation source Personal qualification choice of adequate direction of radiation Cost estimation: film location plan for personal identification of test piece and for equipment radiographs for expendable number of exposures for auxiliary attachment performance of the test and reporting second exposures after repair of test results viewing of the films Selection of specifications for application and evaluation classification of defects assessment of the results according to Example of an written practice for weld applicable codes and standards inspection acc.

for industrial radiography BS EN 1330-3 NDT-Terminology — Part 3: BS EN ISO 19232-1 NDT image quality of Terms used in industrial radiography radiographs – Part 1 Image quality testing. indicators (wire type) determination of image quality value BS M34 Method of preparation and use of radiographic techniques BS EN ISO 19232-2 NDT image quality of radiographs – Part 2 Image quality BS EN ISO 5579 Industrial radiography – indicators (step/hole type) determination of General principles for radiographic image quality value examination of metallic materials using X and Gamma ray BS EN ISO 19232-3 NDT image quality of radiographs – Part 3 Image quality classes ASTM E 1742 Standard practice for for ferrous metals radiographic examination BSEN ISO 19232-5 NDT image quality of Radiography – Aerospace Weld radiographs – Part 5 Image quality Level 2 (in addition to the above) indicators (duplex wire type) determination BS EN ISO 17636 parts 1 & 2 Non of total image unsharpness value destructive examination of welds.Contents Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Essential Reading: Essential Reading: Essential Reading: BS EN 1330-2 NDT-Terminology — Part 2: BS EN ISO 11699-1 Industrial radiographic Terms common to the non-destructive film – Part 1 Classification of film systems testing methods. Radiographic examination of welded joints ASTM E2104 Standard practice for radiographic examination of advanced aero and turbine materials and components AMS 2175A Castings – Classification and inspection Radiography – Aerospace Weld Level 3 (in addition to the above) BS EN 25580 Minimum requirements for radiographic illuminators for non-destructive testing BS EN ISO 17639 Methods of testing fusion welds in aluminium and aluminium alloys st Aero Appendix Z1 Page 16 of 46 Issue 2 dated 1 January 2016 .

1 7. test report Does it comply with the examination standard? Conformed to the test quality Achieved test class Achieved image quality class Achieved diagnostic coverage of test object st Aero Appendix Z1 Page 17 of 46 Issue 2 dated 1 January 2016 .2 Test report 7. luminance Film illuminator.1 Evaluation of radiographs 7. luminance homogeneity factor homogeneity factor Density measurement Physiological factors Physiological factors eyesight eyesight adaptation prior to viewing adaptation prior to viewing 7.2 7. luminance min.0 Basic of evaluation Evaluation and Reporting Viewing conditions Additional to Level 1: Viewing conditions room condition Mach Effect Mach Effect viewing time Film illuminator acc. 0 7.2 Check of test report 7.0 Basics of evaluation 7.1 Evaluation of radiographs Verification the image quality Verification of image quality Verification of image quality Report of simple welding and casting Report of imperfections Report of imperfections imperfections 7.2 Feasibility of test report welding according to BS EN ISO 17636 Use of BS M38 – Guide to compilation of instructions and reports Confirmation of the radiographic image castings according to EN 12681 quality vs.Contents Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 7.0 Basics of evaluation 7.1 Evaluation of radiographs 7. BS EN 25580 Film illuminator acc. BS EN 25580 lapsed time after dazzling min.

0 Personnel qualification (according to 9. size.0 8.Contents Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 8.1 Assessment of imperfections 8. localisation. BS EN ISO 10675 according to BS EN 17635 according to Standard on inspection according to BS EN ISO 10675 of pressure vessels (EN 13445-5) according to standard on inspection of pressure vessels (EN 13445-5) Casting according to ASTM Casting according to ASTM Aircraft structures Aircraft structures Evaluation catalogue to BS EN ISO 5817 Evaluation catalogue to BS EN ISO 5817 ASTM – catalogue ASTM – catalogue other national training catalogues other national training catalogues influence of manufacture and material influence of manufacture and material 9.0 Innovative radiological techniques Developments Flat panel detectors 3-dimensional radiology inspection stereo technique multi angle technique computed laminography st Aero Appendix Z1 Page 18 of 46 Issue 2 dated 1 January 2016 .0 9.0 Classification of imperfections Assessment Type.0 alternative detectors to film 10. frequency Type. localisation.0 Personnel qualification (according to Quality aspects EN ISO 9712) EN ISO 9712) EN ISO 9712) Equipment verification Equipment verification Equipment verification Written instructions Format of working procedures. Traceability of documents Traceability of documents A review of applicable NDT application and Other NDT qualification and certification product standards systems A review of applicable NDT application and product standards 10.0 10.0 Personnel qualification (according to 9. size.1 Assessment of imperfections Welding Welding according to BS EN ISO 5817 according to ISO 6520 according to BS EN ISO 17635 according to BS EN ISO 5817 according to.0 Classification of imperfections 8. frequency 8.

Contents Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 computed tomography Principle Applications digital image processing film digitisation image enhancement st Aero Appendix Z1 Page 19 of 46 Issue 2 dated 1 January 2016 .

Ultrasonic testing level 1.0 Terminology and definitions of UT Introduction.0 1.1 Same as level 1 + Phenoma of guided propagation Physical definitions and typical parameters . CEN and Terminology 1. Dispersion frequency.1 History of NDT national (general. factors of reflection Velocity measurement and and transmission (normal beam only) Sinusoidal movement.3 History of UT 1. propagation velocity .0 2. 1.1 Terminology and Definitions of UT Overview of standards: ISO.2 Various types of wave modes 2. period.1 Review of mathematical basics 2. level 2 and level 3 1.Contents Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 B.4 Terminology of UT (EN 1330-4) 2.extended knowledge of surface waves or Rayleigh waves and of plate Concepts of surface waves or Rayleigh waves and of plate waves or Lamb waves waves or Lamb waves .0 Relevant standards: 2.0 Review of level 1 knowledge 1. and products) History of NDT 1.2 Various types of wave modes Longitudinal waves Same as level 1 + Transverse waves . amplitude. Personnel 1.0 Physical definitions and typical 2.2 Terminology of NDT (EN 1330-1 & –2) 1.acoustic impedance.0 As level 2 + Physical principles of the BS EN ISO 16810 parameters method and associated EN 14127 Knowledge Isotropic and anisotropic materials 2.creeping waves st Aero Appendix Z1 Page 20 of 46 Issue 2 dated 1 January 2016 . wavelength.0 Task of non-destructive testing .beam propagation Relation between between velocity and elastic properties of materials 2.

…) method and derived sectors resolution and reduction of techniques Implementation of the testing techniques noise (type.4 Transmission and reception of ultrasonic waves ultrasonic waves Piezo-electric effect Same as level 1 Ferro-electricity or electrostriction 2.beam profiling Beam divergence .6 Transducer characteristics 2.3 Reflection and refraction Normal incidence. dimensions.7 Characteristics of the beam of a circular transducer circular transducer Influence of transducer frequency and Same as level 1 + diameter . piezo-electric Same as level 1 (deeper knowledge) constants 2. mode conversion 2. Multiple probe arrays discontinuities .beam divergence factor 3.3 Reflection and refraction 2.5 Magnetostriction 2. transmission and Same as level 1 + acoustic pressure reflection Incidence oblique Snell’s law Critical angles. frequency. immersion . related capability of the induced defects related to the defined .0 3. Same as level 1 dimensions during magnetization. 2. EMAT according to products and to expected .0 Same as level 1 + 3.5 Magnetostriction Ability of a material to change shape or.6 Transducer characteristics Material.Contents Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 2.characteristics of the beam of a Near field (Fresnel zone) rectangular transducer Far field (Fraunhofer zone) .4 Transmission and reception of 2.0 Various defects related to the 3. size) .phased arrays st Aero Appendix Z1 Page 21 of 46 Issue 2 dated 1 January 2016 . resonance.0 Same as level 2+ Products knowledge and manufacturing processes and service .tandem (zones) Choice of techniques (contact.TOFD Influence of geometry and structure .selection of transducers for required transmission. immersion.7 Characteristics of the beam of a 2.

Probes for immersion: focused.Products: geometry. …). angle. and dB) .0 Same as level 1 + 4. tilt/skew … .detailed knowledge of the different Pulse generation functions of UT test equipment Systems (manual/semi-automatic. environment… Requirements .0 5.0 Same as level 1 (deeper knowledge)+ 5. quality.Preparation of written instructions .0 Written instruction (prepared by a 5.Contents Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 (spurious echoes. origin. orientation. cylindrical. incrementation. Reception and amplification (percentage . dual) 4. Selection of technical parameters: procedures and standards . insulation and flexibility.0 Various probes (normal.and C-scan presentation analog flaw detectors.UT indication/ discontinuity/ defect: type. . surface Objectives . sound attenuation) Influence of the main parameters A comprehensive understanding and knowledge of the manufacturing processes and associated metallurgy & flaw types etc… A comprehensive understanding and knowledge of the cause and formation of in- service defects including associated metallurgy & flaw types etc… 4. spherical. accessibility.0 4.contents and requirements of instructions. shape.): speed. Blocks: representativity 5. dimension.0 Same as level 2 + Equipment Instruments (analogical and digital) . Fermat surface.B.couplant (deeper knowledge) Digital flaw detectors (Comparison with B.and C-scan presentation (deeper repeatability … Range setting knowledge) Analog flaw detectors (different circuits) A.properties of the equipment: Preparation of written specifications st Aero Appendix Z1 Page 22 of 46 Issue 2 dated 1 January 2016 .scan presentation . curvature.0 As level 2 + Information prior to test level 2 or 3) .Dynamic range . Sampling-rate) Calibration reference and transfer blocks Additional functions: Special equipment including thickness Couplant measurement Probes .Measurement of pulse length practical measurement of the near field Shoe (delay. Connecting cables (sealing.automatic and semi automatic systems automatic.

Contents Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 6.5 Ultrasonic thickness measurement Equipment Techniques Essential Reading: Essential Reading: Essential Reading: BS EN 1330-4 NDT-Terminology — Part 4: BS EN 12668-3 Non destructive testing – Terms used in ultrasonic testing Characterisation and verification of equipment. Ultrasonic examination – Part 1 General BS EN ISO 16823 Non destructive testing. Ultrasonic examination – Part 5 ASTM E 587 Standard practice for Characterisation and sizing of Ultrasonic angle beam testing discontinuities st Aero Appendix Z1 Page 23 of 46 Issue 2 dated 1 January 2016 .1 Standardized calibration blocks ref : size) instructions for their efficiency BS EN ISO 2400 & BS EN ISO 7963 . principles Ultrasonic examination – Part 3 Transmission technique ASTM E 114 Standard practice for Pulse echo straight beam contact testing BS EN ISO 16827 Non destructive testing.DAC-curves .sizing techniques.2 Contact technique (straight and .0 Verification of combined equipment 6.0 6. principles and Transmission limitations .0 Same as level 2 + Testing according to EN 12668-3 + .0 Same as level 1 (deeper knowledge) 6.4 Setting of range and sensitivity Reference reflectors Transfer correction 6.distance/amplitude-correction 6.3 Immersion techniques (straight and angle beam) Reflection Transmission 6.reference reflectors (laws of distance and Control and assessment of procedures and 6.DGS-method . Part 3 combined equipment BS EN ISO 16810 Non destructive testing.transfer correction (surface and angle beam) attenuation) Reflection .scanning 6.

0 Personnel qualification 9.0 Personnel qualification 9.characterization (planar / non planar methods.0 7. reflector) Acceptance criteria. Storage and recording process 8. procedures How to develop codes. System of coordinate Distinction defect/artefact.0 Evaluation and confirmation of test Detailed knowledge of how to classify & Assessment reports assess observations. codes and design specifications etc…. Test reports validated method) .0 Personnel qualification and Quality aspects (according to EN ISO 9712) (according to EN ISO 9712) responsibility Equipment verification Equipment verification (according to EN ISO 9712) Written instructions Equipment verification Traceability of documents Format of working procedures. according to BS EN ISO 23279 for Interpretation of relevant standards and Recording and evaluation level welds) codes Acceptance levels .0 (not applicable) 8. Calculated values Level of significant variation.Contents Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 BS EN ISO 2400 Calibration block No 1 ultrasonic examination AMS 2175A Castings – Classification and inspection 7. standards and design specifications etc…. standards and according to standards. 9. analyse the results Application of the acceptance criteria and compare them to codes.0 Detecting.Interpretation and evaluation of indications Evaluation (conventional approach.0 Same as level 1 (deeper knowledge)+ 7.0 Use of complementary NDT Evaluation and reporting rules) and sizing techniques . locating (trigonometrical 7. Traceability of documents Other NDT qualification and certification st Aero Appendix Z1 Page 24 of 46 Issue 2 dated 1 January 2016 . into clear acceptance criteria to be written into procedures and instructions Also how to find information /assistance to investigate observations not covered by codes and standards & develop acceptance criteria. The training of levels 1 & 2 for these acceptance criteria. Measurement (probe.0 9.

tomography holography.g. acoustic microscopy … st Aero Appendix Z1 Page 25 of 46 Issue 2 dated 1 January 2016 .0 (not applicable) 10.0 General information Newest developments for industrial and Developments scientific applications of UT: e.Contents Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 systems A review of applicable NDT application and product standards 10.

amplitude.0 Generalities on NDT: 1. Ohm's law.2 Terminology EN 1330 –1and –2 EN 1330 –1and –2 EN 1330 –1and –2 EN 1330. mathematics) may as well be the object of a preliminary course of training.5 EN 1330. Vector representation. resistance. Ohm's law. phase. conductivity values for conductivity values for some metals.1 Electricity : 2.1 Eddy current testing: Definition: electromagnetic interaction Definition: electromagnetic interaction Definition: electromagnetic interaction between a sensor and a test object between a sensor and a test object between a sensor and a test object conducting electricity. frequency. level 2 and level 3 1. Units. period. conductance. resistivity. 1. the test object. resistance. Other periodic currents. conductivity. voltage. some metals. Vector representation.1 Electricity : Direct current : current.1 Electricity : elements 2. resistivity. voltage. Direct current : current. voltage.5 EN 1330. conductance. voltage.0 Fundamentals * 2. resistance. Units. The knowledge associated to the physical principles (physics. Units.1 Eddy current testing: 1. conductance.0 Fundamentals * Physical principles and associated knowledge 1 2. phase. NDT methods. providing conducting electricity.1 Eddy current testing: 1. providing conducting electricity. resistivity. What is testing? What is the purpose of What is testing? What is the purpose of What is testing? What is the purpose of Terminology. frequency.Contents Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 C.0 1. st Aero Appendix Z1 Page 26 of 46 Issue 2 dated 1 January 2016 . Ohm's law. frequency. Direct current : current. object. NDT? At what stage of the life of a NDT? At what stage of the life of a NDT? At what stage of the life of a History of NDT "product" is NDT performed? How does it "product" is NDT performed? How does it "product" is NDT performed? How does it add value? Who may carry out NDT? add value? Who may carry out NDT? add value? Who may carry out NDT? Main Main NDT methods. voltage. Main NDT methods. Alternating current : sinusoidal current Alternating current : sinusoidal current and Alternating current : sinusoidal current and and voltage. some metals.2 Terminology 1. providing information information on physical characteristics of information on physical characteristics of on physical characteristics of the test the test object. Eddy current testing level 1. 1 Section 2 lists the notions necessary to understand eddy current testing. phase. History of the method History of the method History of the method 1.0 Generalities on NDT: 1.2 Terminology 1.0 2.0 Fundamentals * 2. amplitude.0 Generalities on NDT: Introduction. period. conductivity values for conductivity. period. amplitude.5 2. conductivity.

Hysteresis loop.planar wave: standard depth of phase penetration. Lenz’s law Eddy current distribution in conducting Eddy current distribution in conducting Eddy current distribution in conducting materials materials materials . mutual induction. inductance. Lenz’s law and secondary field. Magneto-motive force. Permeability. density (induction). phenomenon. Electromagnetic induction coil). lines of force. density (induction).cylindrical conductors: characteristic . Permeability. ferromagnetism. Flux. Lenz’s law and secondary field. Magnetic field created by a current. 2. Complex plane representation. Reluctance. phase -characteristic frequency . magnetic field strength. Flux. Diamagnetism. Reluctance. paramagnetism. amplitude. magnetic field strength. Complex plane representation. (wire.planar wave: standard depth of . Magnetic field created by a current.3 Electromagnetism 2. Electromagnetic induction coil).cylindrical conductors: characteristic Impedance.2 Magnetism 2. ferromagnetism. frequency frequency Impedance. phase penetration. coil).depth of penetration. inductance. inductance. Units. phenomenon. Hysteresis loop. Induced Electromagnetic coupling. lines of force. flux magnetic field strength. amplitude. flux density (induction). Diamagnetism.2 Magnetism 2. Electromagnetic coupling. mutual induction. Magnetism : magnetic field. force. paramagnetism. Units. (wire. Electromagnetic induction phenomenon. Induced currents currents and secondary field. Induced currents Electromagnetic coupling. Impedance plane diagrams Impedance plane diagrams st Aero Appendix Z1 Page 27 of 46 Issue 2 dated 1 January 2016 . lines of Magnetism : magnetic field. Units.Contents Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 2. Hysteresis loop. (wire.3 Electromagnetism 2. amplitude. .2 Magnetism Magnetism : magnetic field. Flux. flux Permeability. Impedance.3 Electromagnetism Magnetic field created by a current. Magneto-motive force.

high temperature.)... welds Detection of local discontinuities (flaws) (e. Remote field.depth of penetration.0 Eddy current testing system: 4... Products being tested : Metal sorting multifrequency.0 Applications of eddy current testing: Manufacturing related discontinuities Manufacturing related discontinuities (typical Product knowledge and Metal sorting (typical flaws) flaws) related capability of the Measurement of a physical parameter: Service induced discontinuities (flaws). ferrite content . instrument. accessibility Applications of eddy current testing : Techniques: single frequency. Capabilities: Codes and standards . Material properties influencing eddy current Material properties influencing eddy current Detection of local discontinuities (flaws). reference blocks. temperature. etc. reference blocks. testing: conductivity. shape.0 Eddy current testing system: Equipment instrument. may be mechanised. permeability. conductive materials Metal sorting Non contact. multiparameter.. railway and aircraft industry).g. conductive materials Non contact. heat treatment. high speed. high speed. pipes. Semi-finished products.. conductivity. probe. car. st Aero Appendix Z1 Page 28 of 46 Issue 2 dated 1 January 2016 . conductivity. permeability. conductive current testing: condition (surface current testing : condition (surface condition. etc. thickness of techniques coatings. may be mechanised.depth of penetration. etc. mechanical parts (e. heat treatment. probe.0 Eddy current testing system: 4. accessibility temperature.. Techniques : single frequency.). thickness of coatings. high temperature. Non contact. Remote Detection of local discontinuities (flaws) field. thickness of Techniques : single frequency. heat Measurement of a physical parameter : exchanger tubes. high speed. multifrequency. multiparameter. probe.. . testing : conductivity. multiparameter.. cold working. coatings. Service induced discontinuities (flaws). etc. etc. multifrequency. high Measurement of a physical parameter : temperature. reference blocks. offshore) Capabilities : Applications of eddy current testing : . cold working.Contents Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 3.0 4. shape.. method and derived conductivity. Capabilities : Product characteristics influencing eddy Product characteristics influencing eddy depth of penetration. may be mechanised. instrument. materials condition. wall thickness. Codes and standards 4.g. ferrite content . wall thickness.

probe clearance.1 Relevant standards: 4. production. availability. electric and/or availability. differential. electric and/or unwanted interfering signals.0 Information on the product : grade. storage. unwanted interfering signals. Extent of duty of the product. examination. probe clearance. duty of the product. Information on test conditions : Information on test conditions : Information on test conditions : temperature. Type of discontinuities anticipated and location. discontinuities anticipated and location. as a result of the Probe : selection or design. Extent of examination.1 Relevant standards: BS EN ISO 15548 parts 1 & 2 BS EN ISO 15548 parts 1 & 2 BS EN ISO 15548 parts 1 & 2 Measurements: absolute. design.1 Relevant standards: 4. coaxial Probe designs Probe designs Measurements : absolute.0. production. Reference blocks : design. Mechanised equipment Mechanised equipment standards Codes and standards 5. shape. discontinuities anticipated and location. magnetic disturbances. storage. production. availability. humidity. design. specifications. standards. differential.0. probe information in 5. others others Output and signal display Output and signal display Reference blocks : material. the information in 5. magnetic disturbances. General purpose application instrument : General purpose application instrument: others essential functions essential functions Output and signal display Specific application instruments Specific application instruments Probe functions: combined or separate Probe functions: combined or separate transmit. coaxial Probe family : surface.0 Reference blocks : design. access. temperature.Contents Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 4. production. shape. electric and/or magnetic disturbances. Reference blocks : material. humidity.0 : vibration and centring Excitation frequency and if necessary Excitation frequency and if necessary auxiliary frequencies auxiliary frequencies Calibration curves Probe speed. duty of the product. Information on the product : grade. shape. probe Probe speed. access.receive transmit. Type of metallurgical condition. Information on the product : grade.receive Probe family : surface. differential. Measurements : absolute.Preparation of written instructions Use of other NDT methods Codes. as a result of Excitation frequency and if necessary information in 5.0 : information in 5. Testing storage. . Extent of examination. probe vibration and centring vibration and centring Settings : data acquisition Calibration curves procedure/instructions Calibration curves Settings : data acquisition procedure Settings : data acquisition procedure st Aero Appendix Z1 Page 29 of 46 Issue 2 dated 1 January 2016 . storage. production. probe clearance. Information prior to testing metallurgical condition. auxiliary frequencies Operating conditions as a result of the Operating conditions as a result of the Probe speed. Operating conditions : Probe : selection. temperature. storage. unwanted interfering signals. 6. humidity. access. Type of metallurgical condition. Reference blocks : design.

Traceability of documents Traceability of documents Other NDT qualification and certification systems A review of applicable NDT application and product standards st Aero Appendix Z1 Page 30 of 46 Issue 2 dated 1 January 2016 .0 7. 7. BS EN ISO 15548-2:2008 NDT. multifrequency frequency analysis. standards 9.0 Personnel qualification Quality aspects (according to EN ISO 9712) (according to EN ISO 9712) (according to EN ISO 9712) Equipment verification Equipment verification Equipment verification Written instructions Format of working procedures. Standard method for characteristics and verification determining electrical conductivity using the Eddy Current method. BS EN ISO 15548-3:2008 NDT.0 Personnel qualification 9.1 Reporting Reporting level Reporting level Examination report Examination report Examination report 8.0 Personnel qualification 9.Contents Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Essential Reading: Essential Reading: Essential Reading: BS EN ISO 12718 NDT Terminology – BS EN ISO 15548-1-2013 NDT.0 9.0 Evaluation. Equipment Eddy Current Testing for Eddy Current examination Part 1. data analysis procedure analysis. Instrument characteristics verification. standards Significance of discontinuities Codes.1 Reporting 7. ASTM E376-11. Equipment for Eddy Current examination Part 3.1 Reporting 7. Standard practice for measuring coating thickness by magnetic field or Eddy Current methods AMS 2658C Hardness and Conductivity of Wrought Aluminium Alloys 7. Probe ASTM E 1004.0 Evaluation. Evaluation And Reporting NOT APPLICABLE Characterisation of the indications : single Characterisation of the indications : single frequency analysis. Eddy Current Testing.0 Evaluation 7. Eddy Current inspection of System characteristics and verification open fastener holes in Aluminium structure. BS EN ISO 15549:2010 NDT.0 NOT APPLICABLE Acceptance criteria Acceptance criteria Assessment Codes. SAE ARP 4002. data analysis procedure 7. multifrequency analysis. General Principles. Equipment for Eddy Current examination Part 2.

Contents Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 10.. SQUID...0 NOT APPLICABLE General information Array probes Developments Pulsed eddy currents Non inductive techniques : Magneto-Optical Imaging. Imaging Modelling st Aero Appendix Z1 Page 31 of 46 Issue 2 dated 1 January 2016 . Giant magneto- resistance.

castings. light sources. …) method and its derivate Welding process.Contents Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 D. Aerosol spray cans Aerosol spray cans measuring units and reference blocks Dip installations.0 Design and operation of penetrant 4. capabilities of the rolling. level 2 and level 3 * E = educational training time P = Practical training time Note "direct access to level 2 examination requires the total hours shown for level 1 and level 2". brushing. EN st Aero Appendix Z1 Page 32 of 46 Issue 2 dated 1 January 2016 . production process (forgings.0 History Introduction. production process (forgings. Dip installations.0 Design and operation of penetrant 4. welding. casting process.0 Design and operation of penetrant Equipment installations and units installations and units installations and units Semiautomatic and automatic systems Aerosol spray cans Electrostatic systems.1 Terminology 1.0 Relevant standards: 2. measuring units and reference blocks measure units and reference blocks (EN (EN 3452-3 and EN 3452) 3452-3 and EN 3452-4) Viewing condition (EN ISO 3059) (According to various standards e.g.1 Terminology Product family Product family Product family EN ISO 12706 EN ISO 12706 EN ISO 12706 Penetrant Sensitivity level Sensitivity level Developer Post emulsifiable Post emulsifiable Remover Dual purpose penetrant Dual purpose penetrant Reference block e. castings. …) rolling.0 Relevant standards: Physical principles of the BS EN ISO 3452-1: General principles BS EN ISO 3452-1: General principles BS EN ISO 3452-1: General principles method and associated Knowledge Viscosity Viscosity Physical basics of the method Bleed out Bleed out Superficial tension Flash point Capillarity Viscosity Emulsification of penetrant Flash point Contact angle Development Emulsification of penetrant Vapour pressure Coloured and fluorescent penetrant 3. welding.0 3.g. welding. light sources. light sources. fluidised bed Electrostatic systems. process techniques of rolled bars 4. Penetrant testing level 1. brushing. …) rolling.0 4.0 Typical defects according to the 3. 1. Purpose Purpose Purpose Terminology History of NDT 1.0 Typical defects according to the Product knowledge and production process (forgings. Background Background 2.0 History 1. brushing.0 History 1. castings.0 Typical defects according to the 3.0 1.0 Relevant standards: 2. fluidised bed Dip installations.1 Terminology 1.0 2.

field of application Material.0 6. 5. 1.0 Information about the test object. Penetrant Testing. Reference test blocks BS EN 3452-4 Non Destructive Testing. Penetrant testing. Equipment QPL-AMS2644 Qualified products list SAE-AMS2644 Inspection materials.0 Verification that the test object is in 5. dimensions. field of application Kind of product family.0 Preparation and performance of the 6. EN 1289 Essential Reading: Essential Reading: Essential Reading: BS EN ISO 3452-1 Penetrant Testing. requirements ASTM E 1417 Standard practice for Liquid and test methods Penetrant examination BS EN ISO 3452-2 Non Destructive BS EN 1330-2 NDT-Terminology — Part 2: Testing. Penetrants st Aero Appendix Z1 Page 33 of 46 Issue 2 dated 1 January 2016 . BS EN 10228-2. Part BS EN ISO 3059 Non Destructive Testing. General principles for the examination Penetrant testing and Magnetic Particle BS M39 Method for Penetrant Inspection of testing – viewing conditions Aerospace materials and components BS 667 Luminance meter.Contents Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 ISO 3452-4) Viewing condition (EN ISO 3059) 5.0 5. Penetrant testing. BS EN 3452-3 Non Destructive Testing. catalogue of defects Test conditions.0 Preparation of the test Testing test According to written instruction According to BS EN ISO 3452-1 Preparation of written instructions according to BS EN 1371-1. Testing of Terms common to the non-destructive penetrant materials testing methods. catalogue of defects Kind of product family. Test conditions Applicable standards and codes.0 Prepare written procedure Information prior the test suitable conditions for testing prepare written instruction Identification or designation Identification or designation Written instructions are given Material. dimensions. assigned Applicable standards and codes assigned to the test object to the test object 6.0 Performance of the test 6.

shape.Contents Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 7. orientation 9.1 Basics of evaluation 7.0 Test report 7. orientation Influence of manufacture and material Depth.0 Disposing of chemicals Environmental and safety Penetrants Penetrants Penetrants conditions Developer Developer Soluble remover.2 Evaluation 7. developer Emulsifier Emulsifier Safety data sheets Material of process excess removal Material of process excess removal UV-radiation. ultrafiltration method A review of applicable NDT application and UV radiation. EN 10228-2 8.0 8. position.1 Basics of evaluation Viewing conditions according to BS EN ISO Viewing conditions according to BS EN ISO Viewing conditions according to BS EN ISO 3059 3059 3059 Use of TAM panels Reference block No 2 Reference block Nos. shape.0 Assessment of discontinuities 8. width.1 Basics of evaluation 7.2 Evaluation Verification the indication quality Verification the indication quality Report of discontinuities according to BS EN ISO 23277.0 Written procedure with check of test Evaluation and Reporting reports: Welding according to BS EN 23277 Welding according to BS EN 23277 Welding according to BS EN ISO 3452-1 Casting according to EN 1371-1 Casting according to EN 1371-1 Casting according to EN 1371 Forging according to EN 10228-2 Forging according to EN 10228-2 Forging according to EN 10228-2 Rolled products 7. rolled Batch test report products and casting imperfections 7.0 Assessment of discontinuities 8.0 Check test report 7.0 10.0 Disposing of chemicals 10. 1 and 2 (according Reference block Nos. EN 1371-1. forging. electrical hazard Safety data sheet Safety data sheet Active carbon method.0 Disposing of chemicals 10. width. position. electrical hazard product standards st Aero Appendix Z1 Page 34 of 46 Issue 2 dated 1 January 2016 . 1 and 2 (according (according to BS EN ISO 3452-3) to BS EN ISO 3452-3) to BS EN ISO 3452-3) Verification the indication quality Other used reference blocks Other used reference blocks Calibration of test units Calibration of test units Report of simple welding.0 Personnel qualification (according to EN Personnel qualification (according to EN Personnel qualification (according to EN Quality aspects ISO 9712) ISO 9712) ISO 9712) Equipment verification Equipment verification Equipment verification Written instructions Format of working procedures Traceability of documents Traceability of documents A review of applicable NDT application and Other NDT qualification and certification product standards systems A review of applicable NDT application and product standards 10.0 7.0 Assessment of discontinuities Assessment Depth.

Contents Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Disposal is regulated by national regulations 11.0 (Not applicable) Special installations Creative and innovative special Developments installations Automotive installations (examples) Automotive installations (examples) Tube installations st Aero Appendix Z1 Page 35 of 46 Issue 2 dated 1 January 2016 .

Contents Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 E. relative magnetic permeability µ R .0 Basics Physical principles and of general description Electric circuits. 1. purpose testing Applicability and limits testing and history of NDT Applicability and limits History Applicability and limits History Terminology History Terminology Terminology 2. Presentation of the magnetic particle Presentation of magnetic particle testing Presentation of the magnetic particle terminology.0 Introduction 1. typical values. typical values. Curie point Influence of the geometry (depth. Influence of composition.0 Introduction Introduction. medium thickness) and of the orientation of a Continuity of HT magnetic discontinuity on its detection Continuity of BN Magnetic properties Influence of the orientation of the Designation of alloys discontinuity on magnetic flux Non magnetic materials Behaviour of a magnetic particle in the Magnetic materials vicinity of a magnetic flux Field of application Influence of geometry (depth.0 2. coercitive force Hc. typical value. electrical resistance ρ.magnetic Induction B medium to a non magnetic media Short or flat magnetizing coil Hysteresis cycle and remarkable points Magnetic flux of a magnetic discontinuity magnetic flow in a non magnetic media Influence of the temperature on the Influence of depth and orientation of a Continuity of HT magnetic properties magnetic discontinuity on its detection Continuity of BN Principle of magnetic particle testing Magnetic properties of materials Magnetic flux of a magnetic Influence of the interface between a Nonmagnetic materials discontinuity magnetic medium and a nonmagnetic Magnetic materials. units Diamagnetism – Paramagnetism associated knowledge Electric circuits. units Magnetic field created by electric circuits Magnetic fields characterization and Magnetic field created by electric circuits Indefinite rectilinear conductor measurements Passage of the flux from a magnetic Long magnetic coil Magnetic field H . units Ferromagnetism – Ferrimagnetism Magnetic circuits. units Magnetic circuits. level 2 and level 3 * E = educational training time P = Practical training time Note "direct access to level 2 examination requires the total hours shown for level 1 and level 2".0 Introduction 1.0 Basic physical phenomena in terms 2. st Aero Appendix Z1 Page 36 of 46 Issue 2 dated 1 January 2016 . Magnetic particle testing level 1. typical value. thickness Curie Point and orientation) on detectability Curve of the first magnetization Magnetic properties of principal Hysteresis cycle and remarkable points ferromagnetic alloys Magnetic properties of steels Magnetic field H.0 1. heat treatments and work hardening of the steel. magnetic induction B.0 Basic physical phenomena 2.

0 Typical discontinuities according to 3. Influence of heat treatment Particular alloys: e. Product knowledge and the production process (welds.0 4.1 Testing parameters: 3. detection media and test of detection media indication. castings and roller products and capabilities of method castings and rolled products there indications there indications and its derivate techniques 3.0 Typical discontinuities in welds. detection media and test of Magnetization.1 Testing parameters: 3. detection media and test of Magnetization. castings and roller products and forgings.0 Typical discontinuities in welds. detection media indication 4.Contents Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Influence of work hardening.0 3.g.0 Equipment Equipment Magnetizing equipment Various types Viewing condition Portable electromagnet Mobile or fixed equipment using magnetic Measurement and calibration Mobile flow technique or current flow technique Demagnetization Magnetic benches Automatic and robotized with automatic Automatic and robotized with automatic detection (magnetic leakage field) detection (magnetic leakage field) Sources of light and conditions of illumination Accessories Flux indicators and products indicators Field strength measuring devices Photometers and radiometers Considerations on the choice of the equipment Elements to be taken into account materials and components to be controlled zones to be controlled.1 Testing parameters: Magnetization.0 Equipment 4. Inconel 3. goal of the test place and environment Choice of the technique type of current Magnetic flow technique (open and closed circuit) Current flow technique – Induced current flow combined system Multidirectional magnetization and rotating field st Aero Appendix Z1 Page 37 of 46 Issue 2 dated 1 January 2016 . 3. Invar. forgings. Permalloys. detection media indication. forgings.0 Equipment 4.

0 Testing Testing instructions Surface preparation Preparation of the parts and influence of Surface preparation Cleaning. codes and Presentation of the standards. codes and procedures procedures 6.0 Testing according to the written 6.0 Testing 6.1 Relevant standards: 4. machining the surface quality Cleaning. -Catalogue of defects -Catalogue of defects -Test condition and application of standard: -Test condition and application of -Accessibility standard: -Infrastructure -Accessibility -Particular test condition -Infrastructure -Application standard.0 5. types and time of parameters. Continuous or simultaneous Magnetization. Values of the Use of contrast paint Magnetization. test -Kind of manufacture.0 Identification or designation Information prior the material. materials. Overview objects -Standard and codes assigned to the test -Acceptance criteria objects Preparation of written instructions -Acceptance criteria Documents Preparation of written instructions Documents Presentation of the standards. machining Use of contrast paint Means of magnetization. -Kind of manufacture. Flux application Application of the detection media indicators Application of the detection media Continuous technique Choice of the detection media.0 Application of a written instruction 5.1 Relevant standards: BS EN ISO 9934 parts 2 & 3 EN ISO 9934-2 and EN ISO 9934-3 5. types and time of application method. Overview -Particular test condition -Standard and codes assigned to the test -Application standard.0 Identification or designation 5. products Recording of discontinuities Remanence technique indicators Continuous technique Grid and covering Remanence technique Control of conditions of magnetization Grid and covering Control of conditions of magnetization st Aero Appendix Z1 Page 38 of 46 Issue 2 dated 1 January 2016 .Contents Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 4.0 6. Remanence method .

EN 10228-1 blocks calibration of test units Evaluation verification the indication quality st Aero Appendix Z1 Page 39 of 46 Issue 2 dated 1 January 2016 .Contents Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 6. minimal value of the magnetic Demagnetization. BS EN 3059 Non Destructive Testing. Equipment testing methods.0 Test report 7. Industrial methods of of skin and calculation of magnetizing coil Cleaning of the components demagnetization and influence of terrestrial Level of residual field according to the later magnetic field use of material Cleaning of the components Influence of terrestrial magnetic field Cleaning of the components Essential Reading: Essential Reading: Essential Reading: BS EN 9934-1 Non destructive testing. Conditions requiring Demagnetization Basic principle of demagnetization demagnetization.0 7. Level of residual field Principle. other used reference products and casting imperfections EN ISO 17638.1 Treatment of the components after 6. rolled Report of imperfections according to BS reference block. requirements magnetic particle testing and test methods BS EN ISO 9934-1-2001 Method for BS EN 9934-2 Non destructive testing. effect demagnetization Demagnetization. Detection Media BS EN 1330-2 NDT-Terminology — Part 2: BS EN 9934-3 Non destructive testing. other 17688 Viewing conditions according to used reference blocks. EN 1369. forging. viewing conditions (BS EN 3059) according to Report of simple welding. batch test report Forging according to 10228-2 Verification the indication quality (BS EN Evaluation and verification the ISO 3059) indication quality Basics of evaluation. calibration of Casting according to EN 1371 reference block test units. Terms common to the non-destructive Magnetic particle testing. LATEST SAE AMS 2641C MPI Vehicle 7.0 Test report Evaluation and reporting Welding according to BS EN ISO 17638 Check test report Written procedure with check of test Casting according to EN 1369 Basic of evaluation reports: Forging according to EN 10228-1 Viewing conditions (BS EN ISO 3059) Welding according to BS EN ISO Steel forgings according to reference block.1 Treatment of the components after test test test Residual field Residual field. Magnetic Particle Flaw Detection Magnetic particle testing.1 Treatment of the components after 6. frequency. Industrial methods of Basic principle of demagnetization field of demagnetization. Magnetic particle testing.0 Classification of the indications 7. General Penetrant testing and Magnetic Particle principles testing – viewing conditions ASTM E 1444 Standard practice for BS 667 Luminance meter.

Contents Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 8. environmental conditions Fire hazards Risks related to the ultraviolet radiations 11.0 9.0 Health and Safety 10.0 Personnel qualification (according to Quality aspects (according to EN ISO 9712) (according to EN ISO 9712) EN ISO 9712) Equipment verification Equipment verification Equipment verification Written instructions Format of working procedures Traceability of documents Traceability of documents A review of applicable NDT application and A review of applicable NDT application and product standards product standards 10.0 Health and Safety Environmental and Safety conditions Electric risks hazards Electric risks hazards Electric risks hazards Risks related to the products (magnetic Risks related to the products (magnetic Risks related to the products (magnetic inks) inks) inks) Risks related to the ultraviolet radiation Risks related to the ultraviolet radiation Risks related to the ultraviolet radiation Disposal of the effluents and environmental Disposal of the effluents and environmental Disposal of the effluents and conditions (concepts) conditions (concepts) environmental conditions (concepts) Safety data sheet Safety data sheet Harmfulness and toxicity of the products Treatment and rejection of the effluents.0 Personnel qualification 9.0 (Not applicable) Special installation and equipment New techniques Developments Creative and innovative special installations st Aero Appendix Z1 Page 40 of 46 Issue 2 dated 1 January 2016 .0 Not applicable Assessment of discontinuities Assessment of discontinuities Assessment Influence of manufacture and material Influence of manufacture and material 9.0 Personnel qualification 9.0 10.0 Health and Safety 10.

0 History of NDT 1.1 Terminology Terminology applicable to VT Terminology applicable to VT EN1330-2 & EN 1330-10 EN1330-2 & EN 1330-10 Overview of VT applications Extended overview of VT applications 2.0 As level 2.0 2.0 1. including Colour temperature Absorption Types of light sources. 1. History of Visual Testing (VT) History of Visual Testing Use of VT as a complement to other NDT Terminology.1 Terminology 1. natural. history of NDT Definition of visual testing Definition of visual testing 1. plus Physical principles of the EN 13018 VT General principles EN 13018 VT General principles method and associated BS EN 13927 VT Equipment BS EN13927 VT Equipment Goals and principles of VT Knowledge Fundamentals Fundamentals A comprehensive knowledge and Vision Vision understanding of the physical principles and  The eye. purpose & Purpose of NDT Purpose of NDT methods. Syllabus visual testing level 1.0 Relevant standards 2.0 Relevant standards 2.0 History of NDT 1. inc operation & physics of light including construction Optical performance  Vision limitations Polarization of light  Adaptation & accommodation Stroboscopic principles  Disorders Dispersion Lighting Lighting Refraction and refractive Transmission  Physics of light index Reflection Electromagnetic radiation Reflection Absorption Visible wavelengths Fluorescence Photometry  Fundamentals of light Advantages and disadvantages of Light levels Transmission different wavelengths of optical radiation Light measurement Reflection (UV. IR).0 As level 2 Introduction.  Lighting measurements artificial including laser Luminance Details of the eye including  Lighting levels Vision ranges  Lighting techniques Effects of disorders  Contrast Optical principles Optical principles  Operation of lenses Camera & photo sensor operation &  Operation of magnifiers principles  Image construction Optical filters st Aero Appendix Z1 Page 41 of 46 Issue 2 dated 1 January 2016 .Contents Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 F. level 2 and level 3 * E = educational training time P = Practical training time Note "direct access to level 2 examination requires the total hours shown for level 1 and level 2".

plus Product knowledge and section is given below: section is given below: Evaluation of surfaces capabilities of the Outline of basic flaws detectable by VT as Test objects and flaws st Aero Appendix Z1 Page 42 of 46 Issue 2 dated 1 January 2016 . Other monitors want you to see Material attributes affecting the test  Cleanliness Material attributes Light meters & photometers  Colour  Colour  Condition  Surface condition  Shape  Surface preparation Principles of operation of fibre bundles and  Size lenses  Temperature Coherent  Texture Incoherent  Type  Surface Finish Photogrammetry Environmental factors  Surface preparation Environmental & physiological factors  Atmosphere  Comfort  Perspective  Distance  Accessing  Fatigue  Health  Humidity  Mental attitude Direct and remote methods  Position  Safety Vision requirements References:  Temperature EN 13028  Cleanliness BS EN 13927 Direct and remote methods vision requirements & the employers responsibility 3. engineer etc.Contents Level 1 Level 2 Level 3  Virtual images Construction of digital images and  Chromatic aberration problems  Geometric distortion Image processing  Magnification principles Image analysis Visual perception Image compression & Visual perception  What your eyes see Transmission  What your mind sees Image storage  What others perceive Resolution Video monitors  What the designer.0 The depth of knowledge required for this The depth of knowledge required for this Level 2.

BS EN 1370. BS EN appearance of flaws 1370. Terms.Contents Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 method and its derivate necessary to work in a specific sector Basic production and degradation Techniques process. EN 5817 etc… Capability and limitations of VT Detectability Flaw size Shape Orientation/ position Flaw types Surface condition effects Equipment limitations Lighting effects st Aero Appendix Z1 Page 43 of 46 Issue 2 dated 1 January 2016 . EN 10163 parts 1 to 3 inclusive. BS EN ISO 5817 Product technology sectors Basic metallurgy of the process/ Definition of shape & geometry of flaws component Awareness of capability and limitations Welding / joining methods Including Cladding & Buttering: A comprehensive understanding and Wrought product production methods knowledge of the manufacturing processes Cold working processes and associated metallurgy & flaw types Heat treatment processes etc… Material composition: Surface finishing methods Basic foundry technology A comprehensive understanding and Machining & material removal knowledge of the cause and formation of in- processes service defects including associated Polymers/composites metallurgy & flaw types etc… In-service aspects: Service induced flaws Mechanically Thermally Tribology Wear Chemical Electrochemical References BS EN ISO 17637. origin and nature and Roughness & waviness References BS EN ISO 17637.

0 Pre-test documentation (ref 5. such as underwater. scales. templates. and applications of As level 2. the effect this will have on the Gauges. Imaging cameras Photographic & video: Light sources and special lighting Imaging cameras Additionally.0 As level 2.0 4. etc. radiation resistant. Development of verification for equipment Demonstration test piece Automated systems performance. including the choice/design Resolution targets Computer-enhanced systems and application of demonstration test Demonstration test piece pieces Or other special equipment as necessary Resolution targets Understanding of the procedure for control. etc. etc. special particular task Computer-enhanced systems tools. for the test. scales. Video monitors test arrangement special tools. Light sources and special lighting The evaluation of equipment to fulfil a Automated systems Gauges. Written procedure (when required) Written procedure or standard (when The development & application of required) verification techniques including the These should specify the following aspects: demonstration of procedures and st Aero Appendix Z1 Page 44 of 46 Issue 2 dated 1 January 2016 . templates.0 Introduction to equipment 4. plus the inclusion of Equipment Mirrors equipment equipment for assessment of surface Magnifiers (ref ISO 3058) Mirrors conditions Borescopes Magnifiers (ref ISO 3058) A good understanding of equipment Fibrescopes Borescopes performance limitations & the selection of Photographic & video: Fibrescopes new equipment for its suitability. 5.0 Introduction to. transfer & storage Why equipment must be verified equipment: Equipment selection & limitations Verification of equipment Sizing of indications: Imaging systems References: Special optical systems EN 13927 Or other special equipment as necessary ISO 3058 for the test. Graticules maintenance and calibration of equipment Image recording. plus the writing of Information prior to the EN13018) EN13018) procedures and the design of the test Test Test instruction Test instruction arrangement.0 5.0 Pre-test documentation (ref 5.Contents Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Associated techniques Gauging Comparators Measurement Thermographic imaging Replication References: ISO3057 4.

from standards or codes. The stage of manufacture or service life Surface preparation when testing is to be carried out The stage of manufacture or service life The requirements of test personnel when testing is to be carried out The acceptance criteria The requirements of test personnel The illumination (type. your guidance.0 Reporting the results of tests 7.Contents Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Object to be tested These should specify the following aspects: instructions for effectiveness.0 As level 2. Organization and storage/distribution of Reference to test standards final reports Calibration status Interpretation. 7.0 7. Extent of test coverage Object to be tested Technique & sequence of performing test Extent of test coverage A thorough knowledge of complementary Surface condition Technique & sequence of performing Test NDT methods that may be referenced in Surface preparation Surface condition written procedures. 6. plus the control of Testing Working with demonstration test pieces and Specifying & Working with demonstration procedures and instructions for their resolution targets test pieces and resolution targets effectiveness Practical training on test equipment and Prepare written test instructions from performing tests on training test pieces with standards or codes for given test pieces. plus How to control 7. level and direction) The post test documentation The visual testing equipment to be used A demonstration test piece & inspection The post test documentation checkpoints A demonstration test piece & inspection Requirement for recorded images checkpoints Requirement for recorded images References: EN 13018 Development and writing of NDT instructions for level I for a given test specimen. level and direction) The acceptance criteria The visual testing equipment to be used The illumination (type. known flaws to provided instructions/ procedures including equipment and test Practical training on test equipment and parameters.0 Level 1 detail.0 As level 2 plus how to develop report Evaluation and Reporting and monitor a Level 1 test done with formats for ease of use and clarity. performing tests on training test pieces with known flaws to instructions as above including equipment and test parameters.0 How to set up a test 6.0 How to set up and calibrate a test 6.0 6. evaluation & reporting of Investigation of suitable codes & product Reference points for location of indications results to specifications and standards standards for each application Classification of indications per: Objective/Subjective evaluation Acting as a reference point for level 2 instructed acceptance criteria Completion of calibration forms advice for interpretation and evaluation reports and documentation References: st Aero Appendix Z1 Page 45 of 46 Issue 2 dated 1 January 2016 .

or by specific reference to a level 3 design specifications etc.0 9. analyse the results the codes. Summary of latest developments st Aero Appendix Z1 Page 46 of 46 Issue 2 dated 1 January 2016 .0 Personnel qualification Quality aspects (according to EN ISO 9712) (according to EN ISO 9712) (according to EN ISO 9712) Equipment verification Equipment verification Equipment verification Written instructions Format of working procedures Traceability of documents Traceability of documents A review of applicable NDT application and Other NDT qualification and certification product standards systems A review of applicable NDT application and product standards 10. 8. How to develop codes.0 Personnel qualification 9. standards and By comparison design specifications etc.Contents Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 reporting verification results EN 13445-5 EN 12732 EN 12952 etc. where no codes or standards exist.g.0 Not Applicable Classification & assessment of Detailed knowledge of how to classify & Assessment observations per acceptance criteria from assess observations.0 Not applicable General information The importance of investigating current Development and developing technology and methods of application. pattern procedures and instructions recognition Recording Also how to find information /assistance to Reporting investigate observations not covered by codes and standards & develop acceptance criteria.0 Personnel qualification 9. into clear By measurement acceptance criteria to be written into Automated evaluation e. 9. standards and etc. standards or written instructions and compare them to codes. The training of levels 1 & 2 for these acceptance criteria.