ADVOCACY TOOLKIT

for TEACHERS
to PROVIDE A QUALITY EDUCATION

THE LEARNING CRISIS IN NUMBERS Of the 650 million 250 million primary school are not learning age children in the basics the world 120 million have not even completed 4 years of school In low and lower middle income countries: YOUTH ILLITERACY After 5 or 6 years one in three children in schoolEradicating youth illiteracy are still not able to read at current rates of progress 175m AT CURRENT RATES. IT WILL TAKE DECADES Number of FOR ALL YOUTH TO HAVE illiterate young people ADEQUATE LITERACY SKILLS in low and lower middle income YOUTH ILLITERACY countries YOUTH ILLITERACY Eradicating youth illiteracy at current rates of progress Eradicating youth illiteracy at current rates of progress 175m 175m 2030 2072 2 ADVOCACY TOOLKIT for TEACHERS TO PROVIDE A QUALITY EDUCATION Number of illiterate young people Number of .

Akash.M.6 million more teachers needed by 2015 3. teachers have increasingly been hired on short term.B.TEACHERS ARE CRUCIAL. in 26 countries there were over 40 pupils per CLASSROOMS teacher in primary school classrooms MINIMAL In a third of countries with data.3 million more needed by 2030 Photo: Bangladesh © UNESCO/ G. ADVOCACY TOOLKIT for TEACHERS TO PROVIDE A QUALITY EDUCATION 3 . OVERCROWDED In 2011. insecure contracts in order to quickly CONTRACTS fill the gaps INADEQUATE Teachers in some developing countries don’t earn enough SALARIES to lift their households above the poverty line. YET… There is a chronic shortage of trained teachers 1. less than ¾ of existing teachers are trained to national standards. This problem TEACHER TRAINING is especially acute in sub-Saharan Africa and South and West Asia INSECURE Over the past decade.

2013) BUT policy-makers do not engage closely enough with teachers or their unions. with government and local educational employers. TEACHERS AND UNIONS SHOULD BE INVOLVED IN FINDING A SOLUTION In some parts of the world teacher unions are 1. written into the constitution. they provide infrastructure Their promotion of instruction in for educational systems where such capacity indigenous languages contributed to a decrease in illiteracy. In in setting the educational reform agenda. In some contexts. Education policies can only be critically important to educational quality and effective if those responsible for have broadly positive working relationships implementing them are involved in shaping them. (Bascia. Virtually all top performing 2. Some are capable of fostering innovation. engaging countries on international educational teacher unions has improved measures have strong unions that participate policies aimed at helping disadvantaged students. unions helped ensure unions provide important feedback on the that indigenous rights were actual conditions of teaching and learning. bringing needed new educational practices into being. does not otherwise exist. It’s time for this to change! Two teachers stand as panelists next to global policy makers Crédit : UNESCO/MulugetaAyene 4 ADVOCACY TOOLKIT for TEACHERS TO PROVIDE A QUALITY EDUCATION . The Bolivia. In some countries.

parents in the schools they teach. The aims: Lobby your government to ensure all candidates have at least The evidence: Locally recruited completed secondary education with teachers are more likely to be good grades. teachers from ethnic and of recruiting some teachers locally language minorities. conflict zones or with shortage of qualified teachers disadvantaged children. teachers with and provide them with appropriate disabilities) making it hard to provide a training in order to ensure that they quality education. are familiar with their students’ culture and language. including female positive impact on student learning.HOW TEACHERS CAN HELP Help ensure more and better candidates are recruited to become teachers. rural or the proportion of female teachers has ADVOCACY TOOLKIT for TEACHERS TO PROVIDE A QUALITY EDUCATION 5 . This must be supported familiar with the cultural and social by a broader campaign to expand backgrounds of the students and secondary education. teachers and those who are willing In 30 developing countries. from diverse backgrounds (female Remind governments of the benefits teachers. increasing to live and work in remote. The message: There is a chronic poor areas. Campaign to ensure that candidates This closer social distance between are recruited from a diverse range the teacher and the students has a of backgrounds.

In Singapore. an interview. Cambodia. The positive examples: South Sudan works with secondary In Finland. Mozambique has been running Afghanistan aims to increase the training for visually impaired teachers number of female teachers by 50% for more than ten years. Pakistan. Liberia and Papua New Guinea provide scholarships for teacher trainees from disadvantaged areas. 6 ADVOCACY TOOLKIT for TEACHERS TO PROVIDE A QUALITY EDUCATION . by 2014 with monetary and housing incentives. girls’ test scores demanding high secondary school are higher if they have a female achievements. In conflict affected areas of the Central African Republic and Democratic Republic of Congo. teachers are recruited locally to keep education going. assistance to start teacher training. only about 10% of school girls to raise their interest in applicants are accepted to teacher teaching and offers them financial education programmes. candidates are chosen from the top third of high school graduates. and province. and special training programmes for women in remote areas and women who do not meet current qualification requirements. teacher. who often have specific mother-tongue language skills. entry requirements including an especially in rural areas. In Punjab examination. been found to improve girls’ access Egypt introduced stringent to and achievement in education.

the teachers to address knowledge gaps higher the level of achievement. In and upgrade and reinforce acquired Poland. Show how important training is for teachers to do a good job and support other teachers in their work. Teacher educators The aims: Tell your government and trainers also need training. cognitive skills who need the most help. education programmes has the potential to expand the training of ADVOCACY TOOLKIT for TEACHERS TO PROVIDE A QUALITY EDUCATION 7 . The message: An education system Teachers need training in the use is only as good as the quality of its of different assessment tools to teachers. a student attending a school skills with less qualified and experienced teachers was 25% more likely to score Remind them that teachers need below the mathematics benchmark more and better in-service and compared with a student attending a ongoing training to support all their school with better qualified and more students. Good teacher training gives continuously detect and address children – and especially those falling learning difficulties early. the importance of initial teacher education making up for weak subject knowledge. behind – the support they deserve. Give teacher trainees classroom experience and give new teachers access to mentors. especially in early grades. especially those of weaker experienced teachers. The evidence: Analysis of results Make sure there is an ongoing training for grade 4 from 45 countries found for untrained community and contract that the better the teacher quality. An appropriate combination of and students from a wide range of face-to-face and distance teacher backgrounds.

necessary measures South Africa supplements paper- should be taken to ensure quality. and to assess learning leading to their certification and integration into the outcomes of children with special needs or disabilities. a programme designed in Quality Educators for All: This is joint initiative 2007 offers community and contract Quality Educators for All: This is joint initiative teachers three years of training to give by Education International and Oxfam Novib by Education International and Oxfam Novib them qualifications equivalent to those (Netherlands) that helps teachers in Mali and Uganda (Netherlands) that helps teachers in Mali and Uganda of civil service teachers. and instituted. to share experiences and support one another to to share experiences and support one another to In Kenya. Analysis shows that both teaching and learningEducators Quality have improved for All:asasThis a result. Singapore and Switzerland. public service. helped teachers adopt learner. including the In Mexico. based supports un/under-qualified community teachers. with teacher unions. Analysis shows that both teaching and learning have improved as a result. costs Germany focuses on helping teachers per student graduating from these identify and address problems faced programmes have been estimated at by low achieving students. The project development programme combined supports un/under-qualified community teachers. teachers. France. leading to their certification and integration into the on distance learning materials leading to their certification and integration Photo:into the public service. based distance learning with text messaging The positive examples: In several countries. a school-based teacher implement competence-based education. by Education International and Oxfam Novib centred methods (Netherlands) that helps teachers in Mali and Uganda In Vietnam. In Benin. as a part of a policy an experienced staff member as a developed by the Government jointly mentor to each new teacher. given to teachers in community-run Norway. The project adapted for children with different supports un/under-qualified community teachers. training and support is United Kingdom. mentor teachers are given formal training. In Norway. Analysis shows that both teaching and Oxfam Novib and meeting with tutors at cluster public service. In Ghana and Pakistan. contract teachers receive 18 months of training. The programme learning have improved a result. is joint initiative resource centres. learning needs. However. 8 ADVOCACY TOOLKIT for TEACHERS TO PROVIDE A QUALITY EDUCATION . teachers learn to create to share experiences and support one another to individual education plans that are implement competence-based education. Teachers between one-third and two-thirds of also receive an extended period of conventional programmes. mentoring by experienced teachers when such programmes are designed before becoming fully qualified. pre-schools in disadvantaged areas. Israel. principals assign In Guinea. six months of self-study. The project implement competence-based education.

disadvantaged students being taught compared with 32% in large cities. In Bangladesh. allowances. by teachers with weaker subject The Gambia introduced an allowance and pedagogical knowledge. opportunities. quarters where there are 30 students per teacher. the government has basics. The aims: Governments need to The positive examples: One provide incentives such as better reason for the Republic of Korea’s housing. compared with three- needs are high. enable disadvantaged students to have better access to The evidence: Inequality in more qualified and experienced deployment leads to fewer teachers teachers. strong and equitable learning bonuses or career advances to outcomes is that incentives. Help governments understand what might motivate teachers to work in challenging areas and low achieving schools The message: We need incentives of primary school is 60% in sub- to work in challenging areas where districts where there are 75 students living conditions are bad. outcomes. debt-repayment. leave school before learning the In Senegal. the proportion created since 2011 Regional Training of students reaching the last grade ADVOCACY TOOLKIT for TEACHERS TO PROVIDE A QUALITY EDUCATION 9 . 77% of teachers in villages ın deprived areas and schools and to have more than a bachelor’s degree. 24% of teachers had requested a It is also one reason some children transfer to hardship schools. such motivate teachers to work in remote as stipends and greater promotion areas. By 2007. This of 30% to 40% of their base salary for exacerbates inequality in learning positions in remote regions. but learning per teacher.

average teacher respected for the job we are doing. The majority of teachers programme in 2007 to give high in those areas are participating in the performing students at the best programme. with career progression The aims: Teacher salaries should The fact: A teacher who is the only meet their basic needs. However. the rural hardship (Centre régionaux de Formation des allowance introduced in 2010 raises Personnels de l’Education) aiming to the basic pay of a newly recruited bring access to teacher training closer teacher by as much as a quarter. Rwanda provides subsidized loans to In China. to candidates to the profession. all of which are in and more and our loyalty rewarded sub-Saharan Africa. needs to earn at least US$10 per day Teachers need an attractive career to keep the family above the poverty path that rewards those who address 10 ADVOCACY TOOLKIT for TEACHERS TO PROVIDE A QUALITY EDUCATION . schools Tell your government what motivates teachers to enter and stay in your profession. with members allowed to universities incentives to teach in rural borrow up to five times their savings. The message: We need to be line. salaries are below this level in eight Our pay must cover our basic needs countries. working conditions. and has at least should be offered the best possible four family members to support. Centers for education personnel In Malawi. Teachers or main breadwinner. the government established trained teachers working in hard-to- the Free Teacher Education reach areas.

performance-related pay led to increased learning inequalities. is intended to motivate teachers to When teachers are paid less than improve their instructional practice. the number of applicants rose by 38% Low pay and little career progression from the previous year. effects while providing incentives that Teachers should be appointed to civil aim at improving the learning of the service posts rather than hired on weakest and most disadvantaged short-term contracts and lower pay.diversity and support weak students. In Chile. teachers are paid more than to learning outcomes. ratings in the media. lead to increased absenteeism. Luxembourg and New teacher salaries were directly linked Zealand. and. commitment to their regular teaching Ghana has a new career structure that jobs. The evidence: Six studies published The positive examples: between 1990 and 2010 found that In Canada. the average for full-time workers with a tertiary education. If implemented. policies must be designed to avoid these harmful side ADVOCACY TOOLKIT for TEACHERS TO PROVIDE A QUALITY EDUCATION 11 . and teachers are more likely to lose motivation or leave the profession. the best students are less likely to aspire to become teachers. Norway took further steps short term contracts and low pay to raise the status of the teaching – rank at or near the bottom for profession. students. Countries that rely heavily on contract teachers – where teachers are on In 2009. Teaching received higher education access and learning. It also encourages teachers to Brazil rewards schools with collective take on second jobs – sometimes bonuses and sees a positive impact on private tuition – which reduce their children’s learning outcomes. in 2011. people in comparable fields.

Build a team of on. THE PRACTICAL STEPS TO ADVOCATE FOR CHANGE Choose the issue you want to focus parents should care. using the board. Compile what you know about it support. online conversation and help lobby politicians. Your Teachers for EFA in your country. Teach election campaigns. Get your media onside – tell them Next. get your school colleagues on about your situation. Hold an evening event. Are you a teacher? Start the change Identify the focal point of the in your own classroom and be a International Task Force on good example others can follow. Collect available data about the issue in your Lobby your trade union – get the country from respected sources. to join a common within your union to call for change. or Prime Minister is on and talk about what works. They have a Use social media to raise your strong interest in supporting quality voice. Find if your President. the press and the world. international days them about levering their voices and school term times to find a good on social media using #teachlearn moment to talk to your media. or work in their tweet. from your own experiences. 12 ADVOCACY TOOLKIT for TEACHERS TO PROVIDE A QUALITY EDUCATION . agenda on their list of priorities. Write a reform. of the community can help spread your messages as well. Speak up! letter to your local paper. voice will have more impact when you Share your actions and their results can show how well your students have with him/her learned. talking about your circumstances. Minister education. Find a good opportunity to raise your Your students can help snowball issues – look at the education events. and what change Remember parents and members you need. for Education. and begin a school-wide evidence in this toolkit as well. your calls for change. and why twitter and tweet your calls to them.

community and national levels so that they know which of their experiences will be most relevant to policymakers. Focus on positive! ADVOCACY TOOLKIT for TEACHERS TO PROVIDE A QUALITY EDUCATION 13 . the United Nations Avoid ry! being ang (UN).Get in touch with local or national Unions and teacher organisations NGOs working on quality education should continue to reinforce the and offer yourself as a spokesperson positive reputation of the teaching for them – for events. If you’re a teacher educator. you can help other teachers to be aware of issues at the school. as a key partner for media. its agencies and donors demanding that education and teachers should be given high priority the in a new global development strategy after 2015. or with the profession. Your stories can strengthen the governments in improving learning case for better government support. support your members to engage in policy- making processes. outcomes. or head teacher. Are you a union official or staff member? If you work for a teachers’ organization or union. TIPS: Send a message to your Government. by sharing their own classroom experiences.

My notes 14 ADVOCACY TOOLKIT for TEACHERS TO PROVIDE A QUALITY EDUCATION .

ADVOCACY TOOLKIT for TEACHERS TO PROVIDE A QUALITY EDUCATION 15 .

ADVOCACY TOOLKIT The graphics in this brochure were designed by Wild is the Game. for TEACHERS Published in 2014 by the United Nations Educational. influence and sustain genuine commitment towards Education for All. Developed by an independent team and published by UNESCO. place de Fontenoy 75352 Paris 07 SP. the Education for All Global Monitoring Report is an authoritative reference that aims to inform. Scientific and Cultural Organization 7. France to PROVIDE A QUALITY EDUCATION © UNESCO 2014 All rights reserved Infographics: Wild is the Game and Laura Yates Layout: Education International Graphic design: Education International Printed in France by UNESCO ISBN: 978-92-95100-82-4 (paperback) 978-92-95100-83-1 (PDF) .