Euripides: Medea (Mήδεια) has EXILED Medea and the children. Medea’s
cries are heard from behind the scenes.
Cast of characters: PARODOS (131–213): The Chorus enters to
SYMPATHIZE with Medea. They and the Nurse

NURSE (in Greek, Trophos) – MEDEA’s old sing while Medea continues to LAMENT behind
Nanny from her homeland in COLCHIS the scenes.
PEDAGOGUE (in Greek, Paidagōgos) – a SLAVE First EPISODE (214–409): Medea enters and
who tends the CHILDREN gives a well-argued SPEECH on her plight and
MEDEA – Colchian princess, JASON’s former that of women in general (see also GENDER

CREON – king of CORINTH enters abruptly and declares the sentence of
JASON – IOLCAN prince, former husband of exile. Medea persuades him to give her one
Medea, recently married to Creon’s day to prepare. After he leaves she vows
daughter REVENGE.

AEGEUS – king of ATHENS First STASIMON (410–45): The Chorus sings
MESSENGER – slave of Jason of the reversal of everything and new respect
CHORUS of Corinthian Women (see also for women.
CHORUSES; FEMALE CHORUSES IN GREEK Second Episode (446–626): Jason enters
TRAGEDY) abruptly. Medea and Jason argue. He claims
that what he is doing is for her good. She
Several extras represent the two young sons of refuses his help.
Medea and Jason (see also SILENT CHARACTERS), Second Stasimon (627–62): The Chorus
the entourages of Creon and Aegeus, and the sings of LOVE, country, and betrayal.
Nurse at the end of the third EPISODE. Third Episode (663–823): Aegeus enters
Medea was first produced for the GREAT abruptly. Medea PROMISES to help him cure
DIONYSIA in 431 BCE. It came third in competi- his CHILDLESSNESS. He offers Medea asylum.
tion with Euphorion (AESCHYLUS’ son) and After he leaves Medea announces her plan to
SOPHOCLES (see also FRAGMENTARY AND LOST kill her children and sends her Nurse to sum-
PLAYS §7). The STAGE BUILDING represents mon Jason (see also CHILD MURDER).
Medea’s house in Corinth. (See also ANCIENT Third Stasimon (824–65): The Chorus
GREEK THEATERS; SPACE; THEATER ARCHITECTURE; sings of ATHENS, land of grace and glory, and
Fourth Episode (866–975): Jason returns.
Plot PROLOGUE (1–130): Medea’s Nurse Medea persuades him to ask that the chil-
fills in the backstory: how Jason had used dren stay with him in Corinth and gives
Medea’s help, including her BETRAYAL of her them POISONED gifts to take as a BRIBE to the
father and MURDER of her brother, in his quest princess.
for the golden fleece, how they had returned Fourth Stasimon (976–1001): The Chorus
to Iolcus only to be denied the throne, and, sings in PITY for the children, the bride, Jason,
after killing Pelias the king, had come as refu- and Medea.
gees to Corinth where they had two sons, Fifth Episode (1001–250): The Pedagogue
after which Jason abandoned her to marry the returns with the children. Medea bids farewell
king’s daughter. The Nurse is interrupted by to her children. The Chorus sings of the
the arrival of the children with their aged DEATHS of children. A Messenger arrives from
attendant who brings the NEWS that the king the palace and describes the gruesome deaths

The Encyclopedia of Greek Tragedy, First Edition. Edited by Hanna M. Roisman.
© 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Published 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

She refuses to let legend. Mannequins of them reappear as is likely that the early treatments of her story corpses in the exodos. Whether. The mēchanē (or flying machine) is used at McDermott 1989: 9–24. in which children were separated from their parents and sent to serve in the temple of STAGING and SPECIAL EFFECTS Medea prob- Hera Akraia for a year. Instead Medea appears on the roof- in Corinth Jason and Medea had two sons (or top in a chariot drawn by serpents (1317). who ENTRANCES of a MALE CHARACTER arriving from gave her asylum and had a son by her. between PROPS and silent characters. The the one fact that is most widely known about focus on the house and the idea that the set- her in the twenty-first century (Page 1938: ting is displaced from the palace are constant. The children’s reality and was believed by the historical death cries are heard from inside. Argo was the first ship. This ritual suggests ably used only two ACTORS with speaking that the Corinthians were required to atone parts. Medea enters end of whatever nationality. after the epic glamor has faded. Helios. 77–80.2 of the princess and her father. was abandoned her house to kill her children. The SILENT children are brought on Medea was already known to the AUDIENCE in from the outside in the prologue. treated in tragedy. Like those of many other Fifth Stasimon (1251–92): The Chorus legendary figures. in some versions seven sons and seven daugh- Treatments and interpretations ters. bear the responsibility other parts (the men) by the DEUTERAGONIST. her grandfather. In that case. she came to princess picked up in her native Colchis at the Corinth as a refugee. This story concerns the his children. like nearly every helpful princess in leg. their minder. The CONTACT IN GREEK TRAGEDY). was produced around 450 BCE). Webster 1967: 32–7. brought out to entreat their father Argonauts and the killing of Pelias. THESEUS. Such stories Aegeus enters unexpectedly and changes the have gaps and poets were free to fill them in. her story intersects with PRAYS to avert the murder. It is also a heroic quest father. enters from the house and remains on stage and had to flee once more (Euripides’ Aegeus almost throughout. Greeks to be a true story from the distant EXODOS (1293–419): Jason enters to save (prehistorical) past. Medea appears with their bodies exploration of the world and the opening of on the roof of the house in a dragon-drawn the seas to Greek seafaring: to the Greeks the chariot (MēCHANē) given her by her grand. predicts his deaths of Medea’s sons were commemorated ignominious demise. At the center of the play. power structure from the males lording it over Medea to the woman controlling the (b) Medea and her children The story of action. Griffiths 2006: 41–56). sent into connection with the saga of Jason and the the house. Mastronarde other major scenic device (the EKKYKLēMA) is 2002: 44–64. as in EURIPIDES. therefore. blurring the distinction did not represent her as killing her children. 1991: 123–32. traditional numbers in Mediterranean (a) Background Medea was the foreign lore). brought back by Iolcus (Euripides’ first play was the Peliades. produced in 455 BCE). and sent into the house once Daughters of Pelias. by the adventurer. It more. Medea’s Athenian connection The basic structure of Medea is a series of was through her relations with Aegeus. the sun god (as in . or she was summoned end of Jason’s quest for the golden fleece by the Corinthians because of connections to who helped the hero accomplish his mission the Corinthian royal family inherited through and. in a surprising scene in which the Moreau 1994: 198–9 et passim. for that crime. like many such Jason touch the children (see also PHYSICAL stories. and flies off to Athens in historical times by a sacred rite in Corinth to join Aegeus’ HOUSEHOLD. Helios (the sun god). the Nurse and Medea for the wrongful deaths of Medea’s children would be played by the PROTAGONIST and all the and must. the end. She was the outside and confronting Medea. who caught plotting against Aegeus’ son. xxi–xxxvi. king of and sent OFF STAGE with him. While expected.

victim. 100–4). Wor- alive (46.134. until their death when they stay there. 1. his relatives take revenge by killing First. One of the thermore.28). to dren (1021–80). Not MAGIC). become the standard and known two most compelling explanations for her story (Easterling 1977: 177–91. Even if Neophron’s version in cannot. until Medea enters the house behind them The heart of Euripides’ Medea is her delib. Segal 1997b). He is just passing through the house door (89–105 and 1019–76). Was Euripides the first to Medea kills them as “an exemplary gesture” dramatize it? Claims have been made that the to force Jason to realize what it means to be tragic poet Neophron anticipated Euripides in human and to live as a human being. but will take control of the story and see also Page 1938: xxx. 3 Eumelus and Simonides). 721–2). Medea’s criticize as inorganic to the PLOT: the arrival of most pathetic scene is her farewell to the chil. Luschnig 2007: Medea survive (Page 1938: xxxii–xxxvi). he transfer the murder from the Corinthians to makes the most of Medea’s FILICIDE. there is the element of suspense. In another. in Page 1938]. there is a version in which Medea of Medea’s plan to kill the children and both accidentally kills her children in an attempt to say over and over. characters. only Medea and the Chorus know Finally. part other (as is seen in their familiar greetings. Johnston 1997: 44–68. The Corinth on his way from DELPHI to TROEZEN two kings. so that she will not be the “Neophron” [nu. 1461b20) and the solution their bodies (1377. so that he was accused of taking a bribe to Whether or not Euripides was the first. The version). “No.6. Diog. 1056–8). 2. It 85–117).3.8. The Medea (scholia to Medea 9). it is true. Aegeus (an example of improbability. Jason begs just to touch alogon or alogia. The chil. Apollod. 329. 89–94. 2. Corti 1998: deed is suggested by Gill (1996: 154. .9. which has. 1002) and mannequins of their thington 1990. under the entry for 1060–1): that is. arrives abruptly to begin their death. cf. see also this” (814. does their death at her hands become inevita- erate killing of her children. Aegeus. The ascribing the child murders to Medea and other is given by Medea herself: she kills them even that he was actually the author of to take vengeance and to keep the children Euripides’ Medea (HYPOTHESIS to Medea [text from being killed by her enemies (871–2. you/I cannot do make them immortal (Paus. Michelini 1989: the drama (Rehm 1989. Fartzoff 1996: 158– 115–35). “from the machine” (which he believed did dren are brought on stage three times while not arise from the plot itself. Luschnig 2007: 63–84). by the end of her of the SPECTACLE. though they are known to each actual children are a silent scenic element. the filicide was still fragments may be derived from Euripides’ associated with Euripides’ version. the Anomalies of PLOT In the Poetics. however. Suda. 2. Nurse voices her FEAR for the children from the beginning (37. fur.3. Creon and Aegeus. 894. 44. bodies are props in the dragon-chariot after Aegeus. 1411–12). ble (Ohlander 1989: 129–74). 856–65. Laert. ARIS- Chorus sings an unusual astrophic song about TOTLE singled out two incidents in Medea to the loss of children (1081–115). 168): 30–2 et passim). 1454b1. FOREIGN woman who was also a witch (SCHOLIA Why did Euripides either make this drastic to Medea 264). are as much or and does not come on purpose to see Medea more concerned with children than with their also (as he apparently does in Neophron’s kingdoms (Creon. 318]. 1042–8. In one are heard crying in terror as their MOTHER version they are killed by the Corinthians chases them with her SWORD behind the scenes because they did not want to be ruled by a (1272–8. be asserted with confidence which Medea herself kills her children ante- that Neophron antedates Euripides and the dates that of Euripides. Two scenes have them tarrying at the third episode. after she has killed change or choose the lesser-known version? Creon. so much version rather than the other way around. her children were dead. Of the her children (Paus. Three fragments of Neophron’s 66.

Gredley 1987: entrances: Creon’s proclamation has been 31–2. 716–18. She has exercise control over Medea. besides directorial control of the scene sending the the respect one heroic-age personage shows children to the princess sets in motion the rest to another. thing of value (paternity for him. as if the playwright were about to so that we will see him only after we witness deploy the ekkyklēma to reveal the result of the devastating effects of the sentence of exile. the mēchanē. and denying him the opportunity to father The basic dramatic structure of the play is more: the penalty for breaking one’s oath is already established in the prologue by their that the oath-breaker and his descendants be surrogates. 596–7. shadow Medea’s appearance on the rooftop dren as his in the second episode might in the dragon-drawn chariot. would not be expected. making her situ. . no. ently with divine sanction. the female and male slaves rooted out forever. it does arise from ing them (550. though his entrance is delayed tion there. by killing his children Williamson 1990. The difference is that the she realizes fully the divine essence that is also audience has reason to expect the two earlier hers (Kerenyi 1979: 20–40. 665). reducing her status to unheroic 1993: 45–70). on the other hand. the horrific murders we have heard from Aegeus. The Aegeus episode places Medea in Creon (as in other versions and as Jason the legend of Theseus by showing her (along expects. Jason’s claiming the chil. his daughter. and that she begins to take over the plot: after Jason (374–5). Her plans had of the play. What Aegeus gives Medea. become. She has saved herself and with the ORACLE of Apollo) in opposition to her children from that fate and she has. His childlessness and fierce desire dependent (535. OATH-breaker Jason. It about which none of the other principal char- is to be noted that she has never worried acters knows: he is Medea’s secret weapon. heritage as granddaughter of the Sun (406. Sfyroeras 1995). each offering the other some- that it is he who gives Medea the idea of kill. punished the see also Page 1938: xxix–xxx. asylum for ing the children as the best revenge against her). Aegeus and Medea for children have led some scholars to suggest meet as equals. of the machine is irrational.4 663. is a place to go. Jason runs onto the scene to save would need to come in person). 565–7. about how she will escape. on Aegeus. Aegeus’ abrupt entrance imitates those of 746. Before the Aegeus scene she had reversal of fortune from bad to better and threatened to kill Creon. He beats on the doors of also expect to see something of Jason as the the house (1314–17). device available. The scenic mentioned (70–2) and now needs to be value of the denouement alone can justify its announced to Medea herself (not that Creon existence. part of the divine machinery. concentrating atten- other principal. Aegeus is an element in the plot been stymied over this (386–90. 768–71). But. Medea has become the (Buttrey 1958). After his departure she refines Aegeus leaves. appar- his conception (679–81. and we would his children (1303). The first two men come to instrument of divine retribution. she summons Jason. The Aegeus scene might be said to fore- lum will shelter her. It is when she is aloft that Creon and Jason. 562. is not necessarily within. 1303–5). Though Jason offers help. Though the use equally be said to be her MOTIVATION for kill. Her her plans. 551–2). but only what asy. surprising the therefore. standing in the place from which ation worse. 954. Dunkle 1969. Lawrence 1997: 49–55). only on the terms of denying her any value of With Zeus she is keeper of oaths (Kovacs her own. Gill the plot. it is gods appear. It would not do to have Medea pun- was to become the heir to the Athenian ished by the Corinthians or the relatives of throne. 1321). Several times Medea refers to her 1996: 155). though audience: they would look up only after the Medea is known to have had a son by him and actor’s announcement of her presence there initiated a plot against the life of Theseus who (1317). It is here that Medea experiences a Jason. instead he uses the other part of the story of Jason and Medea and.

But before that she us? Her appearance at the end in her dragon. but she is also less than uniquely free entity. 1279). as lover. had moved among us. 1343. Barlow 1989. Not that women dramas. divinized hero (to Jason). ity. Is this attributable to dramatic and apotheosis. monster. also 1977/1979: 295–322. and then in her own words. her godlike ability to turn she predicts Jason’s end and establishes a cult her will into action. Galis 1992. the are often people at the edge. point of view. as a hero and as a powerful goddess. Among the woman. Still in this play a woman’s dismissed Medea by saying she is not tragic. reexplaining a known ritual (her bestial rage at her FAMILY. as wife. her their secrets: Creon loves his child and his Hatzichronoglou 1993. Others are not part of human. as bride. named a lioness (187. She is able to know so much the author of her own legend rather than its about the others in the story because they tell victim (Boedeker 1991. Knox and even caused their deaths was Mormo. as dependent on men. a voice with his Medea. At the end she is beyond us. a goddess or demon or avenging nightmare figures that frightened children spirit (1260. no character more should make us uneasy. her godlike in a disturbingly novel way (Dunn 1994. Does her variety death (1381–3). Friedrich 1993. 1407). witch. Medea is a avengers and shows his protagonist becoming reader of hearts. that Medea should do this. 1389. Easterling 1997b). operas. as sister. ate them. on the other what we are as humans. for she community. duBois 1982: 110– a Corinthian woman turned demon. Aegeus yearns for an heir. Tragic characters and-forth bickering of Jason and Medea. 1997. loving mother (to her chil. A woman at the end. but she has other non-logical ways of plot more compact by removing extraneous knowing and dealing with reality. and by the Chorus reminding necessity or can she be all these things at us that this is a play. a wave of the sea (28). From that lofty position once? Her power. but they show us name-calling and petty cruelties. “the plat. agreeable wife (to Jason) – and dis. novels. It was called (at least in of the drama the story is presented from her later antiquity) the THEOLOGEION. been accepted at each place along appears aloft on the roof of the stage build. Jason is after renown 177–98). through her appearance in the mēchanē (fly- dren). And she is given a voice for ing.” The back. Euripides has come close to giving women Afterlife Of the scores of works – poems. and. separates her from the to commemorate and atone for her children’s common run of mortals. It may be unsettling hand. through her Nurse’s narrative form from which gods speak. songs. and security. a shared reality. 1342. Medea’s up roles in successive scenes – wronged familiarity is more frightening than her alter- woman (inside her home and to the Chorus). 28. Kovacs According to the legend Mormo killed her 1993: 53–9. and as a She is a woman. will for revenge) make her more or less like Johnston 1997: 62–8). Medea takes children. A woman rock (28. she is more than a mere mortal as a hero’s helper and as a demon. her route (11–12). . voice is heard. some of which are veri- that remove tragic stature from her? Is she fiable from common experience: a woman as too many things to be tragic (Gellie 1988)? mother. and flew away. And tragedy has logic at her disposal. but perhaps of fantasy. ing machine) and removed from us by fiction cards them. Does includes many voices. paintings. 5 Heroic stature of Medea Many critics have are  like Medea. been part of the human driven chariot suggests the divine. but the real-life Medea is in complete control of the plot cases of parents murdering their children are that she devises: how could she know that her too common for us to deny that it is somehow plan would destroy Creon but not Jason? She part of the human condition. in the place usually reserved for the presenting her cause: from beginning to end appearance of gods. as Does being a woman limit her possibilities? daughter. set them down on the human level. Luschnig 2007: country in that order. yes. Euripides makes the so. Bongie 1977. It is a true voice because it Medea is a child killer.

heroine achieves an even more chaotic life Gellie. Tragedy. goodness. D. S. Corti. Gill. 1998. London: Routledge. P. Vanity of ΛOΓOΙ.” YCS 25: 177–91. Greek Tragedy Twentieth-century versions include that of and the Historian. more of a witch than Euripides’ and very Easterling. sion but shows very different poetic sensibili. Medea: also Clauss and Johnston 1997: 103–249.B. “Accident and Design in a few will have to suffice to indicate that Euripides’ Medea. Medea duBois. Clauss and S. 2000: passim.I. J. 1989. E.) Euripides’ Medea. 1997.” GRBS 35: 103–15.B.” G&R 36: 158–71. Heroic. CT: Greenwood Press. Westport.). (See also RECEPTION. a woman of nearly superhuman Pallas 45: 153–68. Zimmermann (eds. Johnston (eds.E. Hatzichronoglou. “The Infanticide in one of his best plays. and Art. 1996. Fartzoff. NJ: Princeton University Press: 127–48. Cult of Hera Akraia. 1994.R. Oxford: Oxford University violence. Halliwell. “Corinthian Medea and the Myth.I. 1993. Sommerstein. B. Medea: Essays on Medea in Bongie. acknowledges Friedrich. “The Aegeus Episode and the ties (see also GREEK TRAGEDY IN/AND LATIN Theme of Euripides’ Medea. Oxford: Oxford University Christa Wolff (Medea: A Modern Retelling. “Euripides’ Medea and the Woman or Fiend?” in M.” in J. In Wendy Wasserstein’s Medea the 110: 65–81. TITLES OF TRAGEDIES Series. “Becoming Medea: Antiquity in Honor of Joy K.I. NJ: Princeton University 297–323. Hera Akraia. 2006. Dario Fo’s Medea A. ever renewed (see Clauss.). DeForest (ed. Dunkle. 2000. The Medea of SENECA (a Roman philoso. C. Griffiths 2006: 85–18). presents a Medea who is Euripides’ Medea.” Eranos Woman. Literature. Hall et al. 97–107.” cent Medea. Euripides’ version lives on. Medea: Essays on Medea in Johnston. Medea of Euripides. 1993. “Medea’s Metamorphosis. S.” CPh 86: 95–112. and the Polis. and Art. 1997b.6 musical compositions. Philosophy. L. References Medea in Performance 1500–2000. “Euripides’ Medea: Boedeker. F. R.).” BICS 34: 27–39. E. showing that in this MYTH. E. Centaurs and Amazons: Women in Exile. Mastronarde Press. Clauss and IL: Bolchazy-Carducci: 178–93. creator combines various ancient horror sto. Buttrey. L. Philosophy. when her 35: 15–22. 1992.R. 1997. 1982. Literature.” TAPhA 107: 27–56.” BICS story than in Euripides’ version.” in J. Personality in Greek Epic. and is equally political: she kills her children to B. Johnston (eds.V. Oxford: Barlow. Tragedy. Pelling (ed. J. ries with modern acts of political and medical and Philosophy. S. Princeton. Man’s Game: Essays on Classical Boedeker.). F.. and Art.” in known as a child murderer. P. 1987. Gods and Heroes See also EMOTIONS. Griffiths. wrongly accused.J. Euripides’ Medea. Philosophy. 1977.I.J. Assimilation in Euripides. and S. which seems to follow closely Euripides’ ver. Princeton.” AJPh 79: 1–17.” in C. Dunn. 1977. and the Pre-history of the Great Chain of Being. films – based on Medea. 1988. . Wauconda. M.).” TAPhA 100: LITERATURE).E. “The Character of Medea. and O. “Stereotype and Reversal in Legenda. Taplin (eds. “The Place and Time of Victory: 201). shatter Jason’s laws and to create the  New Galis. 2002: 64–70.). 1969.  Johnston (eds. Princeton. Henderson. “Medea apolis: On Euripides’ the Euripidean truth that she is forever to be Dramatization of the Crisis of the Polis. of which a few fragments survive. J. P. T. Essays on Medea in Myth. 1996. “Heroic Elements in the Myth. 1997. L. Literature. D. Hall. Comedy. The Myth of Medea and Murder of Ennius (a Roman poet of the third to sec. G. Press: 21–37.).J. King. a happy Press. Children. “Euripides and the Rites of pher and dramatist of the first century CE). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. ond century BCE) produced a tragedy. Women’s Power. 1958. Bari: Levante Editori: 219–39.M. “Le pouvoir dans Médée. Macintosh. ending is nonsense (Luschnig 2007: 199– Gredley. 1991. Easterling. S. “Constructing the much in control of her destiny. NJ: Princeton University Press: 44–70. translated by John Cullen [1998]): her inno. Medea.

vol. “On the Fifth Stasimon of and Action. “Neophron and Euripides’ Mythology in the Arts. B. University Press.” YCS 25: 193–225. 1993.” Aigeus Scene in Euripides’ Medea. London: Routledge: Mastronarde. 1997.M. Further Reading McDermott. D. Euripides’ Medea: The Medea. 1967. 1. Euripides: Medea. K. M. D.” Hermes 125: 49–55. 16–31. Granddaughter of the Williamson.E. Euripides. Powell (ed. 121: 123–32. 1938. American University Studies 6. 1936. “Medea and the Logos of the Knox. T.D. 1997b. Paris: Belles Lettres. 1994.W. 1300–1990s. Dramatic Suspense in Euripides’ Harvard University Press. 1989. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.” TAPhA Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. A. TX: University Press. Luschnig.A. Oxford: Medea 1056–80.B. Goddesses of Sun and Moon: Page. Incarnation of Disorder.. 1967. The Tragedies of Euripides. Aphrodite. Lawrence. E. Euripides: Medea. S. “Zeus in Euripides’ Medea. CECELIA A. R. Le mythe de Jason et Médée. Loeb Classical Library. 1990. 125–42. A. 2007. E. Mythic Novelty in Euripides’ Plays. Moreau. The Oxford Guide to Classical Michelini.). repr. Worthington. C. Medea. 1995.J. 1993. Oxford University Press. 1990. Reid. S.” Eranos 87: 97–115. 2nd edn. Sfyroeras.A. Oxford: Oxford Circe. 1991. “The Medea of Heroic. Leiden: Euripides’ Medea. “The Ironies of Salvation: The Kovacs. Women.” in A. in Word Segal. J. Niobe. 7 Kerenyi.” TAPhA 119: 115–35. 2002. E. Brill. 1969. MD: Johns Hopkins Euripides’ Medea.L. “Audience Uncertainty and Webster. Cambridge. I. London: Methuen. “Double Meaning and Jocelyn. Irving. Baltimore. Euripides. Euripides’ Medea. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. H. 1989. 1989. P. Remains of Old Latin. Warmington. 1979: 295–322. H. 1977/1979. MA: Ohlander. Rehm.” CJ 90: AJPh 114: 45–70. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press. “A Woman’s Place in Sun: A Study of Euripides’ Medea. “The Ending of Euripides’ McDermott. 1979. Spring Publications. D. 1989. The Tragedies of Ennius. and Sexuality.” AJPh 118: 167–84.E. C. and Seneca’s Medea.” Hermes 118: 502–5.D. LUSCHNIG .A.