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Physics laws

1- B =µ x NI/L ( solenoid )

**or B =µ x n I as n is the number of coil
**

turns per unit length

2 – B = µ X NI/2r ( in center of loop)

3 – B= µ x I/2 π d( at distance from a straight wire)

**4 – the force acting on straight wire carrying
**

current and exist in magnetic field

**F = BIL sin Ɵ ( Ɵ is the angle between the wire and the field
**

lines)

** the force acting on a charge moving in
**

magnetic field

F = B q v sin Ɵ

5 – Magnetic torque

(Ʈ) = N B A I sin Ɵ

**(Ɵ is the angle between the field lines and perpendicular to
**

the coil ) (maximum when the coil is parallel to the field lines

and zero in perpendicular position)

6 – faraday's law e.m.f = - N ∆Ø)/ ∆ t

= - NA (∆ B)/∆t

∆Ø = Ø2- Ø1

**- If the coil was perpendicular to the magnetic
**

field then turned by 900 ( 1/4 cycle)

∆ B= B2 – B1 = 0- B = - B

**- If the coil was perpendicular to the magnetic
**

field then turned by 1800 ( 1/2 cycle)

∆ B= B2 – B1 =-B - B = -2 B

**7 – e.m.f induced in straight wire moving in
**

magnetic field

**e.m.f = - B L V sin Ɵ (Ɵ is the angle between the
**

direction of motion and the field lines)

**Ø = B A cos Ɵ (Ɵ is the angle between the perpendicular to
**

the coil and the field lines)

8 – induced current I = induced e.m.f / Resistance of the coil

9 – Mutual induction e.m.f = - M∆I2/ ∆ t = - N ∆Ø/ ∆ t

=-

NA (∆ B)/∆t

M = e.m.f2 x ∆ t /∆I2

10 – Self induction e.m.f = - L∆I1/ ∆ t = - N ∆Ø/ ∆ t

=-

NA (∆ B)/∆t

Inductnce L = e.m.f x ∆ t /∆I Henery or V.sec/A.

11 – instantaneous e.m.f in dynamo = NBA ω sin Ɵ

Ɵ = ωt =( 2 πf) t

**f is frequency = 1/periodic timeT = no. of
**

cycles/time in sec.

**12 -Maximum e.m.f = NBA ω ( when the coil is
**

parallel to the field)

And e.m.f = o in perpendicular position

13 - instantaneous e.m.f in dynamo = e.m.fmax. sin Ɵ

= e.m.fmax. sin ωt

= e.m.f max.

sin ( 2 πf) t

14 – Average e.m.f during any period calculated

from faraday's law

**- During one cycle average = o
**

- During 1/4 cycle average = During 1/2 cycle

average = - 4 NBAf

15 – Effective value of e.m.f = 1/ √ 2 e.m.f max.= 0.707 e.m.f max

16 – Effective value of AC current

Ieff.(Ir.m.s) = 1/ √ 2 I max.= 0.707 I max

**17 – Number of times that the AC current reach maximum in
**

one second = 2f

**Number of times that the AC current reach zero in one
**

second = 2f + 1

18 – In the ideal transformer

Ns/Np = VslVp = Ip/Is

VsIs VsNp

In the real transformer effencency η= VpIp x100 % = VpNs

x100 %

The lost power in the transferring wires = I2R

**the power at the consumer area = the power at the production
**

station – lost power

**The drop in voltage through the transferring wires = IR (R is
**

resistance of the wires)

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