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A developmental psychology perspective on

Article in Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology · March 2002
DOI: 10.1037/0022-006X.70.1.6 · Source: PubMed


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Dante Cicchetti Fred Rogosch
University of Minnesota Twin Cities University of Rochester


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Inc. person-specific characteristics. investigations on adoles. 2001). recognizing the adolescent’s relative lack of These include (a) the use of interdisciplinary models of develop. and Director. and and stress of adolescence is neither universal nor inevitable. prevention. Toth.70. 1990). 1990. and one that lends itself to investigations guided by a develop- Steinberg & Morris. and Pediatrics. Mt.1037//0022-006X. ment. & Gerhardt. Rochester. however. Hope Family Center. preparedness for the assumption of full adult responsibilities. (d) period of adolescence is provided through an examination of the the transactions that occur between environmental and more table of contents in the Annual Review of Psychology volumes. and resilience are highlighted. growth and the realization of new possibilities occur (Cicchetti & ester. Mt. Conceptualizing divergence and convergence in developmental pathways. Interdisciplinary. Rochester. Rogosch. Testimony to the growing interest in the between normal and maladaptive or pathological functioning. Although the developmental psychopathology perspective. Hinden. Hope Family Center and University of Rochester Mt. Cowen for their inspiration. 1984. A number of issues adolescent strives to move toward acquiring independence and the that have been examined by investigators of adolescent develop. opportunities for Department of Psychology. since 1995. We acknowledge Can- adjustment exhibited by a few were generalized as normative dace Cicchetti and Emory L. are discussed. Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Dante experiences for all adolescents (Freud. In this article. emphasizing the dynamic relations between the developing individual and internal and external contexts. Psychiatry.1. Nev- 6 . Vol. Mt. ado- not surprising that the study of adolescent development holds lescence is characterized by a rather lengthy transition phase in much promise for advancing many of the goals embodied by a which the individual is neither a child nor an adult. design and provision of prevention and intervention. there remains a relative paucity of Building on the normative advances accompanying adolescence. 1995c. Hope Family Center. Sroufe. New York. 6 –20 0022-006X/02/$5. We thank Tracy “storm and stress” (Hall. social institutions. adolescents cope successfully with the developmental demands of 187 Edinburgh Street. as well as to more developmental processes more generally (Cicchetti. However. reviews of adolescence have appeared every 3 years Adolescence is a particularly compelling period of development (Compas. framework not only can inform knowledge of adolescent psycho- In view of the risks facing adolescents attributable to biological pathology but also can contribute to an enhanced understanding of and psychological developmental changes. and research conceived within a developmental psychopathology psychopathology. Despite these advances. University of Rochester. and (f) the integration of basic research into the adolescence did not appear until the 38th volume (Petersen. adolescence (Feldman & Elliott. as well as work on adolescence and social systems undergo marked developmental changes during and psychopathology. 1904). with particular relevance for understanding continuity and the emer- gence of psychopathology during this and subsequent developmental periods. 1. 70. (c) the boundary and linkages past several decades. Over the life course. Concomitantly.6 A Developmental Psychopathology Perspective on Adolescence Dante Cicchetti Fred A. it is chetti & Cohen. Cic- external social and situational challenges they must confront. Lerner & Galambos. this period and do not evidence extremes of maladaptation. New York. New York 14608. Rochester. In addition. psychological. parents and ment mirror areas of interest to developmental psychopathologists. psychopa- thology. the storm Cicchetti. Consequently. attainment of the perceived rewards of adulthood. organizational models of development. 1995. and the transactions of risk and protective processes leading to maladaptation. Biological. Our work on this article was supported in part by grants from the Adolescence has in the past been characterized as a period of National Institute of Drug Abuse and the Spunk Fund. Inc.00 DOI: 10. 1958). Examination of boundaries between abnormal and normal development during adolescence offers important vantage points for articulating diversity in the developmental course during this period. Fred A. the utility of a developmental psychopathology perspective for informing the design of research.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology Copyright 2002 by the American Psychological Association. Hope Family Center Developmental psychopathology offers an integrative framework for conceptualizing the course of development during adolescence. cence and normative development. 1998. (e) processes associated with risk Although the first article in this publication devoted exclusively to and resilience. mental psychopathology perspective. the flux and renegotiation inherent in this developmental period increase the potential for both internal and Dante Cicchetti. Hope Family Center. 1996). erature. continuity and discontinuity in development. No. Most Pediatrics. 2000a. (b) issues related to the continuity or discontinuity of de- struggle with relinquishing their perceptions of the adolescent as a child. and intervention is highlighted. and the extreme problems in Levee for her assistance in typing the manuscript. have increased greatly in the scientific lit. Shirley Cox Kearns Professor of Psychology. University of Roch. 1988). Spear. and external conflict. development. 2002. Research on adolescence has burgeoned over the course of the velopment across the life course. published research addressing adolescence. 2000b). Rogosch Mt. Psychiatry.

rather than espousing a singular theory that identifies three central features of this turmoil that may be height. Thus. entation of the discipline results in new types of questions being When are irritability. Campbell. stood by invoking a developmental psychopathology perspective. or who have (Rutter. dysphoria. 1998). we want to bance during adolescence or. psychological. Cicchetti & Toth. the incorporation and integration of con. during any develop- underscore that if taken in isolation. during adolescence. 1973). The unifying developmental ori- normative struggles and psychopathology. within a developmental. as age alone does not psychopathology that are particularly useful for informing research necessarily result in the elucidation of developmental process and intervention for adolescents who are at risk for. the lifespan orientation is central to how questions 1990). and however complex the course of the develop- boundaries between normal and abnormal. Although adolescents exhibit large individual differ. rather than being satisfied to compare a normative adolescent self-searching versus symptoms of mood normative and disordered group of adolescents on a phenomenon disorder? When does experimentation with alcohol and drugs lapse of interest. con. 1998). of later developmental divergence may contribute to identifying standing psychopathology and its relation to normative adapta. it would be manifested in view of the particular developmental vention for adolescent disorders. are framed and how psychopathology is to be understood more . We requires that an issue of interest be conceptualized in terms of how conclude with a discussion of approaches to prevention and inter. Rather. Cicchetti & Toth. 1997). and emotional lability part of posed. tioning of the adolescent be considered within the context of how cepts that are more typically considered as discrete entities serve to that level of functioning evolved over the course of development. risk behaviors. Adolescents could be investigated developed. Sroufe and Rutter (1984) conceptualized the dis- ences in these areas. Whereas traditional view. as well as between mental pattern may be” (p. domains are essential for understanding manifestations of distur- Before proceeding further with our discussion. for an elaboration). SPECIAL SECTION: ADOLESCENCE AND PSYCHOPATHOLOGY 7 ertheless. differences during the adolescent period that were not apparent at tion (Cicchetti. suggests that behaviors associated with internalizing and external. 1995. the developmental psychopathology framework places deleterious effects on the family and on individual adolescent them in the dynamic relation between the individual and the development. the adolescents adapt successfully. the course of disorder occurrence are likely to be very different for individuals aged 6. However. and conflict Rutter & Sroufe. A developmental analysis also benefits not only internal and external contexts (Sameroff. In seeks to unify. the time. Moreover. the manifestation. periods but rather with the degree of convergence or divergence volve normative struggles versus emerging disorder? What are the in the organization of biological. many aspects of a develop. Seemingly comparable groups of adolescents may appear indistinguishable in adolescence but may Developmental psychopathology is an integrative discipline that manifest very different patterns of adaptation in adulthood. adolescence typically does generate more turmoil than edge across scientific disciplines at multiple levels of analysis and either childhood or adulthood (Resnick et al. coping with a traumatic event and the meanings attributed to the tories toward adolescent psychopathology. 16. by a downward extension of a phenomenon observed in adults. 2000). 1993). For example. 1993. Thus. ment. Accordingly. 1993. the developmental psychopathologist strives to under- into substance abuse? Which adolescents are most vulnerable to stand how group differences in that phenomenon evolved over the moving into the psychopathological extremes? Why do many course of development (Cicchetti & Sroufe. A developmental psychopathology approach to adolescence In this article. become less clear. mental period. but bility of a developmental psychopathology approach to adoles. developmental psychopathology strives to integrate knowl. For example.. the fact that mood disruptions and increased cipline as “the study of the origins and course of individual risk taking are not atypical during this period of development patterns of behavioral maladaptation. Wohlwill. whatever the causes. with parents. from knowing the progression of experiences prior to adolescence but also from knowing the subsequent developmental trajectories What Is Developmental Psychopathology? of individuals into adulthood. or 36. 2001). 1989. psychopathology. Thus. would account for all developmental phenomena (Cicchetti.. Davies. the knowledge tributions from multiple fields of inquiry with the goal of under. and social- future ramifications of adolescent psychopathology? These are contextual systems as they relate to symptom manifestation and some questions relevant to adolescence that can be better under. lifespan framework. Arnett (1999) multiple domains. 18). set a developmental psychopathology approach apart from more Distal influences and their dynamic relation to proximal causes traditional perspectives on disorder (see Cummings. whatever the transformations in behavioral izing forms of psychopathology are in ascendance. for that matter. As a “macroparadigm” (Achenbach. mental psychopathology perspective are equally applicable to A developmental analysis also requires that the current func- other fields. & need to be delineated (Cicchetti & Lynch. 2000. we explicate those aspects of developmental does not involve merely studying teenagers. addition to differences in subsequent experiences. disorder (Boyce et al. ened in adolescence: mood disruptions. contextual issues such as community violence points conceptualize maladaptation and disorder as inherent to the or membership in a gang can exert significant and potentially individual. and the mechanisms and processes that con. 1990. 1998. Illustrative examples of the applica. For example. the fact that the investigation involved adolescents does not ensure cence derived from research on various “high-risk” conditions and a developmental understanding. the cognitive and emotional capacities for thology that we view as integral toward understanding the trajec. Our overarching goal in this capacities and attainments of the adolescent period of develop- article is to elucidate those aspects of developmental psychopa. consideration of the developmental capacities of tribute to adaptation versus maladaptation during adolescence and the individual and linkages with other psychological and biological throughout the life course. whatever the age of onset. a developmental approach psychopathological disorders are highlighted in this article. and what protects adolescents from developmental psychopathologist is concerned not simply with developing significant disturbance? What current and historical differences in symptom presentation at different developmental developmental factors influence the trajectories engaged that in. 2000).

& Becker. by means of comparison and contrast across the life course. and family discord are found in their families in functioning and adaptation (Radke-Yarrow & Zahn-Waxler. Pauls. greater social support. 1990). cer.e. versity. for both childhood and velopmental psychopathology (Boyce et al. 18 of the high-competence chil- tion of component developmental systems may be so well estab. These findings suggest that psychosocial formed statistically to be more in line with the normal distribution. 1990). 1995). in a longitudinal investi- to withdraw during elementary school. 1990). the integra. Fudge. there also is higher comorbidity with criminality (Har. Pickles. 1986). When there is a clear aberration or the transition to adolescence. 1998. competence domains. individuals at high risk for the development of psychopathology tain pathways signify adaptational compromises or failures in who do not manifest it over time as they are in individuals who normal development that probabilistically forebode subsequent develop an actual disorder (Luthar. For example. Cicchetti. full range of functioning is a fundamental objective of de- ter. manage the new responsibilities and demands of the period good quality of parenting. aration anxiety through the early years of life. Resilient adolescents had much in common with their pulsive disorder in efforts to contain feelings of being unable to low-adversity competent peers. the 33 continuously competent chil- deficit in a component system within a disordered population. the linkage is much tiple biological and psychological systems in context across the stronger for adolescent onset depression (Harrington. followed up a large cohort of children of mothers how aberrations in the organization of component developmental with major depressive disorder. high functioning and without psy- that are not typically evident. & Hill. In comparison lished that it is difficult to determine how normal functioning is with the children who manifested a decrease in competence during dependent on this integration. Cicchetti & adolescent onset depressive disorders. and sources were associated with good outcomes across a variety of social challenges. to conditions of adversity (Cicchetti & Garmezy. including average or better IQ. children who are high on the Relatedly. as well as a tendency Best. nerable to the subsequent emergence of psychopathology on the face between normal and abnormal is particularly informative for basis of the organization of their developmental systems. Additionally. Two years later.. Rut. Accordingly. there is a higher familial Schneider-Rosen. velopmental processes as well as the typical. For example. Masten. 1997). Garber and Little (1999). academic. developmental psycholo- loading for depression in first. and higher psychological well being. 1978). investigation of processes that contribute to the later emergence of lescence emerges as particularly valuable in this regard. that better adolescent intellectual functioning and parenting re- lescence with the accompanying new physical. In the sixth grade. The extremes of the distribution in this context may be depression. (Carter. For example. under. there is evidence that depressive disorders that It is important to note that developmental psychopathology is occur in childhood and those that occur during adolescence may be not limited to the study of disorders. Investigation of psychopathological functioning during interdependency of components not apparent under normal condi- adolescence not only provides information about parameters and tions (see Cicchetti & Sroufe.. the subclinical range of functioning also development. dren demonstrated more positive coping.. However. compared with the adolescent cases. the childhood and adolescent depressive disorders increase the risk for elucidation of the developmental process within and among mul- subsequent depression in adulthood. 1993. and among relatives with 1990). In usual circumstances. significance for study because of their potential to provide insight scoring the need for attention to the differential matrix of processes into the full range of developmental processes and functioning. provides further insight into the full range of develop- psychopathology is critical for delineating developmental pro. stressors may play a more prominent role in childhood onset Developmental psychopathologists regard such extremes as of depression as compared with adolescent onset depression. Finally. the inter. even in the context of severe. Likewise. & Cohen. although studying disordered differentially influenced by genetic and psychosocial factors. When these children are faced with the transition to ado. in a prospective longitudinal Understanding how psychopathological conditions evolve and investigation. For gists are primarily interested in understanding constancies in de- children with depressive disorder. Both functioning is of central interest to the discipline. Masten and her colleagues (1999) found lenges.8 CICCHETTI AND ROGOSCH broadly. and better family other component systems can reveal information regarding the relationships. Individuals at this range of adaptation may be vul- From a developmental psychopathology perspective. and the period of ado. central tendencies alcohol abuse. an enhanced commitment examination of how that atypicality relates to the organization of to school achievement. chronic ad- ment of obsessions and compulsions and emergent obsessive com. 1995c. Thus. developmental psychopathologists are as interested in even before the emergence of a psychopathological disorder. In that may contribute to psychopathology during different periods of addition to the extremes. mental phenomena. higher rates of criminality. as well as processes that mitigate against disordered knowledge of normative adolescent development to the study of outcomes. cesses that have gone awry in those exhibiting a disorder. Rather. and the understanding the course of development. may have consequently gation of the pathways to resilience and maladaptation from child- developed a perspective of helplessness in regard to social chal. 51 of the 185 systems that exist among disordered individuals eventuate may be offspring of depressed mothers were identified as being in the informative for elucidating critical components of development high-competence group (i. between normal and abnormal can be mutually beneficial for offers insight into potential variations in causal processes that may understanding development across the range of variation (Cicchetti operate according to when a disorder emerges. dren developed problems by early adolescence. psychopathology. is important. regarded as problematic outliers or cases that need to be trans- rington et al. 2000). Garber and Little (1999) discovered . Applying a disorder. developmental psychopathologists also are committed temperamental characteristic of behavioral inhibition and who to discovering pathways to competent adaptation despite exposure have developed an anxious attachment and maintained high sep. the interest of devel- origins of a disorder during this specific developmental period but opmental psychopathologists in the convergences and divergences also. Sroufe. & Garmezy. Furthermore. hood to late adolescence. & Leckman. chopathology).and second-degree relatives. intense anxiety may contribute to the develop. Thus.

experiences can exert on biological and psychological develop- tional perspective provides a powerful framework for conceptual. Waddington. and social systems that pro. 1963). and deriving a cohesive sense of self-identity (Mas- each new stage-salient issue comes to the fore.e. Early experience and prior levels findings suggest that resilient individuals may need support to deal of adaptation neither doom the individual to continued maladap- with the emotional difficulties and distress that are often associated tive functioning nor inoculate the individual from future problems with coping with the emotional difficulties they have had to in functioning. were at risk for difficulties in other realms of functioning. systems. biological and psychological systems. arise. These 1997. individual Doernberger. Because of space constraints. 1984). Moreover. Although early adaptation probabilistically self-reliance. these prototypes will exhibit vulnerability to developing psycho- tional perspective focuses on the quality of integration both within pathology (Cicchetti & Toth. Moreover. gular vulnerable prototype for psychopathology. the organiza. organizational developmental theorists tasks may wane in relation to newly emerging issues. vidual.e. the fact that most maltreated children evidence at knowledge base on normality and psychopathology during adoles. individual’s prior developmental organization is proffered (Cic. not only because biological factors can address and surmount. development. forming close friendships within and of subsequent successful adjustment (Sroufe & Rutter. influence psychological processes but also because social and These aspects of developmental psychopathology illustrate the psychological experiences exert actions on the brain by feeding complexity of the tasks confronting the field and highlight ways in back on it to modify gene expression and brain structure. Luthar. 1994). an ever-changing model of devel. Of course. development is uals enter adolescence with broad individual differences in the not viewed as consisting of a series of tasks that need to be quality of organization of internal biological and psychological accomplished and that subsequently decrease in importance. and cognitive autonomy involving self-confidence in . 1998). attests to the strong biological and psychological strivings toward resilience that virtually all humans and living organisms possess Organizational Perspective on Development (Cicchetti & Rogosch. Cicchetti & Tucker. In contrast. we discuss growth and consolidation. high commitment to achieve. As across gender. with aberrations in one among the biological. individual investigations organization (Cicchetti. Sroufe & Rutter. types of incoherent organization are likely to exist. 1986. which the discipline can offer new direction to how developmental and organization (Cicchetti & Tucker. development is conceived as being comprised of a number ence the pathways taken during this developmental period. questions related to adolescence are posed and the answers that are Kandel. that individuals exert an active role in directing the course of their tion between school hassles and competence. 2000). 1991.. opportunities for ten & Coatsworth. probabilistic epigenesis).. academic achievement (i. 1994. Thus. 1995. the absence of such resilient self-strivings in some maltreated children Although developmental psychopathology is not characterized attests to the deleterious and pernicious impact that traumatic by the adherence to a unitary theoretical approach. Adaptively provides the framework on which developmental psychopatholo. and this developmental organization will greatly influ- Rather. It is interest. mental processes. Thus. Luthar and her colleagues (Luthar. specifically who is vulnerable to psychopathology will evidence an incoher- identifying a progression of qualitative reorganizations within and ence in the organization across systems. & Zigler. 1998. Although the salience of these During adolescence. In contrast. and some of Schneider-Rosen. conceptualized from this perspective can progressively expand the for example. Eisenberg. The quality of organization and among the psychological and biological systems of the indi. psychological. of age. 1957). 1993) found that disadvantaged adoles. 1994). 1993). A transition to secondary schooling. influences are important to the process of development. 1997). system adversely impinging on other systems. as well as challenges associated with two of the developmental tasks of adolescence. the organiza. Although more distal historical factors and current Furthermore. includ- may emerge throughout the life course and transact with the ing emotional autonomy from childhood dependency on parents. 1994). of hassles during junior high school. hierarchical picture of adaptation emerges in which the successful learning skills that are needed for higher education or work). opment in which newly formed competencies or maladaptations Psychological autonomy involves different dimensions. least some self-righting tendencies in the face of extreme adversity cence (see Cicchetti & Sroufe. but collectively. Rather than a sin- ceeds through differentiation and subsequent hierarchical integra. autonomy and the development of romantic relationships. Cicchetti & Tucker. resolution of an early stage-salient issue increases the probability psychological autonomy. SPECIAL SECTION: ADOLESCENCE AND PSYCHOPATHOLOGY 9 that the group manifesting decreased competence experienced a portends the quality of future functioning. in press. function. Thus. different proto- tion (Werner & Kaplan. the tasks view the crucial stage-salient tasks of the period as the successful remain important to adaptation over time (Cicchetti. This attention to variations in the quality of integration influences the potential for emergent psychopathology. choice and self-organization have increasingly been viewed as cents who manifested resilient functioning in some domains often exerting critical influences on development (Cicchetti & Rogosch. diverse prototypical organiza- psychopathology. individ- In accord with the organizational perspective. 1984). rather than the individual components in isolation. as well as on normal development (Cicchetti & tions of biological and psychological systems emerge. functioning individuals exhibit a coherence in the organization of gists characterize developmental status. The organiza. Nelson & Bloom. the possibility of devel- greater number of hassles during junior high school. among systems.and stage-relevant tasks. A principle of importance to developmental psychopathology is ment and a positive family environment each moderated the rela. developmental plasticity sought. an individual tional perspective addresses how development occurs. izing the intricacies of the life span perspective on risk and Over the course of development. no single study can provide answers to the can be brought about by both biological and psychological self- myriad of issues raised. opmental divergence and discontinuity is recognized in this dy- ing to note that among the adolescents experiencing higher levels namic model (i. psychological new vulnerabilities. 1997. behavioral autonomy in terms of independent functioning and chetti & Tucker. 1998).

rather than natively. Clearly. significant progressively across the earlier stage-salient tasks. Keshavan & Hogarty. delinquent point and change in functioning and life course (Cicchetti & pranks). More. and there will be greater adaptive capacity available for (1992) has suggested that such turning points in developmental striving to resolve the challenges of the period. 1990). As the concept of probabilistic epigenesis connotes. as well as for how quently these relationships are more normative developmentally. adolescents with more compromised organizations potential for affecting the developmental trajectory individuals of earlier developmental challenges are likely. & Sesma. for a successful student to drop of developmental competencies that have emerged over the course out of school because of an unplanned pregnancy.g. several models of how transitions may influence development. More normative transitions during adolescence also hold the In contrast. an trajectories may be best accomplished when events that transpire individual who has incompetently resolved earlier stage-salient are dramatically different from what the individual has generally tasks will enter the adolescent period with substantial liabilities in experienced over the life course. Subsequent experience may alter resolving the salient developmental tasks of adolescence will de. among persons autonomy.. the formation of romantic rela. Gleason. perhaps because subse. and they may cling to a dependent stance. with little sense prosocial and deviant pathways of initial involvement with a of personal direction. Adolescents with a competent developmental organi. and conduct portant. remain at the experimental level. who joined the military. Alter- positive relatedness with parents that is transformed. over. the quality of organization of developmental competencies delays in marriage. an activation of previously dormant art. the psycho. there may be both coasting and letting decisions be made for them. sports. In contrast. as opportunities for further education As an illustration. and attention to how it has structured the organization of competence domains. the likeli- vided evidence suggesting that the initiation of romantic involve. 1998). Ryan & earlier challenges may be reluctant to even strive for psychological Lynch. However.. the individual’s biological and psychological systems is useful for tionships later in adolescence no longer appears to exert negative understanding individual differences in response to risk and stress consequences (Neemann et al. Adolescents maturing early are potentially less likely to . However. both the quality of prior a source of distress. pend significantly on the quality of the resolution of stage-salient Given the many biological. then the extent to which they are used is more likely to Cannon. ships has roots in general peer competence. Steinberg. music. dramatic change in life trajectories for some disadvantaged men vidual differences in the character of adolescent adaptation. job. 1999. a turning point could exposed and how they go about striving to attain psychological be initiated by a biological event.g. autonomy. 1995). and social– tasks in childhood (Masten & Coatsworth. for example. Neemann. Prior liabilities may restrict their self-generated ambi- ships. Alternatively. over development and in the current context. and hopelessness. hood of continuity of earlier to later forms of developmental ment during late childhood and early to middle adolescence may organization is not inevitable. the dynamic interplay of risk and protective are reduced and potential attainments that would have otherwise processes operating during adolescence also will act to influence been expected are not realized. Individual adolescents will thus vary between these and grade failure would constitute an event consistent with an extremes in terms of the adaptability of their internal organization established trajectory. community volunteer work) and use this as a genes or a reorganization of neurological structures as a result of vehicle to obtain self confidence in their own abilities and a sense brain maturation and lags in social– cognitive development could that they can make decisions and choices on their own. as is the case with early versus also are in jeopardy of greater negative consequences from the on-time versus late pubertal development (Brooks-Gunn & Reiter. with attendant developmental organization attained and the current interplay of risks for depression. developing schizophrenia in late adolescence who previously had zation may articulate an area of special skill or interest (e. dropping out of terms of internal resources with which to negotiate the challenges school for a teenager who had exhibited poor school performance of the era. 1989. logical autonomy they derive is likely to be compromised and less Differences in timing within a transitional period may have sig- advantageous to an emergent efficacious self. Rutter integrated. Further. research suggests that although success in intimate relation. In so doing. Not only are life options limited. 1986. marking a substantial turning adolescents engage in more risky strategies (e. However. trajectory could be engaged. to follow. drugs. and Masten (1995) pro. extent to which they involve themselves in risky activities. drug addiction. With respect to romantic relation. the ease or difficulty the adolescent experiences as he or she strives but the contrast between potential and actual attainments could be to attain psychological autonomy. the effects of early The internal resources that the adolescent has available for experience are not immutable. the course of biological and psychological development. the internal changes in the balance of risk and protective processes have the organization of developmental domains will be more flexible and potential to alter the direction of developmental trajectories. some adolescents with an incompetent organization of through repudiation of parents (Hill & Holmbeck. protective resources may be used. Continuing educational opportunities. many oppor- adolescent who has been able to achieve competent resolutions tunities for reorganization are presented. tions for independence. For example. For the early contextual transitions that occur during adolescence. In contrast.10 CICCHETTI AND ROGOSCH decision making (Collins. Hubbard. Elder (1986) demonstrated the risk and protective processes encountered will contribute to indi. relationship partner. good premorbid competence.. 1995). 1999). Achievement can curtail later opportunities and possibly constitute psychopa- of psychological autonomy is best attained through maintaining a thology (e. Nonetheless. and the timing and context of these transitions may have a engage in risk behaviors more wholeheartedly as a means to strive significant influence. a very different of earlier development.g. For example. Graber and Brooks-Gunn (1996) delineated to demonstrate psychological autonomy. and exposure to a wider range of potential that individuals bring to the adolescent period is likely to influence spouses were examples of subsequent events that resulted in im- both how they interpret and respond to the risks to which they are proved life course pathways. severe antisociality or crime). These adolescents nificant impact on adjustment. psychological. which 1990). early experience is im- engender harmful consequences for academic. dysphoria. job. If such result in the onset of the disorder.

and sonality disorder. For example. cesses underlying the normal development and maturation of cor- riencing these transitions at different times will have greater re. either in focus on both normal and abnormal. excessive neous events co-occurring with a transitional period (e.g. a developmental psychopathology perspective in more detail. we examine illustrative principles inherent to over the course of development. the spurt in gray matter that occurs during adoles. or degeneration of normal functioning.. 1990). The ongoing dynamic transaction of risk and protective processes 1984. impulse control. nia. Moreover. it is essential to view adolescence in exacerbated. Weinberger. We because adolescents have not passed through the major risk period pay particular attention to providing examples of how these prin. orders as well as provide insight into the organization of normal Alternatively.g. Transitions may schizophrenia (Arnold. comprehend psychopathology. 1990). How- aspect of a developmental psychopathology perspective lies in its ever. a core an adolescent developing alcohol abuse and dependence. valuable insights into some of the mechanisms that eventuate in whereas others developed schizophrenia. for adult disorders (e.e. the seat of “executive maltreated individuals are equally affected by their traumatic ex- . Additionally. cognitive. negative ciples can elucidate the understanding of the emergence of prob. For example. as well as adaptive function- social– contextual changes that occur during normal adolescent ing. 1999). Attention to developmental pathways emerg- to adapt may be influenced by the degree of fit between the needs ing earlier in development that eventuate in psychopathology or of the individual during the transition and the supportiveness of maladaptation in adolescence is critical for understanding variation the context encountered. Other psychopathologies (e. A further illustration of multifinality is provided in Lee Robins’s lescence. experienced uniquely by individuals will eventuate in different disturbance. Thus. synaptic pruning) in the frontal lobes than that which occurs arche and entry into junior high school) also may stress coping normally (Rapoport et al. Individuals sharing characteristics at a necessary to comprehend psychopathology and that. such as the continued maturation of the prefrontal cortex (1966) classic work Deviant Children Grown Up. Cumulative or simulta.. Identifying the processes and their developmental development can contribute to the comprehension of serious men. important goal of developmental psychopathology.. varied outcomes will emerge. the impact of transitions on capacities lifespan perspective. Children with (Thompson & Nelson. 1968) are central for conceptualizing developmental pathways (Cicchetti & Rogosch. thereby teenagers affected by the rare childhood onset form of schizophre- making the earlier maturing adolescent more in jeopardy of ad. Rather. In maturing individuals when they encounter the transition. affect alcoholism). both adaptive and maladap. should provide adulthood. 1999. onset of moodiness) as an adolescent struggles with acquiring new behavior needed to adapt to the transition. understanding of the normal functioning of individuals (Cicchetti. an under. Unraveling these also accentuate or intensify typical patterns of behavior of an misorganizations in brain development should greatly enhance our adolescent.. schizophrenia. men. Because all pathology can be viewed as a distortion. 1996). that there is four times as much gray matter loss (i. in order to outcomes unfolding over the course of development. although not currently manifesting those disorders at this stage of development. Being able to identify adolescents who are at risk for subsequent adult disorders is Illustrative Developmental Psychopathology Principles important for the elucidation of prodromal organizations that may and Their Relation to the Study of Psychopathology subsequently evolve into adult psychopathology. to transitions (e. SPECIAL SECTION: ADOLESCENCE AND PSYCHOPATHOLOGY 11 have developed the social and cognitive skills that will assist later functions.” such as reasoning. need to be examined. 1998). structural magnetic resonance imaging scans have revealed justing less adaptively to the transition. may occur.. nonsymptomatic adolescents may be on path- lem behaviors and psychopathology in adolescence. similarly. and planning. Thus. Developmental Pathways Adolescents also may become more reactive during periods of transition. bipolar disorder. Some displayed adult antisocial personality disorder. 1999).g. Likewise. social– cognitive. Specifically. Cicchetti and Toth (1995) have concluded that not all cence predominates in the frontal lobes. Merikangas. not all such offspring will develop alcoholism.. antagonism) are used to cope with the transition. tical circuitry and connectivity have gone awry in this variant of sources to adapt to each transition individually. Rounsaville. as well as the history of their dynamic which to assess continuity and discontinuity in development. there may be perturbations in behavior in response brain development. standing of normative biological processes that occur during ado. and yet others exhibited psychopathology. whereas adolescents expe. major depression).g. the normal functioning with which being the offspring of a parent with alcoholism may contribute to psychopathology is compared must be fully grasped.. the specified starting point will not exhibit the same pattern of later examination of psychopathological development can elucidate the developmental outcomes. in Adolescence The general systems theory concepts of multifinality and equi- Normal and Abnormal finality (von Bertalanffy. 2001) and the overproduction of gray conduct disorder were found to manifest differential outcomes in matter just prior to puberty (Rapoport et al. as preexisting dispositional strategies (e. & tive developmental processes (Sroufe. normal adaptation. transitions may have a significant in trajectories operating for different individuals.g. Cushing.. Both current risk impact on the developmental course and are critical points in and protective processes. It appears likely that the pro- capacities and compromise adjustment. ways toward adult disorders. transactions and how they have influenced the evolving individual In the next section. 1987). progressions that contribute to the dispersion in outcomes is an tal disorders that emerge in adolescence. increased understanding of the genesis and epigenesis of schizophrenic dis- moodiness. adolescence or subsequently (Luthar. antisocial per- Knowledge of the biological. in which sensitivity to stresses experienced may be As a developmental period. Multifinal- A basic premise that has guided work within developmental ity specifies that diverse outcomes are likely to evolve from any psychopathology is that knowledge of normal development is original starting point.

Gjerde. ficulties and adolescent delinquency is that. including poor early supportive care of the child. still other adolescents may adolescence. a third subgroup was identified that dis- have more benign early experiences but may have struggled with played more pronounced behavior problems that increased with the physical changes of puberty occurring as they entered junior age and that exhibited more neuromotor anomalies. or inner oriented. childhood onset depression also was strongly influenced development onward than stability over time. and preoccupations with adequacy of the self. However. the disor- in boys were evident as early as nursery school. including the multiple tagonism. (d) continued myelination of intracor- likely to interfere with the successful resolution of adolescent tical connections (Benes. and emotional abuse. (e) ing sadness and anger. the relations are not strong. high school. For example. such as (a) low self-esteem. 1982. Moreover.12 CICCHETTI AND ROGOSCH periences. For girls. Carlson. high depressive symptomatology was linked to deficits in the periences (Cicchetti & Rogosch. (d) alterations in the balance between mesocortical girls ruminating and having a negative self-focus when experienc. In opment. mental anomalies and schizophrenia in genetically vulnerable in- ria. Sroufe. An array of psychological and biological deviations are ferences emerged for the predictors of depression. with men beginning to integrative. despite their adverse ex. sion of distress. Such an tended to converge for men and women. females and males appeared to follow such a perspective suggests that specific treatments should be different developmental trajectories to depression through adoles. early supportive care they received. before. resulting in them enacting their during adolescence (Spear. result from a commonality of initiating circumstances. neglect. others may have found to vary in their developmental course. and mesolimbic dopamine systems (Benes. and during illness episodes. Walker. (Keating. 1995. childhood and others manifesting more precipitous increases in ment may have occurred for others. In synaptic pruning of the prefrontal cortex (Feinberg. Among adolescents. although there is abuse. These include the normal developmental changes that heightened attention to their own thoughts and feelings of distress. It is important to note that the predictors of depression pathways to. 1991. and boys being more likely to be aggressive the stress that arises during postnatal social development (Kesha- and antagonistic and to exhibit poor impulse control. & LaLonde. and antago. 1990. in terms of der. continuity for a group of problem children. 1997. Duggal. 1994. come for boys versus girls during adolescence. developed and implemented for use at particular developmental cence into early adulthood. and Egeland (2001) re. Walker & Diforio. These mul- In an illustration of the concept of equifinality. Despite the importance of these devel- developmental periods. Thus. ternal depression during childhood was strongly associated with ical abuse. and early maternal stress. and (g) the growing importance of the peer group. and the diverse outcomes associated with. 2000). a subsample high depressive symptomatology during adolescence. reflecting girls’ tendency to suppress outward expres. take place during late adolescence and early adulthood. & tion among these various changing developmental domains must Block. 1989. Thus. 2000a. in early adulthood at age 23. As Cicchetti and Tucker (1994) pointed out. and adolescent/adult antisociality and adjustment relations often suggesting variation in processes promoting depression in different range between .40. Gibson. interdisciplinary approach is necessary to capture the evidence more internal distress and women exhibiting more an. Noam. full complexity of schizophrenic illness. 1991). The adolescents who develop a depressive disorder in adolescence may behavior problems that are antecedents to schizophrenia were have a genetic predisposition for the disorder. the concept of equifinality specifies that a common appear to be prominent in promoting a common depressive out- outcome will develop over time from different starting points.20 and . Yakovlev & Le- adaptational tasks. ma- displayed by individuals who have experienced sexual and phys. Gjerde and tiple pathways embrace a number of possible contributors which Block (1996) have proposed different gender-based pathways to may potentiate or mediate the links between early neurodevelop- depression by early adulthood. Observable predictors for girls did not appear until also take into account the individual’s active strivings for self- adolescence. the manifestations of depression 2000b). In terms of expression of dyspho. gender dif. 2000b). and more occurs from early in contrast. Chandler. allocentric. Parental loss through death early in develop. Relatedly. illustration of the concept of equifinality. For example. evolves along different developmental pathways. The identification of diverse pathways through which neurode- cence is likely to result from diverse processes across different velopmental anomalies may result in schizophrenia provides in- individuals rather than from all adolescents following the same sight into how specificity and differentiation into a syndrome may progression to depression. The two different forms of expression result in Cours. 1989. Grimes. or outer-directed. resulting in dividuals. indicating that diversity in processes is involved in attaining the Neumann. 1997). (f) the transfor- Block found that the different sets of characteristics for girls and mations that occur in cognitive and social– cognitive development boys at age 14 predicted depressive feelings at age 18. The common outcome of depression stages. Stattin and ported that there appear to be different predictors of childhood Magnusson (1996) noted that the correlations between childhood onset depression as compared with adolescent onset depression. han & Hoffman. whereas for of these individuals function resiliently. and Baum (1995) offer support that shared outcome (Cicchetti & Rogosch. 1967). For adolescents. Thus. the common outcome of depression in adoles.. Spear. boys. some there are different developmental pathways to schizophrenia. both forms of symptom expression are shavan & Hogarty. (b) pubertal increases in gonadal hormones sion are more common in boys. One reason for not by additional factors related to pervasive deficits in the overall observing stronger relations between early child externalizing dif- family context. with some behavior grown up in a home with substance abusing parents or experienced problems revealing an insidious but consistent escalation across child maltreatment. such an interac- undersocialization of impulse and antagonism (Block. 2000). organization that critically affect brain development. transformations in prefrontal cortex and limbic brain regions (Ke- nism. girls tend to be more autocentric. Finally. Maternal depression during childhood was opmental findings in terms of demonstrating continuities in devel- related to both childhood and adolescent onset of depression. 1997). anger. Luthar et al. McGlas- contrast. 2000a. (c) developmental frustrations on the world with impulsiveness. Research on antisocial personality disorder provides another Relatedly. 1999. 1996). modes of symptom expres. different processes In contrast. after. Gjerde and van & Hogarty. 1999). there also is an emer- .

patterns of risk associated with their substance use. a changing behavioral manifestation of pattern of low-level chronic offending. through the use of pattern-analysis and person-centered ap- land. Moffitt. Of interest. 1993). criminality. financial developmental periods may change. & Johnston. Hetero- work problems.. have financial and different developmental periods. in developmental pathways. under- 1993. distinguished by childhood behav. terms of what the same behavior signifies (atypical or pathologic lems were not without adverse developmental implications. specifying that the meaning. normative). SPECIAL SECTION: ADOLESCENCE AND PSYCHOPATHOLOGY 13 gent group of youth who display delinquent behaviors during differentiating subgroups of adolescents who may have different adolescence but who did not have significant problems in child. Aguilar et al. Attention to the disturbance and mild neuropsychological deficits (Moffitt. followed a pathway to of parent–adolescent interaction. & Carlson. distinct causal processes that operate in different subgroups as well as more early family dysfunction (Aguilar. Thus. These individuals also were underlying process through different behavioral presentations at more likely to have a larger number of children. and exhibit violence against women and children. Research examining influences on delinquency based only Zucker. Given the progression of Milne (in press) found that the AL group evidenced elevations in expanding abilities and capacities and changing contexts as an various indicators of maladaptive functioning at age 26. sug. At age 26. Bell. 1971). The developmental precursors to been delineated by various research groups (Loeber. typic continuity has been demonstrated by changing manifesta- Violent and drug-related crime also was more prevalent. and a specific form iors. they exhibited a ing one’s position). and is likely to desist from delinquency and not evidence adult Hussong. vs. 1996). Thus. including antisocial. and organization across developmental time. Caspi. Thus. developmentally limited. the same developmental process at different periods in adolescence vated rates of depression and anxiety disorders and were socially was demonstrated. and has much greater likelihood of adult proaches provides a more complex view of the varied develop- criminality. potential results of a common risk condition. heterotypic continuity. underlying process at different developmental periods. The LCP versus AL distinction. heterotypic continuity. In fact. Harrington. mental health problems. Moffitt. through a developmental perspective. In con- extensive mental health problems. despite alcoholism. Schulenberg. midadolescent hostility Moffitt et al. For example. the LCP group did demonstrate far greater conti. the meaning of the same behavior at different impulsivity. gesting that these adolescents may ultimately face more than Delineating developmental pathways over the course of devel- transitory developmental behavior problems. lack of homotypic continuity). substance abuse. (in press) also reported on a group of individuals toward parents was found to be predicted by earlier adolescent who had exhibited antisocial problems in childhood but whose difficulty in establishing autonomy and relatedness in relation to delinquent activity in adolescence was limited. and Moses (1995) differentiated three types of on behavior in adolescence would combine the two groups. different psychopa- Although the AL group appears to be less pathological. (Allen. Thus. at age 10 versus at age 18 suggests very different meanings in ifested negative sequelae. 1996). organization. and their adolescent delinquent prob. 1996. these thology conditions and adaptive outcomes should be considered youth are not without impairment beyond their delinquent behav. or the manifestation of the same and substance abuse and dependence. is likely to be rare (Kagan.e. Sroufe. including much more homotypic continuity. Hauser. and property offenses. The LCP group evidences early conduct mon set of etiological factors operates for all. and function of pattern of dysfunction that evolved in a different manner from that behaviors be identified in order to delineate behavioral continuities of their LCP peers. analogous to the important distinction between AL of discrete behaviors. psychopathic personality traits. which is revealed Bachman. Ege. By adulthood. and there being different developmental histories and likely different negative affect.g. The antisocial and developmentally limited types etiologies for disturbance in adolescence. hood. 1993. their later adaptation man. Sroufe (1979) articulated the concept of coherence in develop- sient problems for these individuals but rather a more enduring ment. the AL group does not evidence early mental trajectories of substance use disorders and their impact on difficulties in development. rather than sharing a common pathway. Thus. Curran. alternative developmental processes. the identical behavioral expression of an Nevertheless. & Eickholt. childhood antisocial problems signified not tran. as indicated by the adolescent’s autonomy-undermining these men largely did not appear to have recovered from their behaviors (e. cur within a broad framework. Patterson & Yoerger. Moffitt (1993) scoring the importance of identifying multiple developmental pat- labeled these groups “life-course persistent” (LCP) and “adoles. underscores the importance The principles of multifinality and equifinality suggest that of expecting individuals with an identified disorder to have differ. opment requires an ability to articulate continuities of behavioral tive longitudinal investigation. They also displayed ele. personalizing disagreements. In contrast. & Colder. Steinberg. Wadsworth. investigations examining adolescent psychopathology should oc- ent etiologies. isolated. terns that may eventuate in disorder rather than assuming a com- cence limited” (AL). Rather. parents. trast. should be anticipated. in a prospec. different subgroups of have been identified. involving per- and LCP delinquency. nuity and severity of antisocial behavior. For example.. O’Malley. prematurely recant- childhood behavioral disturbances. this tions of autonomy struggles at different points in adolescence subgroup of antisocial youth. In fact. Thus. including individual develops. drinking alcohol problems. In the context ioral disturbances and family dysfunction. 1987). rather than focusing on the repetition Increasingly. attention also has been directed toward sistence of the underlying organization and meaning of behavior . Specifically. that is. (2000) found that AL youth were more likely to of psychopathology may develop in different individuals through report high levels of internalizing symptoms and life stress. Fitzgerald. This would obscure have considerable similarity to the two types of delinquency that causal influences for both groups. these three types of alcoholism are substantially different. 1990. long-term risk for disorder as well as recovery (Chassin. a in adult adjustment. 2000). hostility earlier in adolescence more extreme adult antisocial behavior and more pervasive failure did not demonstrate continuity with midadolescent hostility (i. the negative affect type does not adolescent delinquents with different etiologies have consistently emerge until young adulthood. O’Connor. has better social skills in adolescence.

Fortunately. we do believe that such a framework can consistent with a more sociocentric emphasis. 1997). 1991). 1997). opmental psychopathologists conceptualize causal processes influ- istic (emphasizing individuality. culture must be incorporated into how devel- sizing community. an increased dialogue among theorists. As such. Cultural values. autonomy. from existing subcultures nested within the broader American tive processes may have differential impact depending on the culture may have similar conflicts when the meaning they attribute cultural norms. particularly if the cultural values of the home has not received adequate attention (Garcia Coll. Cicchetti. the high rate of teen pregnancies Although it might be assumed that logical connections exist among Puerto Rican youth (Garcia Coll & Vazquez Garcia. Nath. Cultures may be to behaviors and events is at odds with the mainstream cultural characterized on a continuum ranging from sociocentric (empha. developmental psychopathology framework can similarly assist in Canino and Guarnaccia (1997) noted that psychiatric epidemi. Gender expectations also may vary. Culture also may cents has occurred in recent years. Conversely. Of course. dency for greater physical manifestations of distress to be tolerated ment is conceptualized.. However. Serafica (1997) noted a ten- tered frequently and should be central to how adolescent develop. ing adolescent adaptation and psychopathology. physical. Akerman. be. Chaiya. Shirk & Russell. terms of relatedness to others versus in terms of autonomy and achievement. 1997). wherein it is assumed that mental disorders manifest behaviors that are viewed as deviant by the mainstream may be themselves similarly regardless of age and therefore do not require associated with prestige and high status among particular socio.. and beliefs. often have been the identified a less typical pathway characterized by disruptive and norm when providing interventions to children and adolescents. and poverty-laden dall. 1984) to interventions for children and disenfranchised communities where these youth reside. & Kendall. adolescents developmental course. adult-derived classi- To provide a further illustration. and a more author. Norms for appropriate and inappropriate behavior Now that we have examined some illustrative principles of will have different thresholds. Luthar and McMahon frequently drawn from the adult literature. economic groups. among Asian American families. A major impetus to this process influence the mode of symptom expression. and interconnectedness) to individual. & culture are in conflict with the mainstream culture (Canino & Cicchetti. has emanated from the field of developmental psychopathology. Similarly. Suwanlert. thology. the development and provision of prevention and intervention to ological studies have shown that Puerto Rican adolescents exhibit adolescents who are at risk for or who have developed psychopa- lower rates of conduct disorder and substance abuse than adoles. it is not surprising that adevelopmental approaches to intervention. violence-. cultural groups will differ in their social. The dynamic interplay of risk and protec. values. the individual’s response to an event. Hoagwood & Jensen. and personal achieve. sit.. Thus. The ideal self correspondingly pathology are defined (Garcia Coll et al. therapeutic techniques that are sensitive to developmental change. liefs. Schweder & Bourne. fostering deference to adults and the specific theoretical orientation used. development is mutually enriching for scientists of each persua- . Because nondevelopmental. family. we are not suggesting that a developmental cents in mainland America. will influence the tally guided prevention and intervention to children and adoles- salience of the event and how it is responded to. and practices may tend to suppress manifestation of distress As a growing number of research investigations have illustrated in one domain (e. Luthar and McMahon (1996) fication guidelines have historically been applied to formulating discovered that inner-city youth whose peer representations were diagnoses of the mental disorders of childhood and adolescence aggressive nonetheless were popular with their peers. prosocial behaviors. 2000. For example. 1999). 1996. 1997. & Craighead. as well as the searchers. Prevention and Intervention ization goals for desired outcomes for well-functioning members of the culture. proscriptions. Lerner. Weisz. social institutions. yet the milieu in Guarnaccia. thereby decreasing the likelihood of their too few bridges have been forged between these areas of knowl- involvement in conduct disordered and substance-abusing edge (Cicchetti & Toth. encing the developmental course and how adaptation and psycho- ment. 1987).e. Acculturation pressures may generate stress for which an adolescent develops is likely to profoundly influence the youth as they bridge two cultural worlds. 2000).g. they transact may vary depending on priorities of the culture. has impeded efforts to provide theoretically guided and develop- Thus. aggressive adolescents. Siegel.14 CICCHETTI AND ROGOSCH despite changing behavioral manifestation. The perpetuation of the “developmental uniformity myth” (Ken- pothesized that within the crime-. 1996) between the provision of psychotherapeutic interventions to chil- may suggest that these girls assume more adultlike responsibilities dren and adolescents and developmental theory and research. risk and protective processes and the manner in which mentally appropriate services to children and adolescents. enhance the treatment of adolescent psychopathology regardless of itarian parenting orientation. is likely to be encoun. & Walter. chopathology. Cultural Influences Immersion in the mainstream culture by immigrating adoles- cents from other cultures is likely to generate significant difficul- The influence of culture on development and psychopathology ties in adaptation. how the study of the interface between normal and abnormal sion in another domain (e. They hy. Silk.. Hoagwood & varies with respect to the degree to which the self is defined in Jensen. in (Jensen & Hoagwood. 1992. and discipline strategies will vary in developmental psychopathology and their relevance to investigat- accord with what behaviors are regarded as desirable or unaccept. practices. and professionals interested in providing developmen- reactions of other members of the culture. far earlier in their lives. addition to the more typical pathway to peer popularity (i. 2000. we discuss how a able. basic re- Consequently. Thus. socioemotional) while tolerating the expres. academic success). as compared with less acceptance of psychological expression. and this difference may be attributable psychopathology perspective is necessary to treat adolescent psy- to greater monitoring and supervision of teenagers in the culture. Toth & behaviors.g. aggressive behaviors and poor academic functioning.

cognitive. 1996. & Roeser. Thus. adolescents who do not empowerment. Building on adolescents’ strengths and promoting compe- deflect the quality of adaptation onto a more competent develop. self-esteem and personal accomplishment (Siegel & Scovill. Implicit in Cowen’s (1994) formulation is a recognition of the dent and less prepared to establish their own direction and identity importance of the organizational perspective on development and in early adulthood. For traditional junior high schools that do not promote a successful example. interventions to reduce preschool emotion dysregulation. allowed for girls to gain more self-confidence in abilities. this period provides an important may facilitate their exhibition of competence and striving. attainments during the early years also can be considered as mismatches between contexts and the developmental needs of the instilling a foundation of competence that should contribute to a early adolescent. of development as competence in the affective. particularly when engaged in to extremes. enhancing settings. ones they do have may be largely negative. strive adequately to attain psychological autonomy will be depen. stage-salient issues of adolescence such as the formation of inti. SPECIAL SECTION: ADOLESCENCE AND PSYCHOPATHOLOGY 15 sion. ings. Toth & Cicchetti. Wachs (1996) noted that some children and adolescents. Through processes of person– environment correlation. engagement of a life-course-persistent antisocial pathway (Moffitt.. and this should occur in a graded fashion in accord lifespan perspective. forts is how best to promote competent resolution of the primary Cowen (1994) outlined five essential elements for promoting developmental tasks of adolescence. and ing psychological autonomy. Rather than required for adolescents who do not have benign and supportive be provided exclusively with restrictions. developmental histories. Similarly. segregated math and science classrooms in 9th and 10th grades had Cowen’s (1994) third goal of engineering wellness-enhancing a significant influence on fostering subsequent interest and settings is consistent with the types of school structural changes achievement in math and science for girls. which in 1996. Masten and Curtis (2000) reviewed the complementarity of going success. and cribe to “problem behaviors” is likely to differ from that of adults social domains is attained. although the two domains are distinct. 2000). for adolescents who have developed competently. Programs geared toward building adap- efit from contexts that provide alternative avenues for asserting tive coping skills in such youth are important for helping these . providing more logical and psychological systems and the consequent emergence positive niches to adolescents that match their particular strengths of new behavioral organizations. Thus. Weisz. In effect. the niches that adolescents mental psychopathology as one of four core sciences considered to have available to them will influence the extent to which individ- be necessary for advancing prevention and intervention efforts for ual characteristics are accentuated. they are inextricably inter- olescence presents an important window for fostering change to woven. transition. need to continue to scaffold and optimize these individuals’ on. “psychological wellness” has been advocated consistently by A major common theme that should undergird prevention ef. may be particularly true for adolescents who do not excel in 2000. interventions designed to promote positive with changing needs as the adolescent matures. Lord. rooting early core competencies. ally disorganized communities. Rappaport. with ensuing reorganization within and among bio. self-identity. ments that they experience. 1997). This opportunity for prevention and intervention (Holmbeck et al. all adolescents need effec- agers’ environments to be structured so as to optimize their success tive coping skills. 1993). autonomy strivings can cut across the building of a foundation of competence in the early years. Restructuring junior high tion of the developmental tasks of the period could reduce the schools in accord with the developmental needs of early adoles. In fact. larly increased. the 2000). For adolescents who have had a compromised constructs of competence and psychopathology and noted that earlier development or who have exhibited psychopathology. may have few niche options available and that the development. & Weissberg. adolescents will continue to confront stressors in their lives. tence thus are important prevention strategies to protect against mental trajectory. emergence of conduct disorder during elementary school and the cents would potentiate more adaptive academic and social striv. Cicchetti. and impulsivity through promoting competent resolu- behavior (Eccles. in recognition of the field’s importance. but the ing those years in competing with boys. as exemplified by organizational features of greater likelihood of psychological wellness in adolescence. emergent psychopathology. 1996). beginning with a secure attachment and further acquisition of mate relationships and the establishment of a cohesive sense of competencies as subsequent developmental tasks are negotiated. Keating & MacLean. therefore may need alternative avenues for expressing and building Thus. academics or athletics or who are highly unconventional and cents need to negotiate the developmental tasks of the period. the application of findings conceptualized within the devel. The meaning adolescents as. all adoles. particularly those in impoverished and disorganized Because adolescence marks a significant transition period in communities. adolescents. extent of intense stress is escalated in impoverished and structur- Siegel and Scovill (2000) similarly highlight the need for teen. adolescents would ben. For example. Clearly. promoting competence and psychological wellness Contexts need to optimize adolescents’ strivings for psycholog. Cowen (1994. However. Conversely. Coping skills may be acquired over the course in negotiating developmental tasks. Developmental psychopathology offers an im. Such an approach based on enhancing portant foundation for conceptualizing how to achieve these goals. new coping skills may be and most likely involves a strategy to assert autonomy. Sandler. can be ments. All mixed-gender classroom were reduced because of discomfort dur. Keating and MacLean (1996) reported that gender. in- Institute of Medicine (1994) report on reducing risks for mental dividuals progressively select or delimit the particular environ- disorders through preventive intervention highlighted develop. engineering wellness- conceptualized as compromised attempts to grapple with establish. However. Siegel & Scovill. acquiring effective stress coping skills. Structural change and opportunity-enhancing contexts advocated above (Eccles et al. autonomy in ways that both have personal meaning and promote opmental psychopathology genre to intervention efforts has simi. ad. can lead to dismotivation and may stimulate problem aggression. Many problem behaviors of psychological wellness: promoting wholesome early attach- adolescence. in adolescence must be conceptualized within a developmental ical autonomy. 1999. contexts their unique strengths. 2000). Consequently.

with AL alcoholism. Toth & Cicchetti. Prevention efforts would ideally be coordinated with those de. nor all investigations framed within a geared toward greater awareness of the potentially serious negative developmental psychopathology perspective that are meaningful to consequences of impaired decision making (e. velopment. Pre- Achenbach. 1999). period may not be effective given the extent of long-term. acquiring HIV). Identifying Courchesne. and if protective resources are available at different ings that adolescents ascribe to their behaviors also is critical. (2000). In summary. Townsend. Cicchetti & Cohen. Such factors example. 1999). Aguilar. Applying the same theoretical approach to all choices as they negotiate the adolescent era.. Post. B. ing the early-onset/persistent and adolescence-onset antisocial behavior . prevention programs promoting resilience.). Just as an increasing number of 1988. Prevention and at the respective subgroups to maximize effectiveness of the wellness enhancement efforts must be formulated in terms of the intervention. Finally. because the processes leading to impoverished communities who face multiple interacting risk fac. Nuechterlein. driving while inquiries in this area. resilient functioning will be enhanced. family features.. 1995a. without a substantial burden of developmen. might be more likely to benefit from programs adolescent development. unique meaning and sociocultural realities of the group of interest. We do not profess to have addressed all issues of import to tal liabilities... T. and Sanford’s (1996) delinea. likely need to be long term negotiating the challenges of this period of development. particularly those in in a given disturbance. a disorder may not be the same ones that maintain a disorder (cf. different processes that contribute to positive adaptation despite profound therapeutic approaches or emphases may be needed depending on adversity directs attention toward factors that would be important where one is trying to intervene in the course of the disorder. consol. we have sought to frame this special section on Appreciation of equifinality in development with a specific form “Adolescent Clinical Psychology: Developmental Psychopathol- of psychopathology evolving from different origins and develop. Rolf. within one conceptual model. 1990). content domains (Keating. including depression may need to differ from that provided to an adolescent individual characteristics. For antisocial alcoholism. 2000. Youth special issues of the journal Development and Psychopathology). Distinguish- signed to reduce conduct disorder and implemented early in de.. elaboration (e. Short duration and narrowly focused Conclusion interventions are not likely to be effective to combat the heavy weight of multiple risk factors. Shirk. Attention to the personal mean- key. What is “developmental” about developmental vention of this form of alcoholism focused only on the adolescence psychopathology? In J.. specific attention to the cognitive and emotional capacities they riences may be particularly important for promoting resilience in have to make use of an intervention (Holmbeck et al. & S. Risk and protective factors in the development of idated developmental processes that contribute to this outcome. Alternatively. with onset during childhood. The empowerment ideal is likely to be for adolescents with disorders similarly need to be cognizant of the particularly important in order to reach adolescents in ways that different pathways that may lead to a particular disorder (Toth & are meaningful to them and that empower them to make adaptive Cicchetti. and community re. ance between parental authority and adolescent autonomy strivings 2000). & Chase. components of this framework into their ongoing work. D. 1996). levels of the social ecology.g. and alternative ways to experience positive affect and pleasure. A. E. Masten. & Carlson. cases may not be effective because of the inherent differences Luthar and Cicchetti (2000) emphasized that findings from among adolescents in the processes in development that eventuate research on resilience in high-risk youth. Bingham. but alternative pathways may not be. and geared toward assisting high-risk youth across successive periods of development. 1992).g. Cicchetti. 1995. (1990). optimal bal- static characteristic of children and adolescents (Luthar et al. and we therefore refer the interested reader to other sources for Zucker. it is our hope that the conceptual- intoxicated. tors. especially often will require interventions to assist the whole family in among youth immersed in adversity. given that adolescents with disorders are likely to struggle Because resilience is an ongoing dynamic process rather than a with resolving the stage-salient task of adolescence. 1995b. Not all adolescents reason at the risk factors exponentially elevates the potential for negative out. For to promote in the lives of high-risk children generally.. anger management. ogy and Treatment” by providing an overview of concepts and mental pathways necessitates a recognition that one prevention aspects of the discipline relevant to adolescent risk and psychopa- strategy focused on a singular causal model may not be sufficient. Rather. Weintraub (Eds. As a result of these differences in pathways. Fitzgerald. The collective of protective resources that a youth expe. B. L. A. 29 – 48). New York: Cambridge University Press. the alcohol prob- lems are embedded within a larger behavioral organization of References antisociality with strong developmental origins in childhood. Egeland. K. thology. Moreover. Ellis. ization proffered herein will impel experts in adolescent research adolescents at risk for negative affect alcoholism may benefit more and treatment to broaden their thinking to incorporate relevant from interventions based on reducing negative attributional biases. and within individuals there is likely to be inconsis- comes. the context of multiple adversities. Treating adolescents also requires sources. devising empowerment as a guiding strategy to promote psychological reliable methods to differentiate among the subtypes of alcoholism wellness involves appreciation of adolescents’ experiences within will be essential so that appropriate interventions may be targeted the specific contexts and cultures they reside in. Finally. Therapists providing more individualized clinical interventions and with their participation. unwanted pregnancies. an increasing number of protective resources exponentially tency in the sophistication with which they reason across different facilitates resilient outcomes in adolescents (Fergusson & Lyns. psychopathology (pp.16 CICCHETTI AND ROGOSCH adolescents in the challenges they face during this period. treatment for an adolescent with an initial episode of may derive from different levels of the social ecology. and the 24 tion of different subtypes of alcoholism is a case in point. are valuable for informing preventive efforts. It is not feasible in an article of this length to compre- A single pathway may be influenced by interventions formulated hensively address all facets of developmental psychopathology. Sroufe. same level.

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